Ocular neovascular-related diseases: immunological mechanisms of development and the potential of anti-angiogenic therapy

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Abstract


The paper adresses three ocular diseases - “wet” type of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema and neovascular glaucoma, which have similar neovascular changes and immunological disorders. The key moment of neovascularization development is an imbalance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. Particular attention is paid to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), pigment epithelial derived factor (PEDF), transforming growth factor-beta (ТGF-β). The paper discusses the “immune privilege” of the eye, ACAID phenomenon, aspects of choroidal neovascularization pathogenesis, inflammation as an important part of neovascularization and the protective response to endogenous and exogenous damage, as well as complement system’s disorders, cytokine status impairment and autoimmune mechanisms. Laser treatment is widely used for treatment of neovascular diseases, but pharmacotherapy is very important too. Anti-angiogenic therapy is extremely promising and is held to provide regression of the newly-formed vasculature and/or normalization of newly formed blood vessels structure and suppress the functional activity of a key proangiogenic factor VEGF-A. Pegaptanib, ranibizumab and bevacizumab are discussed, and results of international clinical trials MARINA, ANCHOR, FOCUS, PrONTO, IVAN, CATT, RESTORE are provided.

Banovsha K Gadzhieva

Author for correspondence.
dr.kazimova-b@rambler.ru
National Centre of Ophthalmology named after academician Zarifa Aliyeva
Russian Federation

врач-офтальмолог

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