Actual problems of measles

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Abstract


Measles is still an major public health problem in many countries. According to the World Health Organization, up to 3 million measles cases were recorded annually. Measles was one of the main causes of death among young children in the pre-vaccine period. More than 10 million children died of measles every year throughout the world. In 2014, on a global scale, there were 114 900 deaths from measles almost 314 deaths per day or 13 deaths per hour. The main cause of death from measles are complications from the respiratory tract (pneumonia), the central nervous system (meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, encephalomyelitis), gastrointestinal tract (diarrhea). Between 2000 and 2014, mass measles vaccination reduced global measles mortality rate by 79%, and about 17.1 million children's lives were saved. However, measles still remains endemic and, one of the leading causes of childhood mortality in developing countries as a result of lack of immunization policies. Up to 98% of measles mortality are registered in developing countries, such India, Bangladesh, Nigeria, RDC, etc. If in the pre-vaccine period, measles affected predominantly children aged less than five years, the global immunization era led to a change in the measles-age-category pattern. The increase measles occurency in adults is due to the loss of protective antibodies, that last generally for 10 to 15 years after vaccination in only 36% of the vaccinees. Complications due to measles in adolescents and adults are most likely than in children. However, immunocompetent individuals may have repeated measles infections. The possibility of transplacental transmission of the disease: measles in pregnant women leads to a higher risk of premature birth, spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations, and with a woman at the end of pregnancy intrauterine infection and the birth of a child with signs of measles. In the absence of specific anti-measles antibodies in the mother, the child may become ill in theantenatal period. Differential diagnosis of measles is carried out with infections that occur with exanthema syndrome (parvovirus B19, sudden exanthema, etc.). Etiotropic therapy is carried out with preparations of recombinant interferon (viferon, etc.). Doses of drugs and the duration of treatment are determined by the severity of the disease. Pathogenetic and symptomatic therapy is strongly recommended.


Vladimir N Timchenko

Author for correspondence.
timchenko220853@yandex.ru
St Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Russia

MD, PhD, Dr Med Sci, Professor, Head, Department of Infectious Diseases in Children named after Professor M.G. Danilevich

Tatyana A Kaplina

k.kta@yandex.ru
St Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Russia

MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases in Children named after Professor M.G. Danilevich

Olga A Leonicheva

recka2007@rambler.ru
St Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Russia

MD. Assistant Professor, Department of Infectious Diseases in Children named after Professor M.G. Danilevich

Oksana V Bulina

detinfection@mail.ru
St Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Russia

associate Professor of the Department of rehabilitation

Jean-Claude Hakizimana

cloclo525@yahoo.com
St Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Russia

MD, Resident, Department of Infectious Diseases in Children named after Professor M.G. Danilevich

Elena V Timofeeva

Epidnadzor@78.rospotrebnadzor.ru
Rospotrebnadzor
Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg, Russia

leading specialist-expert of Department of epidemiological supervision of Management

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Copyright (c) 2017 Timchenko V.N., Kaplina T.A., Leonicheva O.A., Bulina O.V., Hakizimana J., Timofeeva E.V.

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