Analiz metodov polucheniya okolokriogennykh temperatur


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Abstract

A high need of nearcryogenic temperatures at -150…-100 оC level arises in applied fields of refrigeration. These temperatures are needed for different processes beginning from shock freezing of products to imitation installations for tests under extreme conditions. The obtaining temperatures of this range has some special features linked with a compressor operation, oil behavior in apparatuses (in case of vaporcompression cascade refrigerating machine), selection of low temperature refrigerant and constructional material that are able to work under such temperatures. The description of most acceptable methods of obtaining temperatures at 130 оC level to reveal the disadvantages and advantages of each of them is given. As variants are examined: vaporcompression cascade refrigerating plant; turboair refrigerating machine; gas refrigerating machine operating on Stirling reverse cycle and vacuumevaporation refrigerating plant. The diagrams of all abovenamed plants are given. The dynamics of reduction of temperatures in the case of vacuum pumping of solid carbon as a working substance is theoretically studied. The dependences of temperatures produced during vapors exhausting on the time of exhausting for different masses of solid carbon dioxide are cited. The method of comparison of refrigerating plants is projected. Keywords: nearcryogenic temperatures, methods of obtaining temperatures at 130 оC, vacuumevaporation refrigerating machines, solid carbon dioxide.

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Copyright (c) 2015 Marinyuk B.T., Porutchikov A.F., Nikitkina G.V.

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