No 3 (2019)

ARTICLES
Volgian–early berriasian marginal filter in the West Siberian marine basin and its influence on sediment distribution
Kontorovich A.E., Burshtein L.M., Nikitenko B.L., Ryzhkova S.V., Borisov E.V., Ershov S.V., Kostyreva E.A., Konotorovich V.A., Nekhaev A.Y., Ponomareva E.V., Fomin M.A., Yan P.A.
Abstract

The West Siberian marine basin of the Volgian–initial Berriasian ages is described. It is shown that a marginal filter (according to A. P. Lisitsyn) functioned in the basin. The main mass of terrigenous sediments was deposited within the eastern margin of the sea. The central part of the basin only received a small amount of the terrigenous material. Water area of the West Siberian Sea was 2 mln 530 thou km2; eastern marginal filter, 535 thou km2; and open epicontinental marine basin, 1 mln 994 thou km2. Depth of the Volgian Sea was 500 m. Mass of sediments in the West Siberian Sea by the end of late diagenesis was 228.4 Tt (recalculated to the anhydrous material), with sediments in the eastern marginal filter accounting for 121.7 Tt. Bioproductivity of the Volgian–Berriasian West Siberian Sea was extremely high. The mass of living matter was composed of archaea, bacteria, and protozoan unicellular eucaryotes (organic-walled), as well as organisms with the siliceous (radiolarians) and carbonate skeleton (foraminifers and others). The rock mass formed from sediments of the central deep-water part of the basin at the stage of diagenesis was 106.7 Tt (recalculated to the anhydrous material), including the mass of organic matter (OM) accounting for 15.8 Tt; mineral (siliceous and carbonate) relicts of organisms, 67.8 Tt; and allothigenic components (clay minerals and iron hydroxides), 23.1 Tt. Analysis of the composition of kerogen (polymerlipids) revealed that the amount of OM transported to sediments was 15–20 times higher than the present-day amount in rocks of the Bazhenov Formation. At the stage of early diagenesis, the OM mass in sediments was as high as 235–320 Tt (recalculated to the anhydrous material). The Bazhenov Sea represented a huge natural ecosystem favorable for the generation, reworking, and accumulation of living matter relicts. At the stage of catagenesis, unique oil-andgas resources were generated from OM masses deposited in this system.

Литология и полезные ископаемые. 2019;(3):199-210
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Trace element and isotopic features of carbonates from the mud volcanic ejecta from the Kura depression (Azerbaijan)
Lavrushin V.Y., Aliev A.A., Pokrovsky B.G., Kozmenko O.A., Kikvadze O.E., Sokol E.V.
Abstract

A collection of veins and dispersed Ca carbonates from the mud volcanic ejecta from Azerbaijan has been studied. The appearance of calcite veins healing cracks are divers. Isotopic characteristics of the majority of Ca carbonates are the follows: δ13С (from -4 to +2‰) and δ18О (from +20 to +26‰) and are typical of marine carbonate sediments. The fragments of vein calcite enriched in 12C (δ13С from -49.2 to -6‰) were found in the mud masses of a few mud volcanoes and might be connected with the dormant methane seeps, occurring at the high level of Caspian Sea. The dispersed Ca carbonates from mud masses have δ13С from -6.1 to +11.9‰, and δ18О from +23.8 to +32.7‰. Studied carbonates have no geochemical links with the mud volcanic waters of current emission. The aqueous fluids are characterized by high НСО3- contents (up to 8 g/l) and average δ13С(TDIC) and δ18О(Н2О) values as high as δ13С = +20.0‰ and δ18О = +4.0‰. Both isotopic and REE signatures of vein calcites allows one to connect them with post-depositional interaction between formational waters and carbonate sedimentary matter. On the base of these data mud volcanic feeder channels have been considered as isolated hydrodynamical systems, avoiding the connection with the aquafers of host sedimentary strata.

Литология и полезные ископаемые. 2019;(3):211-233
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Clay minerals in sediments from contact zones with basalt sills
Kurnosov V.B., Sakharov B.A., Geptner A.R., Konovalov Y.I., Goncharov E.O.
Abstract

Clay minerals (fraction <0.001 mm) of Upper Pleistocene clayey-sandy-silty sediments recovered by DSDP Holes 481 and 481A in the Northern Trough, Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, were studied by X-ray based on the modeling of diffraction patterns and their comparison with experimental diffractograms. Terrigenous clay minerals are represented mainly by dioctahedral micaceous varieties (mixed-layer disordered illite-smectites, illite) with the chlorite admixture and by kaolinite in the upper section of unaltered sediments. Intrusion of hot basalt sills (total thickness of the complex is about 27 m) provoked alterations in the phase composition of clay minerals in sediments (7.5 m thick) overlying the sill complex. These sediments include newly formed triooctahedral layered silicates (mixed-layer chlorite-smectites, smectite). Sediments inside the sill complex include trioctahedral mixed-layer mica-smtctite-vermiculite or trioctahedral smectite. The trioctahedral mixed-layer chlorite-smectite coexisting with smectite was found in a single sample of the same complex.

Литология и полезные ископаемые. 2019;(3):234-247
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Role of elision water exchange in formation of the Yamalo-Kara depression hydrodynamic field
Novikov D.A.
Abstract

The unique material has been compiled on the hydrodynamics of oil and gas deposits of the Yamalo-Kara Depression for the first time in the last 30 years. The main feature of the region is the wide development of abnormally high formation pressures (Ka to 2.21) in both Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous horizons. Studying the filtration-capacitive properties and hydrodynamic characteristics of the Jurassic-Cretaceous reservoirs allows to established the predominate role of the elision water exchange in the formation of the modern hydrodynamic structure. At the depth of about 2–2.5 km elisional lithostatic system begins to acquire the features of elisional thermo-dehydration system. The extensive zones of piezomaxima (Bolshekhetskaya and Karskaya megasyneclise) at the present stage of development of the water-pressure basin system became internal areas of water pressure (supply) with a maximum degree of hydrogeological closeness. The vast zones of piezomaxima (the Bolshekhetskaya and Karskaya megasyneclises) became the inner regions of water pressuring (feeding) with the maximal degree of hydrogeological closeness of the interior at the current stage of the development of the water-pressure system in the basin. The areas of piezominima extending along the main sites of oil and gas generation are related to the largest zones of oil and gas accumulation (Vankoro-Suzunskaya, Bovanenkovskaya, Urengoyskaya and others). Currently, two types of natural water-pressure systems has been established in the region under investigation: elision in the inner regions (dominating within the Yamalo-Kara depression) and infiltration — in the basin margins of the West Siberian sedimentary basin.

Литология и полезные ископаемые. 2019;(3):248-261
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Conditions for the formation of Fe‒Mg metasomatic carbonates in the Lower Riphean terrigenous-carbonate sediments of the Southern Urals
Krupenin M.T., Michurin S.V., Sharipova A.A., Garayeva A.A., Zamyatin D.A., Gulyaeva T.Y.
Abstract

Fe–Mg carbonate metasomatites in the limestones of the Suran suite of the Lower Riphean in the Avzyansky ore district of the Bashkir meganticlinorium are represented by large deposits of Fe-magnesite (Ismakaevo deposit) and breinerite stocks (Bogryashka deposit). The metasomatic zonality is represented by a series of limestone — dolomite — Fe-magnesite (breinerite). Ferrous magnesite contains up to 8 mol. % FeСO3. In breinerite iron saturation varies from 10 to 45 mol. % FeСO3. The metasomatic fluid was a brine of Ca, Na, Mg chlorides with an impurity of Fe, and was connected with the remobilization processes of evaporite brines buried in sediments of the Lower Riphean. The salinity and homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions in magnesites are in the range of 20–26% eq. NaCl and 200–240°C, and in breinerites — 10–15% eq. NaCl and 140–190°C, respectively. The interaction of fluid with terrigenous rocks in the tectonically active zone of the Mashak riftogenic graben led to the enrichment of various ligands and more active hydrothermal redeposition in the metasomatic products of medium and heavy lanthanides. During the migration of fluid through the limestone unite in the cooling process, Fe-magnesite of the Ismakaevo deposit was formed in the frontal zone, and the breinerite of Bogryashka deposit — in the rear zone adjacent to the shale source of brine.

Литология и полезные ископаемые. 2019;(3):262-277
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Detrital monazite from Upper Jurassic sediments in the central part of the Frolov megadepression, Western Siberia: chemical dating and provenances
Erokhin Y.V., Khiller V.V., Ivanov K.S.
Abstract

Detrital monazite from Upper Jurassic sediments in the central part of the Frolov megadepression, West Siberian megabasin, is studied. Chemical composition of the mineral is studied and data on its age (chemical dating) are presented. Most monazite clasts are characterized by low roundness and their age corresponds to the Lower Paleozoic. Upper Jurassic sediments were likely derived not only from the local Early Paleozoic rock complexes (altaides), which make up the pre-Jurassic basement of the Frolov megadepression, but also from rocks located east and south of this megadepression.

Литология и полезные ископаемые. 2019;(3):278-290
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