Role of cytokines in the development of diabetic foot syndrome

Abstract


The paper concerns the topical problem associated with the study of the immunopathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications.
Seventy-five patients with type 2 DM complicated by diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) were examined. In patients with severe type 2 DM, hyperviscosity syndrome, pronounced peripheral blood changes, dyslipidemia associated with a reduction in cholesterol levels, and activation of lipid peroxidation potentiated by an infectious process that excelled in the power of exposure to antioxidant defense reserves were found to mesh with the lower content of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The more TNF-α deficiency is, the more marked the clinical and laboratory changes are.
In the severe form of DFS-complicated DM, the reduced cytokine-producing capacity of immune system cells was shown to be characterized by the low activity of immunocompetent cells and their high apoptotic death rates. The decrease in the level of proinflammatory mediators in patients with severe type 2 DM is due to the development of immunosuppression and its transition to immune deficiency, which determines the high frequency of complications and a poor prognosis in patients with type 2 DM.

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