Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hepatic cirrhosis of hepatitis C virus etiology in the early stages of its formation

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Abstract


Background. Currently, the incidence of viral cirrhosis of the liver increases significantly, presenting an essential medical and social problem. This study aimed to clarify the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hepatic cirrhosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) etiology in the early stages of formation to improve the quality of diagnosis using a sample of patients from the regional hepatological center in Krasnodar (Specialized Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital).

Methods. In 2018, 1,307 patients with liver diseases of viral etiology were examined and treated at the hepatological center. A retrospective analysis of the monitoring results of 153 patients with hepatic cirrhosis of viral C etiology with HCV replication was performed; patients with mixed etiology of cirrhosis were excluded from the study. The enrolled participants included 89 women (58.2%) and 64 men (41.8%). The average age of the patients was 53.5 ± 0.93 years. In accordance with the Child–Pugh classification of hepatic cirrhosis, class A (I) was diagnosed in 92 (60.1%) patients, and class B (II) was revealed in 53 (34.6%) patients.

Results. In 59.5% of cases, viral liver damage was first detected at the stage of outcome to cirrhosis. In 1/3 (32.5%) of the patients, the diagnosis of hepatic cirrhosis was established in the year of visit, and in another 27%, it was established during the first three years from the date of detection of hepatitis C markers. In less than in 1/5 (18.3%) of the patients, 9–24 years have passed from the discovery of hepatitis C markers to the establishment of hepatic cirrhosis. During the three-year follow-up period, the progression of cirrhosis with the transition to the next stage occurred in 6.5% of cases. In residents of Krasnodar Territory, among the leading epidemiological factors, including a monofactor epidemiological history and multifactorial nature with almost the same frequency, the alleged cause of infection was surgery (43%–45%). Prosthetics, dental sanitation, and blood transfusion were indicated as possible infection factors with high incidence. Factors, such as drug addiction, childbirth, tattoos, occupational injuries in medical personnel, and abortions, were recorded in isolated cases. In the early diagnostics of compensated class A cirrhosis, the increased contents of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases showed diagnostic value. Mild increases in the levels of alpha-fetoprotein and direct bilirubin, moderate decreases in prothrombin index and platelets, dilation in the diameter of the portal (v. portae) and splenic (v. lienalis) veins to borderline values with an upper limit of norm with an increased size of the spleen, and esophageal varices, and development of the initial stage of hepatic encephalopathy were also noted. The presence of extrahepatic manifestations in 12% of the patients should be considered.

Conclusion. Despite the high infection rate of the population with hepatitis C virus, late diagnostics of liver damage often occurred, and this finding is partly due to the late action of patients in seeking medical help. On the other hand, the widespread introduction of mandatory medical examination led to the active identification of sick people. For timely diagnosis, the presence of a history of risk factors for hepatitis infection must be considered, and attention must be focused on the abnormalities of blood biochemical parameters, ultrasound, and fibrogastroduodenoscopy data.


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About the authors

Marina G. Avdeeva

Kuban State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: avdeevam@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4979-8768
SPIN-code: 2066-2690

Russian Federation, Krasnodar

MD, PhD, Professor

Makka I. Kulbuzheva

Kuban State Medical University

Email: kulbuzhevamakka@yandex.ru
SPIN-code: 8090-3715

Russian Federation, Krasnodar

MD, PhD

Antonina А. Ganzha

Kuban State Medical University

Email: vetall208@mail.ru

Russian Federation, Krasnodar

PhD

Olga V. Zapashnaya

Specialized Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases

Email: Olgamama2004@mail.ru

Russian Federation, Krasnodar

PhD

Natalia V. Chernikova

Specialized Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases

Email: sasha200273@mail.ru
SPIN-code: 4798-0199

Russian Federation, Krasnodar

PhD

Elena I. Kolodko

Specialized Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases

Email: 4-skib@mail.ru

Russian Federation, Krasnodar

PhD

Lina P. Stolyrova

Kuban State Medical University

Email: stoljarova-lina@rambler.ru

Russian Federation, Krasnodar

student

Husen A. Dobriev

Kuban State Medical University

Email: nogueira08@mail.ru

Russian Federation, Krasnodar

student

Hassan A. Dobriev

Kuban State Medical University

Email: lioto979@gmail.com

Russian Federation, Krasnodar

student

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files Action
1.
Fig. 1. The number of identified patients with cirrhosis of the liver of HCV etiology.

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2.
Fig. 2. Complications of liver cirrhosis of HCV etiology with compensated (class A) and subcompensated (class B) severity according to the Child-Pugh scale.

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3.
Fig. 3. The proportion of patients with a different number of risk factors for HCV infection among patients with cirrhosis.

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