DISABILITY IN THE XXI CENTURY. THE STATE OF THE PROBLEM OF MEDICAL-SOCIAL REHABILITATION AND HABILITATION OF DISABLED PEOPLE IN CONTEMPORARY RUSSIA

Abstract


The disability among the population is one of the most important medical and social problems of the global significance. The article presents data on the epidemiology of the disability in the countries of the world. 110-190 million adults have significant difficulties in functioning - a significant degree of restriction in various spheres of life. The child’s disability accounts for 95 million children, out of which 13 million children have a “severe” form of the disability. In countries where the life expectancy exceeds 70 years, an average of about 8 years, representing 11.5 percent of total life expectancy, falls on years associated with the disability. In most countries, the demographic situation of aging of the population causes an increase in the disability among the elderly - two-thirds of the disabled belong to this age group of the population. In the total population of Russia, the share of disabled people is 9.3% - 12.3 million people, including disabled people of the working age accounting for 3 million 801 thousand people (less than a third - 30%), disabled elderly - 8 million 2,665 thousand people. (two-thirds of the total number of disabled people - 65.2%), children with disabilities include 636 thousand people (4.8%). There is noted a tendency to the decline in the primary and secondary disability of an adult (in 2000-2016) and children (2000-2014) population, but in 2015-2016 there was emerging a tendency to the gain in basic indices of the primary and repeated disability in children (the absolute number of disabled people, the level of disability). The analysis of individual programs for rehabilitation and habilitation (IPRH) of disabled people shows the greatest number of recommendations to be given about the needs of disabled people in technologies for medical and social rehabilitation and habilitation. According to the results of the reassessment of disabled persons in 2016, positive results of the implementation of the IPRH for disabled people were achieved in 48.4% of the disabled cases (among the victims of occupational accidents and occupational diseases - 63.8% of the disabled). There were noted low indices of the complete compensation and full recovery of lost functions (4-7% and 2.8-1%, respectively) and extremely low indices - for implementation recommendations for the acquisition of a profession, including new, advanced training, education and creation of a special workplace for the employment (0.2-0.8%).The solution of the problem of increasing the effectiveness of rehabilitation and habilitation activities requires a consistent integrated approach to the determination goals of the rehabilitation process in each case, depending on the cause of disability and close interagency cooperation in the implementation of IPRH for disabled persons. It is advisable to take into account the regional differentiation of the subjects of the Russian Federation in terms of the prevalence of the disability, as well as the age and gender features of the contingents of the disabled persons.

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About the authors

S. N Puzin

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Moscow, 123995, Russian Federation

Marina A. Shurgaya

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Email: daremar@mail.ru
Moscow, 123995, Russian Federation
MD, PhD, Associate Professor of the Department of Geriatrics and Medical and Social Evaluation; Moscow, 123995, Russian Federation

S. S Memetov

Rostov State Medical University

Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation

E. E Achkasov

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University

Moscow, 119435, Russian Federation

G. E Pogosyan

City Clinical Hospital №70 of the Department of Health of Moscow City

Moscow, 111399, Russian Federation

I. V Lyalina

The Main Clinical Centre of Medical and Social Rehabilitation of the Federal Service of Execution of Punishments

Moscow, 109428, Russian Federation

S. A Omarov

Main Bureau of Medico-Social Expertise for Moscow

Moscow, branch No 43, 103109, Russian Federation

S. S Puzin

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University

Moscow, 119435, Russian Federation

D. N Gigineishvili

Moscow Eye Clinic

Moscow, 107023, Russian Federation

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