Gender analysis of the microbiota of periodontal pockets in patients with chronical generalized periodontitis


Qualitative assessment of bacterial colonization and mRNA of human protective factors in periodontal swabs by using dPCR revealed principal differences between males and females. We demonstrated that concentration of transcripts encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), matrix metalloprotease 8 and 9 (MMP8 and MMP9) changes synchronously at periodontium of healthy men, but not in women and men with the chronic periodontitis. This observation correlates with a new fact of the most tight statistical association of the periodontal hyper-colonization with Porhyromonas gingivalis colonization with the severity of the chronic periodontitis in women but not in men. In contrast, Tanerella forsythensis or its complex with Treponema denticola are the only pathogen whose prevalence is statistically associated with the chronic periodontitis in men. Despite of similar extent ofperiodontium colonization with the pathogens in the males and the females, the women are substantially more prone to onset of the chronic periodontitis at the same level of the periodontal pathogen colonization. On the other hand, the males are inclined to a multiple infection with several principal periodontal pathogens, whereas the females more often are subjected to a mono-infection. Taken together, these facts allow a hypothesis that mechanisms of periodontium protection are different in males and females. The periodontal pathogens quantified by dPCR provide a better predictor of the periodontitis in the females then in the males.

Full Text

Restricted Access

About the authors

Oksana Aleksandrovna Zorina

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University; Central Research Institute of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery of Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation

119991, Moscow
doctor of medicine, professor, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Central Research Institute of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery of Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation

N. K Aymadinova

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University

119991, Moscow

D. V Rebrikov

N.I. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics



  1. Зорина О.А., Кулаков А.А., Борискина О.А., Ребриков Д.В. Взаимосвязь полиморфизмов генов MMP2 и MMP9 с развитием заболеваний пародонта. Паллиативная медицина и реабилитация. 2011; (2): 49-52.
  2. Araújo A.A., Lopes de Souza G., Souza T.O., de Castro Brito G.A., Sabóia Aragão K., Xavier de Medeiros C.A. et al. Olmesartan decreases IL-1β and TNF-α levels; downregulates MMP-2, MMP-9, COX-2, and RANKL; and upregulates OPG in experimental periodontitis. Naunyn Schmiedebergs. Arch. Pharmacol. 2013; 386 (10). doi: 10.1007/s00210-013-0886-8.
  3. Araújo A.A., Souza T.O., Moura L.M., Brito G.A., Aragão K.S., Araújo L.S. et al. Effect of telmisartan on levels of IL-1, TNF-α, down-regulated COX-2, MMP-2, MMP-9 and RANKL/RANK in an experimental periodontitis model. J. Clin. Periodontol. 2013; 40 (12): 1104-11. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12160.
  4. Dosseva-Panova V.T., Popova C.L., Panov V.E. Subgingival microbial profile and production of proinflammatory cytokines in chronic periodontitis. Folia Med. (Plovdiv). 2014; 56 (3): 152-60.
  5. Hajishengallis G., Lamont R.J., Graves D.T. The enduring importance of animal models in understanding periodontal disease. Virulence. 2015; (9): P.0.
  6. Heasman P.A., Hughes F.J. Drugs, medications and periodontal disease. Br. Dent. J. 2014; 217 (8): 411-9.
  7. Jayaprakash K., Khalaf H., Bengtsson T. Gingipains from Porphyromonas gingivalis play a significant role in induction and regulation of CXCL8 in THP-1 cells. BMC Microbiol. 2014; 18: 14-193.
  8. Khalaf H., Lönn J., Bengtsson T. Cytokines and chemokines are differentially expressed in patients with periodontitis: possible role for TGF-β1 as a marker for disease progression. Cytokine. 2014; 67 (1): 29-35.
  9. Kinney J.S., Morelli T., Oh M., Braun T.M., Ramseier C.A., Sugai J.V., Giannobile W.V. Crevicular fluid biomarkers and periodontal disease progression. J. Clin. Periodontol. 2014; 41 (2): 113-20.
  10. Leppilahti J.M., Hernández-Ríos P.A., Gamonal J.A., Tervahartiala T., Brignardello-Petersen R., Mantyla P. et al. Matrix metalloproteinases and myeloperoxidase in gingival crevicular fluid provide sitespecific diagnostic value for chronic periodontitis. J. Clin. Periodontol. 2014; 41 (4): 348-56.
  11. Muhlemann H.R., Son S. Gingival sulcus bleeding-a leading symptom in initial gingivitis. Helvetica Odontologica Acta. 1971; 15: 107-13.
  12. Palm E., Khalaf H., Bengtsson T. Porphyromonas gingivalis downregulates the immune response of fibroblasts. BMC Microbiol. 2013; (10): 13-155.
  13. Silness J., Loe H. Periodontal Disease in Pregnancy. Ii. Correlation between Oral Hygiene and Periodontal Condtion. Acta odontologica Scand. 1964; (22): 121-35.
  14. Türkoğlu O., Becerik S., Tervahartiala T., Sorsa T., Atilla G., Emingil G. The effect of adjunctive chlorhexidine mouthrinse on GCF MMP-8 and TIMP-1 levels in gingivitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study. BMC Oral Health. 2014; 20 (14): 55.
  15. Wan C., Yuan G., Yang J., Sun Q., Zhang L., Zhang J. et al. MMP9 deficiency increased the size of experimentally induced apical periodontitis. J. Endod. 2014; 40 (5): 658-64.



Abstract - 21

PDF (Russian) - 0


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies