Complex radiologic imaging of early breast cancer (literature review)

Abstract


Clinicoroentgenological diagnosis of early breast cancer - BC (non-invasive or invasive small-sized cancers) is difficult due to the absence of any characteristic clinical symptoms and pathognomonic roentgenological signs of the malignant process. Screening of BC has shown to be one of the most successful projects for early diagnosis of malignancies, but the probability to receive false negative results using screening mammography reaches 12%, and, on the one hand, this is due to interval cancers, and on the other hand - to defects in the primary screening. Among the factors associated with the likelihood of ineffective screening of BC, the most authors highlight such as high breast density, preceding the breast biopsy for a benign process, young age, as well as the use of hormone replacement therapy. The main methods of instrumental BC diagnostics are mammography, ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Mammography is the "gold standard" for both screening and best diagnostics, but is characterized by a high proportion of both false positive and false negative results, and this can be partially solved by the use of digital mammography with tomosynthesis (performing a series of mammography images obtained at different angles and producing the focused 3-D images). Contrast enhanced mammography allows to identify angiogenesis in the area of the predicted malignancy, but is characterized by a high radiation exposure. Breast ultrasound is characterized by low specificity of the method and the high dependence of the result of data interpretation depending on physician qualifications. MRI of the breast for screening is characterized by high sensitivity, but also high cost and high proportion of false positive results. The role of PET/computer tomography in the diagnosis of early BC remains unclear, and the informative value of research in patients with nonpalpable tumors is extremely low. The roentgenological picture of early BC is widely variable; characteristic features include the presence of clustered calcifications, lumps with jagged edges, rough multinodular lumps. However, in a significant proportion of women the only manifestation of early BC is the presence of microcalcinates. Careful analysis of the localization and the shape of microcalcinates and basic characteristics allows correctly interpret the roentgenological diagnosis and helps to choose the optimal diagnostic and treatment algorithm.

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About the authors

Giunel S Aliyeva

Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology

Email: gunel.s.alieva@gmail.com
Moscow, Russia radiologist

Galina P Korzhenkova

Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology

Email: irinakolyadina@yandex.ru
Moscow, Russia D. Sci. (Med.)

Irina V Kolyadina

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Email: irinakolyadina@yandex.ru
Moscow, Russia D. Sci. (Med.), Prof.

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