Early vitrectomy in the case of stage IVA retinopathy of prematurity: pro and contra

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Abstract


Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of early lens-sparing vitrectomy for the treatment of the children presenting with stage IVa retinopathy of prematurity during the early and late periods after the surgical intervention. Material and methods. We analyzed the results of the early surgical intervention for vitrectomy with synechiae removal in 83children (116 eyes) at the mean age of 40.0 ± 1.8 weeks with stage IVa retinopathy of prematurity with the use of modern methods including electrophysiological techniques. Results. Stabilization of stage retinopathy of prematurity with the complete reattachment of the retina and the elimination of the vascular activity in the fundus have been achieved in 97.4% of the cases (113 eyes). Thirteen patients (15 eyes or 13.3%) turned out to have glaucoma within the first 3 months after the onset of observations. The maximum corrected visual acuity after vitrectomy in the children at the age of 4.0 ± 0.6 averaged 0.34 ± 0.07, the spherical equivalent of myopic refraction was estimated at 9.8 ± 1,5 D. The electrophysiological study has demonstrated the well apparent reduction of electrogenesis in the central portion of the retina especially in the cone cells and the bipolar nuclear cell layer despite the absence of the noticeable ophthalmological changes in the posterior pole of the fundus in the children treated by lens-sparing vitrectomy as well as in the patients presenting with stage IVa retinopathy of prematurity managed given no vitreoretinal surgery. Conclusion. Urgent vitrectomy with synechiae removal durng the acute period of stage IVa of retinopathy of prematurity is an efficacious and pathogenetically substantiated method for the stabilization of this pathology provided the surgical intervention is performed upon the appearance of the very first signs of retinal detachment. However, the increased risk of glaucoma formation after minimally invasive lens-sparing vitrectomy should be taken into consideration. Moreover, the visual acuity remains impaired due to the inhibition of maturation of the retina at stage IVa of retinopathy of prematurity both after vitrectomy with synechiae removal and in the absence of such intervention.

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About the authors

O. V Diskalenko

Leningrad Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital

Saint Petersburg, 195009, Russian Federation

Ol’ga Aleksandrovna Konikova

Leningrad Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital; Saint-Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University

Email: olgakonikova@gmail.com
Saint Petersburg, 195009, Russian Federation
doctor of Eye Microsurgery Department, Leningrad Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital, a department of ophthalmology, Saint-Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University

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