Risk factors for myopia in preschool and early school age and its prevention

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Heredity is the most important risk factor for myopia, especially if both parents are nearsighted. Pseudomyopia should also be considered a high-risk factor. Other factors include refraction less than + 0.75 D up to 6 years, emmetropia at the age of 7–10 years, the length of the anterior-posterior axis of the eye more than 23.5 mm, values of relative accommodation resources lower than 1.0 D, an AC/A ratio more than 4 PD/D, and relative peripheral hyperopia. Also, the presence of asymmetry of off-axis refraction, refraction of the nasal half of the eye that is stronger than the temporal half. The influence of these factors on the development of myopia is closely related to the environment, urbanization, level of education, level of fitness, and general health. Disposable risk factors are highlighted, including hypodynamia with a high visual load, and the time spent less than 10 hours a week outdoors. The reliable prevention measures that are recognized include limiting the visual load, perform active outdoor activities for at least 10–14 hours a week, and participate in physical education and some sports. In addition, it is essential to have some form of accommodative training, correction of peripheral hyperopia, and induction of myopic defocus on the periphery of the retina, along with functional treatment and local drug therapy.

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About the authors

Elena P. Tarutta

Helmholtz’s National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases

Author for correspondence.
Email: tar221@yandex.ru

Russian Federation, 105062, Moscow

MD, PhD, Professor

Olga V. Proskurina

Helmholtz’s National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases

Email: proskurina@mail.ru

Russian Federation, 105062, Moscow


Natalia A. Tarasova

Helmholtz’s National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases

Email: tar221@yandex.ru

Russian Federation, 105062, Moscow


Gajane A. Markosian

Helmholtz’s National Medical Research Center of Eye Diseases

Email: tar221@yandex.ru

Russian Federation, 105062, Moscow



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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files Action
Fig. 1. Algorithm for ophthalmologists and other specialists on the formation of risk groups for myopia, dynamic monitoring and implementation of a set of therapeutic and preventive measures to prevent its development

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