YIELDING CAPACITY FORMATION OF GRAIN AND LEGUMINOUS CROPS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE TRANS-VOLGA FOREST-STEPPE FARMING

Abstract


The purpose of research is increasing the resistance of plant protein production. The data on duration change features of inter-phase periods and yielding capacity formation of grain and leguminous crops (peas, vetch, lupine) under the influence of abiotic factors, soil tillage and fertilizers in crop rotations are given in the article. Researches were conducted in a stationary three-factor field experiment during the period of 2003-2015. Duration of vegetation of leguminous crops was extended with an increase in rainfall and shortened with an average daily air temperature rise. Tillage of the soil by 20-22 cm in comparison with cultivation (on 12-14 cm) due to improvement of growth conditions extended the vegetation period for 2-3 days, an elevated background of fertilizers also increased vegetation for 1-2 days. The level of yielding capacity was in direct dependence on the period duration «seedlings – blossoming», especially in white lupine and blue lupine and in an inverse relation to air temperature. Yields of le-guminous crops directly depended on the amount of rainfall and value of hydrothermal coefficient, especially in lupine that char-acterizes it as a more hygrophilous crop in comparison with peas and vetch. The studied crops for the level of yielding capacity can be arranged in the following row: peas + lupine of 2.06-2.40 t/ha > peas 1.97-2.36 t/hectare > lupine of 1.99-2.30 t/ha > vetch 1.47-1.77 t/ha, with an advantage of deeper soil tillage and elevated background of fertilizers. Crop studies allows us to draw a conclusion that along with cultivation of traditional grain and leguminous crops (peas and vetch) in the conditions of the forest-steppe of the Volga region white lupine and mix of peas and blue lupine represent a special interest. White lupine can become a valuable fallow crop for winter crops. When planning a mix of peas and lupine it is important to pick varieties with the vegetation period close in duration, that will help to increase production of high quality forage.

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