Vol 5, No 2 (2020)

Articles
ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS BY PULSE CROPS UNDER THE APPLICATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN THE VOLGA REGION FOREST-STEPPE
Trots N.M., Pakhomov A.A.
Abstract
The aim of study is reduction of accumulation of heavy metals in agrocenosis of pulse crops due to the action of biologically active substances in the conditions of the middle Volga forest. An experiment study in order to reveal the effect of pre-sowing seed treatment with biologically active substances on the accumulation of heavy metals by soils and plants in agrocenoses of peas and soybeans was conducted in 2013-2015. The results of pre - sowing treatment of soybean seeds of the Samer 3 breed and peas of the Flagman 12 with the Rizotorfin and Rizotorfin in combination with analogues - Agrica and Humariz biologically active substance are presented. The analysis of heavy metals content in soil and plant samples was performed in the laboratory of the «Samara agrochemical service» Station by method of atomic adsorption spectroscopy. It is established that the introduction of biologically active substances into the soil containing heavy metals can reduce the concentration of their mobile forms and restrict access to grain. The content of mobile forms of elements in the soil under soybean growing areas, in comparison with the control, decreases: lead by 1.14 times when treated with Rhizotorphin+Humariz, cadmium - 1.18 times when treated with Rhizotorphin, copper - 1.2 times and cobalt - 2.0 times under the influence of the combination of Rhizotorphin and Agrica. According to the coefficients of biological absorption of pea and soy grains, the studied heavy metals are referred to the elements of biological capture of CАB<1. An effective inactivating effect on heavy metals is provided by pre-sowing treatment of pea and soy seeds with biologically active substances combined with Rhizotorphin+Agrica and Rhizotorphin+Humariz.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(2):3-7
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PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENT CONTENT AS A CONSEQUENTAL RESISTANCE SIGN OF POTATO VARIETIES TO HIGH TEMPERATURE AND MOISTURE LACK
Bakunov A.L., Milekhin A.V., Rubtsov S.L., Shevchenko S.N.
Abstract
The aim of the research is increasing potato yield in dry conditions of the Middle Volga region. The research was carried out on the experimental field of the Samara Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture - branch of the Samara Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The variety testing plant nursery included 28 varieties of potatoes of domestic selection. Udacha, Zhigulevsky, Arosa and Gala breeds were the standard varieties. The plant material was planted out in two replications with 25 plants in each. To determine the content of photosynthetic pigments, extracts were prepared from ten potato leaves of each breed in 100% acetone. Measurements were performed by spectrophotometry. To measure the amount of chlorophyll a , the wavelength of 665 nm, chlorophyll b - 649 nm, and carotenoids - 440 nm were used. The concentration of pigments was determined by using Wettstein formulas. When harvesting, the potato yield was taken into account. The average concentration of chlorophyll a in the studied breeds was 0.92 mg/g, the average concentration of chlorophyll b was 0.62 mg/g, and one of carotenoids was 0.27 mg/g. Potato breeds with high concentration of photosynthetic pigments were identified. A reliable average dependence of the yield of potato breeds on the concentration of chlorophyll b in plants was revealed. The correlation coefficient was 0.42. There is no reliable dependence tested of yield on the concentration of chlorophyll a and carotenoids. Potato productivity is associated with a significant negative relationship with the ratio of both a and b chlorophyll concentrations. The most highly productive varieties were characterized by a high content of two varieties of chlorophyll. A high concentration of chlorophyll b or a minimum ratio of chlorophyll a and b concentrations can be tentatively recommended as a consequential sign for identifying potato breeds that are highly adapted to high air temperature and insufficient moisture.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(2):8-13
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NITROGEN CONTENT IN SOIL AND NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN WINTER WHEAT LEAVES WITH THE USE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZERS
Bakaeva N.P.
Abstract
The purpose of the study is increasing the efficiency of using nitrogen fertilizers and its effect on nitrate-reducing capacity of the leaf apparatus. The research was conducted in 2016-2018 in the Central zone of the Samara region. The predecessor is complete fellow. Svetoch winter wheat elite seed varieties were used for sowing. Seeding was carried out in the experimental fields of the laboratory «Agroecology» of the Samara state University. Nitrate and ammonium nitrogen content in soil layer of 0-30 cm depth was estimated before planting and after plant nutrition with nitrogen fertilizers in regard to the growth phases (tillering, elongation and heading), the content of nitrogen, protein and nitrate reductase enzyme activity in leaves during plant development. Dynamics changes of nitrogen content in the soil and after fertilization with nitrogen shows that during vegetation period of plants, the amount of nitrogen is sufficient for their growth. As the phenological phases of plants change, the content of nitrogen and protein in winter wheat leaves increases, and activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase lifts, which catalyzes nitrate regeneration to nitrite. The value of the activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase in leaves can serve as a criterion for evaluating the availability of plants with the nitrate form of nitrogen. In future, the activity of this enzyme can be used as an indicator of optimizing nitrogen nutrition of plants aimed at metabolic processes. The use of various nitrogen fertilizers, and to a greater extent ammonium nitrate, increased the supply of plants with nitrogen, which is later used by them in the reutilization of nitrogen from leaves to the emerging seed, thus contributing to quality of grain.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(2):13-19
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FOLIAR FEEDING EFFECTIVENESS DURING WHITE MUSTARD CULTIVATION
Naumtseva K.V., Vinogradov D.V.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is increasing the yield of white mustard varieties by using complex liquid fertilizers in Ryazan region. The research was conducted in 2018-2019 on the fields of the experimental agro-technological station of Ryazan state agro-technological University («Agrotechno-Park»). The soil of the experimental site is gray forest. In 2019, the area under oil producing crops in Ryazan region was more than 151 thousand hectares, the mustard sown area amounted to 9.5 thousand hectares.Two experiments were performed in 4-fold replication. Complex liquid fertilizer in both experiment 1 and experiment 2 provided intensive plant growth and increased photosynthesis rates. The largest number of oilseeds in experiment 1 was obtained on the Lucium breed, variant Azotovit 1 l/ha + Phosphatovit 1 l/ha + Rauactive 1 l/ha - 20.5 C/ha, which is higher than in the control by 3.1 C / ha. Chaika - breed was17.4 C/ha and Rapsodia one -18.5 C/ha (on average over the years of research). Experiment 2 was characterized by the maximum increase in yield of the Lucium breed - 13.1 C/ha (on average per 2018-2019) - on the Active Boron one 1 l/ha + Active Zinc 1 l/ha. Studies of 2018-2019, showed that in practice of agriculture in the region in agrocenoses of white mustard can be used complex liquid fertilizer Azotovit, Fosfatami, Reactiv - processing phase from 2 to 4 true leaves + phase budding (consumption rate 1.0 l/ha) and complex preparations, Zinc Asset and Asset Bor - processing phase of button rosette + the budding phase (consumption rate 1.0 l/ha).
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(2):19-27
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EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF ORGANOMINERAL FERTILIZERS IN ORDER OF HEAVY METALS INACTIVATION WHEN GROWING POTATOES IN SAMARA VOLGA STEPPE ZONE
Chernyakova G.I., Trots N.M., Kostin Y.V.
Abstract
The aim of the research is increasing the productivity of potatoes via the use of organic fertilizers. Research was carried out on crop rotation fields with potato plantations of Arnica and Arosa breeds. The distance between the ridges is 75 cm, the ridge height is 18-20 cm, and the distance between seats in a row is 24 cm. In the applied crop rotation, potato was planted on fallow steam. The object of study is the soil of the upper farm field (0-30 cm). The results of applying programmed soil fertilizers for potato plants consisting of background mineral fertilizers N120P150K300 and manure in doses of 20 t/ha and 60 t/ha for four experimental plots with an area of 210 ha are presented. Determination of heavy metal content was performed within the certified laboratory of the Federal state University «Station of agro-chemical service «Samara» by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Based on the results of heavy metals mobile forms in the soil, a concentration coefficient was calculated, which showed that the actual average value exceeds the background level. The lead concentration coefficient amounting to 1.6 - indicates the accumulation of the element on the research area. Organo-mineral fertilizer N120P150K300+manure 60 t / ha allows you to restore the balance of mould on the research ordinary Chernozem, get an increase in yield of 4.1-8.9 t / ha, has an effect on reducing the content of gross heavy metals in the soil: Cd - by 1.2-1.4 times; Cu - 1.1-1.2 times, Pb, Zn, Mn and Fe - 1.1 times compared to the control area. Within the experiment N120 P150K300 + manure 60 t / ha lead mobility reduces to 3.9%, copper, zinc, iron-less than by 1 %, cadmium mobility increases by 3.4-5.7 %.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(2):27-34
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INFLUENCE OF SPRING RAPE SOWING PERIODS AND PLANT PROTECTION DURING CULTURING ON ITS SEEDS
Lupova E.I.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is yield increasing of spring rape using the Clearfield system in Ryazan region. The research was carried out in 2016-2019 within the conditions of the experimental agrotechnological station of the Federal State Budgetary EDUCATIONAL Institution of Ryazan region on gray forest clay loam soil. The experiment revealed that during the second and third sowing, the OZORNO hybrid is more precocious, the growing period of which amounts to 85-83 days, which is 10-6 days less than that of the Salsa CL one (95-89 days). On average, the highest yield of spring rape was obtained at the first sowing period (first decade of May) on the base of all experiments: Salsa CL - 20.8 C / ha, Ozorno - 19.5 C / ha, Ratnik - 19.0 C / ha. The maximum yield (24.8 C / ha) was obtained in 2016 from Salsa CL hybrid using the Clearfield system. On average, the indicators of yield growth, development and formula of the domestic Ratnik variety were not inferior to ones of the Ozorno hybrid. The variants on the base of Clearfield system showed lower weeding, and all groups of weeds were killed or severely suppressed. In the conditions of Russian southern part of the non-Chernozem zone, the first decade of May for spring rape sowing in the most favorable period, in regard to yield using the Clearfield system. The maximum profitability (108.5%) is marked on the variant with the Salsa KL hybrid of the first sowing period.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(2):34-39
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BEEF COWS BODY CONDITION SCORING AND ITS MEASUREMENTS RELATIONSHIP
Khakimov I.N., Mudarisov R.M., Akimov A.L.
Abstract
The purpose of the study is improving the efficiency of breeding work in selection of cows by live weight, body measurements with mandatory consideration of animal condition score. The degree and nature of relationship between live weight and body measurements of beef cows with condition score, regression coefficient were calculated. The research was carried out on beef Hereford and Kazakh white-headed cows. A high positive relationship between live weight, body measurements and the condition score of cows was established. The regression coefficient showed that change in finish by 1 point increases the live weight of Hereford cows of the first group by 46.3 kg, the second - by 44.2 kg, and the third - by 42.1 kg. The cows of the second group have the largest bulk, they significantly exceeded the Hereford and Kazakh white-headed cows of the first and third groups by this indicator. The difference was 51.2 and 45.9 kg, respectively, the coefficients of variability - varied between 4.1 to 9.2%. Hereford Cows of the second group were superior in heart girth (with a difference of 4 cm) to cows of the first group and 10.6 cm to cows of the third group. The coefficients of variability ranged within 12.9 to 27.0 %. In terms to heart girth (by 1.05 and 0.95 cm) and chest depth (by 8.9 and 2.9 cm), the cows of the second group were superior to the cows of the first and the third groups, respectively (the difference is not reliable). The variation coefficients ranged within 10.3 to 15.7% for heart girth and from 13.0 to 16.7% for chest depth.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(2):40-46
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INFLUENCE OF BISCHOFITE AND PHOSPHATID CONCENTRATE ON PORK PRODUCTIVITY
Salomatin V.V., Murtazaeva R.N., Varakin A.T., Kornilova V.A.
Abstract
The aim of the research is improving pork of store pigs. During the scientific and economic experiment, four store pig groups of large white breed were marked during the feeding period. The influence of natural Volgograd bischofite and sunflower phosphatide concentrate both separately and mixed in diets was studied, on pork development from store pigs. The experimental store pig selection into groups was based on the method of pair-analogues. Animals of compared groups received complete feed: in the first period of feeding SK-6 and in the second period SK-7. Feeding results of experimental pigs of compared groups were evaluated by a number of indicators characterizing their meat qualities in total. The main indicators of pork are the hot carcass, slaughter weight and yield. It was found that the introduction to the complete feed natural bischofite and phosphatide concentrate individually, as components and in mixed complex, in comparison with the control, contributes accordingly slaughter live weight in store pigs fattening by 7.84 and 9.78 and 10.97%, their hot carcass - by 8.67, 10.37 and 11.92%, carcass exit - by 0.47-0.33 and 0.53% slaughter weight - by 8.97, 11.18 and 12.94% and slaughter yield - by 0.60, 0.80 and 1.10%. Protein content in the average sample of pork, when animals received test components was more, than in control one by 0.45, 0.25 and 0.63%. Store pigs, which used natural bischofite and phosphatide concentrate the absolute increase in live weight, was higher. Higher meat yield was received from fatted store pigs, with additional introduction to the main diet of natural Volgograd bischofite combined with sunflower phosphatide concentrate.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(2):46-51
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DYNAMICS OF NUTRITION VALUE AND ALFALFA HAYLAGE MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS WHEN USING BIOLOGICAL PRESERVATIVES
Fattakhova Z.F., Shakirov S.K., Sharafutdinov G.S., Khakimov I.N.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is increasing the efficiency of using liquid and dry biological preservatives during alfalfa haylage. Conservation based on use of individual strains or lactic acid bacterium community is a promising direction of resource - saving technologies for foraging. Influence of biologies on organoleptic properties, safety, nutritional value and microbiological parameters of alfalfa haylage was studied. The experiment was conducted in 2016-2018 in the laboratory of Agro-Biological Department of Tatar Research Institute of Agriculture of the Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The object of research is influence of biological preservatives on the nutritional properties of alfalfa haylage, and Aislu alfalfa breed herbage. Industrial samples of Ferbak-SIL liquid biological preservatives with and dry Bioamide-3 enzyme free were used for haylage. It was found that, on average, for 3 years of the experiment, the use of preparations led to the improvement of bio-conservation of herbage, optimization of microorganisms and improvement of nutritional properties of alfalfa haylage. Adding liquid Ferbak-SIL bio-preservative with enzymes to alfalfa herbage led to an increase in the safety of dry matter by 2.06%, raw protein - by 0.69%, raw fiber - by 0.37%, raw fat - by 0.19%, exchange energy - by 7.10%, and concentration of lactic acid bacteria-by 230.1%, compared to the control variant. Values of similar indicators in the variants of the experiment with the dry biological product Bioamide-3 enzymes free were, respectively, 0,78, 0,51, 0,11, 0,08, 3,13, 170,8 % in relation to control.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(2):52-58
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MILK OF BLACK-WHITE COWS WITH DIFFERENT GENES OF CAPPA CASEIN AND DIACYLGLYCEROL OF O-ACYLTRANSFERASE FOR CHEESEMAKING
Shaidullin R.R., Sharafutdinov G.S., Moskvicheva A.B.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is improving the quality and technological properties of milk from black-and-white cows. The research was conducted on first-calf cows of a black-and-white breed in LLC «Dusym» of the Atninsky district of the Republic of Tatarstan. Three groups of experimental cows were formed depending on the genotype of CSN3 and DGAT1, which have equal lactation month. Cheese making milk obtained from cows with different allelic variants of the kappa-casein and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase genes was studied. DNA testing was performed on the CSN3 and DGAT1 genes of experimental cows and allelic variants of these genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction followed by analysis of restriction-site polymorphism. It was found that milk of cows with the genotype CSN3 AB and CSN3 BB, when exposed to rennet, showed a better yield of a dense casein clot (80 and 100%) and separation of serum (P <0.05), with a shorter coagulation time (20.3 and 16.5 min; P <0.05-0.01). According to the DGAT1 gene, first-calf milk with the allelic variant DGAT1 AK and DGAT1 KK had the advantage, respectively, 86.7% and 85.7%, 24.0 and 25.7 minutes. The worst milk coagulation time is typical for CSN3 AA group - 29.5 minutes and DGAT1 AA one - 30.4 min. In terms of milk coagulation time, type II (15-40 min.) groups have the genotype CSN3 AB and CSN3 BB with the largest share of cows in the herd - 80.0 and 71.4% and with the genotype DGAT1 AK and DGAT1 KK - 86.6 and 85.7%, respectively. Thus, milk obtained from cows with the kappa-casein gene allele B and the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase gene allele K gene in the genotype has the best cheese-making properties.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(2):59-63
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BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SILICON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES ON BROILER CHICKEN
Nikulin V.N., Mustafina A.S.
Abstract
The aim of the study is to increase the productive qualities of broiler chickens by including ultrafine silicon oxide into main diet. During the experiment, the biological effect of ultrafine silicon oxide on broiler chickens was established. Use of ultrafine SiO2 particles for poultry feeding contributed to an increase in the number of red blood cells and content of total protein and albumins. By the end of the experiment, the number of red blood cells in birds increased by 17.43% (P≤0.001) - in the blood of birds of the first experimental group, 16.51% (P≤0.01) - the second one, 20.80% (P≤0.001) - the third experimental and 21.71% (P≤0.001) - the fourth experimental group, compared with the indicator of the control group. The amount of total protein in blood serum of chickens of the first and the second experimental groups increased by 1.36-1.39 %, in the third and fourth ones there was a significant (P≤0.05) increase by 5.45 and 3.05%, respectively. The blood glucose content of chickens in the experimental groups is higher by 8.04-23.65% compared to this indicator with ones in the control group. During the experiment feed consumption per 1 kg gain of live weight decreased: in the first experimental group by 3.00 % in the second by - 0.50 %, the third - 6.00 % the fourth- by 4.50 %, compared to this with the control group. The chicken’s vibrancy of the first the experimental group was higher by 4.77 %, the second - by 6.20 %, the third - by 19.25 % and the fourth- by 11.59% than in the control one. Consequently, when converting the feed energy into the body energy of a broiler chicken, the energy conversion coefficient of the experimental group of poultry is higher than that of the control one by 7.16-21.76 %. Thus, the most optimal dose for further research was determined.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(2):63-71
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