Vol 5, No 3 (2020)

Articles
AGROMINERAL MICRO-FERTILIZING MIXTURE APPLICATION FOR CULTIVATION OF SUNFLOWER ON THE BASE OF CLEARFILD SYSTEM IN THE MIDDLE VOLGA FOREST-STEPPE REGION
Vasin V.G., Potapov D.V., Saniev R.N., Prosandeev N.A.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is the developing of methods for increasing the productivity of sunflower hybrids cultivated on the basis of the Clearfield system, when applying fertilizers and up-to-date micro-fertilizing Agromineral mixture within the conditions of the middle Volga forest-steppe. One of main factors increasing the economic potential of sunflower is the introduction on a great scale of highly productive hybrids and the improvement of its cultivation technology. Fertilizers rational use and foliage spraying in order to increase the yield and improve its quality indicators is the basis for effective crop production. The Samara agricultural University experimental field was provided for the research to be conducted. The scheme developed envisaged application of fertilizers at a dose of 10:26:26 NPK with a norm of 100 kg/ha of Diammophos and 60 kg/ha of Nitrabor, followed by treatment of sunflower hybrids during 4-6-crop stage with micro-fertilizing agromineral mixture. The results of research for 2017-2019 are presented with an assessment of sunflower hybrid photosynthetic potential, yield and oil content at different fertilizer dose application and treatment of crops by microfertilizing Agromineral mixture. On average, over three years of research, the maximum photosynthetic potential is observed in hybrids: in the control group without both fertilization and vegetation treatment - 8H358KLDM (3.066 million m2/ha days), when fertilizing use - LH 5555 KL (4.008 million m2/ha days). On average, for 3 years of research, the yield of sunflower hybrid on the basis when no fertilization was used amounted to 22.5...28.7 C/ha, and with fertilization - 27.2...33.3 C/ha. With the use of microfertilizing Agromineral mixture, but no fertilizers added oil yield amounted to 13.23 C/ha. The same result was obtained on a fertilized field 15.60 C/ha.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(3):3-11
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PRECURSORS AND NUTRITIENT STATUS EFFECT ON THE YIELD OF HARD SPRING WHEAT IN THE URAL ORENBURG ARID STEPPE
Maksyutov N.A., Zorov A.A., Skorokhodov V.Y., Mitrofanov D.V.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is the yield increase of spring wheat under arid steppe of the Orenburg pre-Urals conditions. Stationary long term field experience was laid on the site of the Kuibyshev's experimental production farm located in Orenburg district. Crop rotations and hard spring wheat monocrop have been studied for 30 years. The two-factor experimental design, consisting of four repetitions was developed. The results of long-term stationary studies for 1990-2019 involving five rotations and hard spring wheat monocrop are presented. Weather conditions, the precursor type and nutrient status are the major factors affecting the hard spring wheat yield. The number of hyperarid years when hard spring wheat yield was less than 5 C per 1 ha in the first rotation amounted to 1 year, in the second - 2, in the third and the fourth - 3 years, in the fifth - 5 years. A significant hard spring wheat increase in yield on the basis of fertilized ground over 30 years was noted on weedfree fallow - 6 years, conservation tillage - 10, green manured - 8, winter - 12, corn - 13 and peas - 4 years, monocrop - 10 years. The highest yield of hard spring wheat for five rotations was on weedfree fallow, conservation tillage and green manured areas (average for two nutrient status), respectively, 11.4, 11.4 and 11.6 C per 1 ha, after winter crops - 10.3 C, corn for silage - 9.3 C, peas - 9.0 C and monocrop - 7.7 C per 1 ha. The yield increase from the fertilized ground was obtained within five rotations respectively for these precursors: 0.4, 0.6, 0.6, 1.0, 0.8, 0.3 and 0.9 C from 1 ha. The research was carried out in accordance with the plan for 2020-2021developed by the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Federal Scientific Center of Biological Systems and Agrotechnologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences» (№ 0761-2019-0003).
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(3):11-17
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PRIMARY GENOTIPIC SELECTION FOR IMPROVEMENT OF HARD WHEAT STABILITY AND RESPONSE IN YIELD
Malchikov P.N., Myasnikova M.G., Chaheeva T.V.
Abstract
The research goal is improving the stability and yield response of durum wheat. The search for intensive varieties with high stability is justified and is currently one of primary selective direction. Under climate change with increasing stress on the process of forming yield of cultivated crops, the resistance of varieties to adverse factors and response to favorable conditions are the key factors of yield productivity growth and are considered prime selective directions. The research included identification within the system of ecological and geographical studies of both broad-range varieties adapted to cultivation in the steppe regions of Russia and Kazakhstan, and varieties of local significance for specific environmental conditions of the distribution areas. Three ecological and geographical experiments were carried out. The first one was based on 28 selective standard lines of the KASIB (Kazakh-Sibirian wheat selection), studied in four ecological and geographical locations: Barnaul, Omsk, Bezenchuk, Orenburg. The second experiment included selective lines of the Samara Research Institute of Agriculture studied in ecological and geographical locations of Krasnodar, Orel, Bezenchuk, Orenburg, Barnaul. The third one was formed of seven selective lines of the Samara Research Institute of Agriculture and three lines of Orenburg Research Agricultural Institute studied there and Bezenchuk. Primary genotypic selections for wide range use were identified - 1693D-71, 2006D-44(454), 2126D-1(525), 2219D-3(557) by Samara Research Institute of Agriculture, Hordeiforme 08-107-5 by Omsk Agriculture Research Centre , Hordeiforme 910 and Hordeiforme 895 by Altai Resarch Institute of Agriculture and of Local significance - 1941D-17, 1941D-19, 2201D-4 by Samara Research Institute of Agriculture resulted from studies using the regression analysis of yield data.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(3):17-24
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PRESSURE ACCUMULATOR DISCHARGE EFFECT ON GEAR SHIFT WITH HYDRAULIC CONTROL BOX
Volodko O.S., Bychenin A.P., Chernikov O.N.
Abstract
The purpose of the study is the reduction of the time of hydraulic couplings slipping by optimization of hydraulic accumulator discharge pressure. When operating tractors with hydroshift transmission at loads close to the nominal values, there is a problem of slipping of the friction coupling during gear shift without interruption in torque delivery. There is a critical scientific problem of reducing the slipping of hydroshift transmission during the operation of major tractors. Theoretical prerequisites for increasing friction force due to the reduction of slipping via the reduction of gear shift time and influence of oil pressure in the booster of the released drive are justified. Procedure and results of study of gear shift in transmission of tractor «Kirovets» with the use of both standard and constant discharge pressure hydraulic accumulators are given. The process of gear shift was investigated on the new gearbox with standard hydraulic accumulator, on the box with standard hydraulic accumulator worn to the limit provided, and on the new gearbox with constant discharge pressure hydraulic accumulator. It has been established that during operation of a new transmission with standard hydraulic accumulator the 0.2MPa discharge pressure exceeds the optimal value, which leads to an increase in the duration of the shift from 0.915...0.920 s at a pressure of 0.45...0.46 MPa to 1.395...1.04 s at a pressure of 0.65...0.66 MPa. The installation of a constant discharge pressure hydraulic accumulator on the new transmission reduces the discharge pressure to 0.48...0.49 MPa, which reduces the gear shift process to 1.034...1.040 s, that is only 4.2...6.6% higher than the optimal value. Recommendations are given to optimize the gear shift process in the transmission of the «Kirovets» tractor.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(3):25-31
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HOLSTEIN BREED LACTATION YIELD IN THE SOUTHERN FOREST-STEPPE ZONE OF PRE-URAL
Mudarisov R.M., Khakimov I.N., Semenov V.G., Kulmakova N.I.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is to increase the efficiency of Holstein cows of different breeds in the southern forest-steppe zone of the Pre-Urals. Due to the lack of highly productive dairy cattle, Holstein cows are imported to Russia from different countries. Imported animals have different adaptability, productivity, terms of economic use, and profitability. For the first time on the stud farm «Alekseevsky» state owned located in Ufa district Republic of Bashkortostan a comparative evaluation of body conformation, lactation yield and physical and chemical indicators of Holstein milk of different selections in terms of adaptive technology. Cows of Hungarian selection have a stronger conformation, proportion, length, well-developed body, as evidenced by boniness and lengthiness. Hungarian cows dominate over German and Finnish cows in body weight by 11.2 and 22.5 kg (P<0.05). These features led to the superiority of animals of Hungarian origin in milk productivity with the same adaptive technology of keeping and feeding. During the third lactation, milk yield of Hungarian origin was 736.6 kg (P<0.05) more than that of German-bred, and 766.7 kg than that of Finnish cows. Hungarian average milk yield of Hungarian breed for three lactation periods was bigger 521.5 kg (P<0.05) and 625.1 kg (P<0.05), respectively. German breed had the highest fat content (3.3%), and Hungarian cows the highest protein content (3.3%). There were no significant differences between the animals of the studied groups in terms of productive longevity (3.26-3.38 lactations). Cows of Hungarian origin for all the time of use had basic fat content and protein more by 5.5 and 6.0%, compared with their herdmate, which increases revenue by 9.9 and 10.8 thousand rubles more than from cows of German and Finnish selection.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(3):32-39
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PRODUCTIVE LONGEVITY OF COWS WITH DIFFERENT STRESS RESISTANCE
Chupsheva N.Y., Karamayev S.V., Karamayeva A.S.
Abstract
The aim of the research is increasing of the productive period of cows on modern milk manufacturing complexes. The new intrabreed type of the middle Volzhsky Black and White culled cattle for various reasons from the herd between 2016 and 2018 were studied. All animals for further statistical processing of the studied indicators were divided into four groups taking into account the type of stress resistance according to E. P. Kokorina method in the modification described by E. N. Letyagina. Studies have shown that all hematological indices decrease as cows become stress resistant, with the exception of leukocyte content. Increase of leukocyte concentration in blood by 6.8-41.9% is most likely a protective reaction of organism. Different reactivity of cows against stress affects the natural resistance of their bodies. The reduction of BASK by 3.2-10.5%, LASK - by 3.5-9.0%, FUNK - by 1.8-7.3% has been established. At decrease of stress resistance the immunoglobulin concentration in blood is reduced: IgG - by 3.9-11.2%, IgM - by 1.1-22.5%, IgA - by 3.4-24.1%. The results of the studies showed that cows of type I of stress resistance dominated over their herdmate with high stress resistance in life expectancy by 262.6-1264.8 days (11,6-100%; P<0.05-0.001), by duration of productive lactation 0.2-2.5 (4.7-125%; P<0.001), average for lactation per 487-2175 kg of milk (8.5-53.6%; P<0.05-0.001), lifetime yield - per 3340-19924 kg of milk (13.5-245.5%; P<0.01-0.001), by yield per 1 day of life - per 0.2-4.7 kg (1.8-73.4%; Р<0.001), for 1 day of a lactation - on 2.3-5.5 kg (13.9-41.4%; Р<0.001). On the basis of this, it is recommended to complete the «selection core» of the herd with animals of types I and II of stress resistance. When breeding type II stress resistant breed, it is necessary when selecting servicing bulls pay additional attention to the milk productivity of their mothers.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(3):39-45
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FEATURES OF REPARATIVE REGENERATION OF ACHILLES TENDON IN THE CONDITIONS OF AUTOLOGOUS TRANSPLANTATION OF CELL POOL
Slesarenko N.A., Zharikov A.M.
Abstract
The aim of the study is identification of features of Achilles tendon healing in the conditions of auto-transplantation of the cellular element, reflecting the regenerative activity of stromal-vascular fraction. Modern regenerative treatment methods for animal with tendon injuries involve stromal-vascular cells application of adipose tissue. They represent cell pool with high plasticity, proliferative activity, and ability to secrete multiple angiogenic factors. However, there is no data on morphological and morphometric regenerative equivalents of their use in case of tendon ligaments injury. Micro morphometrical indicators are presented that substantiate the effectiveness of using autologous cellular elements in case of Achilles tendon injury. The influence of stromal-vascular fraction from rat adipose tissue on regenerative process during healing of an induced tendon tissue defect was evaluated which lead to an increase in the thickness of bundles of the first and the second orders in the experimental group, significant differences in comparison with the control of the fibroblastic cell pool, and the number of blood capillaries of these animals. Based on the positive data of the autologous cell pool on the regenerative ability of the Achilles tendon, its practicability for veterinary medicine was scientifically justified. The experimental model of the study is a fancy rat (n=20). Achilles tendon was the research material. A complex methodological approach was used, including experimental modeling, micro morphological studies, micro morphometry, and statistical data processing. It was revealed that experimental animals injected with stromal-vascular fraction, micro morphometric transformations of connective tissue were detected, aimed at thickening of bundles of the first and second orders, the transition of fibroblasts to structured and ordered fibrocytes (tenocytes), acceleration of collagenogenesis and vascularization enhancement.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(3):46-50
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INFLUENCE OF COW FATNESS PRIOR CALVING ON THE QUALITY OF THE FIRST LACTATION YIELD COLOSTRUM
Bakayeva L.N., Karamayeva A.S., Karamayev S.V.
Abstract
The aim of the research is improving the quality of dairy breed colostrum by regulating their fatness before the calving. Research was carried out in 2018-2019 in the conditions of dairy breed complexes of SEC «Yuzhny», LLC «Zvezda», LLC «Radna» of the Samara region on cows of: Bestuzhevskaya; Black-and-White of domestic selection; Holstein, imported from Germany; Ayrshire from Finland. The chemical composition, physiological properties and content of immunoglobulins were studied in colostrum of the first lactation yield, 30-60 minutes after the calving. It has been found that if the fatness decreases below 3.6-4.0 points, the fat in the colostrum of Bestuzhevskaya breed decreases by 0.5-1.2%, Back-and-White - by 0.5-0.9%, Holstein - by 0.7-1.6%, Ayrshire - by 0.5-1.4%, the protein, respectively by 1.9-5.5; 0.7-1.5; 0.5-1.3; 1.1-4.3%. If the fatness increases above 4.0 points, fat and protein in the colostrum also decreases. Colostrum of all milk breeds studied, showed that its acidity meets the phiziological requirements, with the exception of Holstein breed with fatness below 3.0 points (44.5ºT). When the fatness decreased below the optimum, the content of immunoglobulins in the colostrum lowed too, respectively, in breeds by 8.1-24.5; 5.3-12.9; 6.1-16.6; 6.7-22.7%, with an increase of 4.2; 1.9; 7.4; 4.9%. Thus, the reduction or increase of breed fatness, compared to the optimal level (3.6-4.0 points), leads to a decrease of main components in colostrum including density, acidity, and the most important point a decrease in the content of immunoglobulins, which perform a protective function newborn calves.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(3):50-56
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ADAPTIVE TRANSFORMATIONS OF A FOX’S KNEE JOINT LIGAMENTS UNDER CHANGED FUNCTIONAL CONDITIONS
Slesarenko N.A., Shirokova E.O.
Abstract
The aim of the research is identification of complex structural changes of the fox’s knee joint ligaments to ensure its high biomechanical potencies. A promising approach for the study of adaptive and compensatory changes of the joint as a multicomponent biomechanical system is to evaluate the structural transformations of its ligaments under conditions of a new functional load. The research was carried out on the basis of the Department of Animal Anatomy and Histology named after Professor A. F. Klimov «Moscow state Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology - MBA named after K. I. Scryabin» and on the basis of JSC «Breeding animal farm «Saltykovsky». The article presents information about morphological transformations of the lateral and median ligaments of the knee joint that determine its reliable stability. Numerous structural changes of the fox ligaments during cage housing is reflected, which decrease in the thickness of bundles of collagen fibers and their compositional density compared to the standard structure (in wild individuals). Morphological transformations that can significantly reduce the strength and elasticity resistance of the ligaments and the biomechanical potential of the joint are shown. 23 fox individuals, including 15 individuals of the cage housing and 8 representatives of the natural habitat were studied. The research used a comprehensive methodological approach, including anatomical preparation, light microscopy of histological sections, scanning electron microscopy, micromorphometry and statistical analysis of the obtained digital data. According to the results of the study, it was found that fox individuals from natural biocenosis, have collagen structures of the lateral ligaments different in waving and packing density from ones of cage housing, which can contribute to ensuring their biomechanical domination.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(3):56-64
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