Meditsina, nauka, novye sposoby myshleniya v pireneyskom mire v epokhu prosveshcheniya


Striking attempts were made in Iberia and Ibero-America during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to understand human life in a different way and to improve living conditions for ordinary people. Governments and intellectuals, lay and ecclesiastical, in the two colonial powers, Spain and Portugal, actively took part in these endeavours, which also extended to their overseas territories, notably in the Americas. Similarly, Ibero-American scholars developed their own expressions of the Enlightenment, sometimes independently and other times in concert with colonial officials. Sooner or later, the new ideas would advance from the scientific sphere into the very different spheres of economic policy and political organization. This, in turn, raised the question of the linkage between Enlightenment and Revolution. While this latter is not the subject of the present discussion, it is important to understand that decades of armed conflict, economic dislocation, and political instability between the 1810s and 1870s halted and even reversed the developments which had begun during the eighteenth century. They would be resumed in the last decades of the nineteenth century. This helps to explain why it took until the 1890s and 1900s to resolve the problem of the cause of two of the most harmful of tropical diseases: malaria and yellow fever. [1,2].

Full Text

Restricted Access

About the authors

Brian Hamnett

University of Essex

Emeritus Professor, Department of History

Mikhail Anipkin

University of Essex

PhD in sociology, Department of Law


  1. Christopher Abel, Health, Hygiene and Sanitation in Latin America, c. 1870-c. 1950, University of London Institute of Latin American Studies Research Papers, no. 42, (London 1996).
  2. McNeill J. R., Mosquito Empires. Ecology and War in the Greater Caribbean, 1620-1914, (Cambridge 2010).
  3. Woodrow Borah and Sherburne F. Cook, Essays in Population History, 3 vols., (Berkeley 1971-79). Noble David Cook, Demographic Collapse. Indian Peru, 1520-1620, (Cambridge 1981), pp. 109-14, and Table 27 p. 118, ^ Noble David Cook, Born to Die. Disease and New World Conquest, 1492- 1650(Cambridge 1998), pp. 15-59.
  4. Donald B. Cooper, Epidemic Disease in Mexico City, 1761-1813: An Administrative, Social, and Medical Study, (Austin 1965). Adam Warren, Medicine and Politics in Colonial Peru. Population Growth and Bourbon Reforms, (Pittsburgh 2010). Cook, Born to Die, pp. 95-133.
  5. Marcos Cueto and Steven Palmer, Medical and Public Health in Latin America. A History, (Cambridge 2015), pp. 35-50.
  6. Antony Pagden, The Enlightenment and Why it Still Matters, (Oxford 2013), p.
  7. Roy Porter, The Creation of the Modern World. The Untold Story of the British Enlightenment, (New York and London 2000), pp. 132-38, on Newton, author of Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) and Opticks (1704); 138-9, 142.
  8. François Lôpez, Juan Pablo Forner (1759-1797) y la crisis de la conciencia espanola, (Salamanca 1999), pp. 41-47.
  9. Palmira Fontes da Costa and Henrique Leitao, “Portuguese Imperial Science, 1450-1800. A Historiographical Review,” in Daniela Bleichmar, Paula de Vos, Kristin Huffine, and Kevin Sheehan (eds.), Science in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires, 1500-1800, (Stanford 2009), pp. 35-53.
  10. Jùnia Ferreira Furtado, “The Indies of Knowledge, or the Imaginary Geography of the Discovery of Gold in Brazil,” in Bleichmar et al, Science in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires, pp. 178-97.
  11. Kenneth Maxwell, Pombal. Paradox of the Enlightenment, (Cambridge 1995).
  12. William Joel Simon, Scientific Expeditions in the Portuguese Overseas Territories (1783-1808), (Lisbon 1983), pp. 4-10, 15-16, 23-26, 59-78, 79-104.
  13. Ulloa’s Relaciôn histôrica del viaje a la América meridional did not appear until 1784 in Madrid.
  14. Manuel Lucena Giraldo and Juan Pimentel Igea, Los ‘Axiomas Politicos sobre la América’ de Alejamdro Malaspina, (Aranjuez 1991), pp 29, 34, 36.
  15. Philip L. Astuto, Eugenio Espejo (1747-95).Reformador ecuatoriano de la Ilustraciôn, (Quito 2003).
  16. Guadalupe Soasti Toscano, El Comisionado Regio Carlos Montùfar y Larrea. Sedicioso, insurgente y rebelde, (Quito 2009), pp. 21-22.
  17. Shafer R. J., The Economic Societies in the Spanish World (1763-1821), (Syracuse, NY, 1958).
  18. Richard Herr, The Eighteenth-Century Revolution in Spain, (Princeton 1959), pp. 376-80.
  19. Marcelin Défourneaux, Pablo de Olavide, ou l’Afrancesado, (1725-1803), (Paris 1959), p. 276.
  20. Laura Rodriguez Diaz, Reforma e Ilustraciôn en la Espana del siglo XVIII. Pedro Rodriguez de Campomanes, (Madrid 1975). José Miguel Caso Gonzalez, Jovellanos, (Barcelona 1998). Robert S. Smith, “English Economic Thought in Spain, 1776-1848,” South Atlantic Quarterly, 67:2 (1968), pp. 30537.
  21. Mark A. Burkholder, Politics of a Colonial Career: José Baquijano and the Audiencia of Lima, (Albuquerque, NM, 1980). Rosa Zeta Quinde, El pensamiento ilustrado en el ‘Mercurio Peruano,’ 1791-1794, (Piura 2000), pp. 41-48, 71-78, 81-91, 36585.
  22. John E. Woodham, “The Influence of Hipôlito Unanue on Peruvian Medical Science, 1789-131,” Hispanic American Historical Review, 50: 4 (1970), pp. 693-714.
  23. John Tate Lanning, The Eighteenth Century Enlightenment in the University of San Carlos de Guatemala, (Ithaca, NY, 1958).
  24. Alexander von Humboldt, Essai politique sur le Royaume de la Nouvelle Espagne, 5 vols., (Paris 1811).
  25. Douglas Botting, Humboldt and the Cosmos, (London 1973).
  26. Donika A.D. The study of professional deformations of doctors as deviations of their professional role // International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2016. Т. 8. № 2. С. 1374613761.
  27. Laura Dassow Walls, The Passage to Cosmos. Alexander von Humboldt and the Shaping of America, (Chicago 2009).



Abstract - 7

PDF (Russian) - 0


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Copyright (c) 2017 Volgograd State Medical University

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies