Vol 10, No 1 (2017)

Articles
Ethical patterns of a new Federal act
Petrov V.I.
Abstract
A Federal Act N 180-ФЗ on "Biomedical cell products" passed on June 8, 2016 by the State Duma and on 15 June, 2016 by the Federation Council of the Russian Federation, came into force on January 1, 2017. To the best of our knowledge, and as evidenced by publications in this journal [1, 2], any legal document has moral implications, particularly a document regulating the attitudes and behavior towards all living things. In this relation the new act is viewed as a great step towards the development of bioethics in Russia. A number of bioethical issues involved in the previous act №323-ФЗ on «The basic issues of protection of human health in the Russian Federation» and №61-ФЗ «Handling of medicines» did not receive appropriate elucidation. The new act contains Article 14 on «Ethical expertise» which sets standards absent from act №323-ФЗ and recapitulates the substance of Article 17 of act №61-ФЗ. On the other hand, questions regarding organization of ethical expertise arise and require further discussion when developing subordinate local acts to ensure effective implementation of the new federal act in medical practice.
Bioethics. 2017;10(1):6-8
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Bioethos as the space of justice and real improvement of human
Smirnov K.S.
Abstract
The article demonstrates that modern system of biocapitalism includes life in the system of calculation and capital finally. Such human life finds lines of individual utopian project claiming enormous in-vestments. In one 's turn this tendency leads to the enormous growth of injustice and real threat of ruin of the most part of humankind. The formed situation demands to look for new ethos. This ethos, defined as bioethos, is the system of global survival and combined living. The system of bioethos includes in itself balanced distribution of benefits and burdens, forming of integral “biophilic” ethics and creation of new social anthropology, implying elaboration of bioethical conception of human. In the framework of this conception the idea of human “widening” through cooperation, solidarity, charity, self-restraint, self-sacrifice and creation.
Bioethics. 2017;10(1):9-11
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Formation of lateral thinking in discussion of bioethical dilemmas of technologies of "human enhancement»
Serova I.A., Yagodina A.U.
Abstract
Results of approbation in student's audiences’ receptions of lateral thinking in discussion of technologies of management of human feelings are presented in article. Authors consider lateral thinking as the most effective method of a bioethical reflection because abduction doesn't pass by the abnormal facts, phenomena, stories, examples, remakes concepts and finds extraordinary ways of acculturation of new medical technologies by means of promotion of, at first sight, unacceptable hypotheses. Authors consider that the bioethics develops in line of post-nonclassical rationality which allows lateral style of confirmation of hypotheses of adoption of unevident decisions on the basis of the principle of credibility, despite methods of binding of unjoinable, thinking across, metaphoricalnesses and pantophagies of judgments, discontinuity of a reflection, and banality of conclusions.
Bioethics. 2017;10(1):12-15
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Corporeal turn in human sciences: contemporary dimensions of the body
Zhura V.V., Rudova Y.V.
Abstract
Over the past decades, a person-centered approach has been widely used in human sciences which include both humanities and social sciences. Within this approach, an individual is studied comprehensively including their physical, emotional and spiritual health, communication and behavioral practices, moral values and ethical principles. Firstly evolved in western philosophy and aesthetics via practicing corporal intents, corporeal practices were later introduced into human sciences. The article defines corporeal culture and identifies the major development vectors which include physical, emotional and spiritual health, beauty, sexuality, comfort and diet. It also identifies underlying influences shaping the contours of corporeal culture which has a profound impact on generating human behavioral, social, cultural and communication practices.
Bioethics. 2017;10(1):16-20
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Good ethical practice in vaccine research
Kubar O.I., Glasa J., Glasova H.
Abstract
The main idea of this article to present and to build up an open discussion about the principles of the Good Ethical Practice in vaccine research - was born out of a clearly perceived need: to facilitate critical decision making in nowadays' vaccinology. The article aims to provide the readers with a comprehensive overview of this increasingly complex field. The generally accepted ethical standards for vaccines clinical trials, and various social, economic, ethical and political issues connected with the development and successful implementation and sustaining of the current vaccination programmes are dealt with. The article is based upon fundamental ethical standards and includes the presentation of universal principles of ethics in vaccine research and review of the main and essential international guidelines on ethics in this field. The paper has been prepared and introduced in collaboration of the Educational and Ethics Working Parties of the European Forum for Good Clinical Practice (EFGCP).
Bioethics. 2017;10(1):21-25
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Meditsina, nauka, novye sposoby myshleniya v pireneyskom mire v epokhu prosveshcheniya
Hamnett B., Anipkin M.
Abstract
Striking attempts were made in Iberia and Ibero-America during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to understand human life in a different way and to improve living conditions for ordinary people. Governments and intellectuals, lay and ecclesiastical, in the two colonial powers, Spain and Portugal, actively took part in these endeavours, which also extended to their overseas territories, notably in the Americas. Similarly, Ibero-American scholars developed their own expressions of the Enlightenment, sometimes independently and other times in concert with colonial officials. Sooner or later, the new ideas would advance from the scientific sphere into the very different spheres of economic policy and political organization. This, in turn, raised the question of the linkage between Enlightenment and Revolution. While this latter is not the subject of the present discussion, it is important to understand that decades of armed conflict, economic dislocation, and political instability between the 1810s and 1870s halted and even reversed the developments which had begun during the eighteenth century. They would be resumed in the last decades of the nineteenth century. This helps to explain why it took until the 1890s and 1900s to resolve the problem of the cause of two of the most harmful of tropical diseases: malaria and yellow fever. [1,2].
Bioethics. 2017;10(1):26-30
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Peculiarities of clinical-psychological counseling
Arpentieva M.R.
Abstract
The article is devoted to consideration of the characteristics and problems of the study of clinical-psychological and socio-psychological counseling as one of the key technologies of psychosocial work, including problem definition and development of a unified concept of clinical-psychological counseling, relationships with clinical-psychological, socio-psychological and age-psychological counseling. Discusses the main challenges and intentions of clinical-psychological counseling as a sphere of understanding relations, cooperation and help. Within social work it acts as an important component of counseling people who are in difficult situations in life. These situations, being often intolerable and incompatible with «normal life» and the normal (ordinary) forms of understanding ourselves and the world, led to the aggravation of already existing or occurrence of new psychosomatic and mental disorders («resomatization» and «psychotization»). Clinical and psychological counselling, therefore, is addressed to transordinary experiences of life and to the transordinary forms of understanding. These forms of thinking appear in the form of transordinary, atypical behavior and «abnormal» behavior , and the deformation of man's relationship with itself and the world. In the transordinary situations, peoples are often faced with traumatic experiences. In the transordinary situation hey are experiences the traumas and collision with a deadly dangerous disease or with death, with loss of loved ones, home and property, with the experience of captivity and prison, forced migration or loss of a job, etc. The Task of man to transform the experience so that it served the development, not degradation, including in the form of resomatization and diseases, disintegration of personality and its psychotitization.
Bioethics. 2017;10(1):31-39
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The sociological interpretation of the egrotogenesis in the children’s infectious diseases clinic
Kaplunov K.O.
Abstract
In the article the concept which is rather seldom used in the Russian medical science, - the egrotogenesis, - is investigated from sociology of medicine positions. It is established by the author that in the clinic of the children's infectious diseases this phenomenon has a wide circulation. The existence of the egrotogenesis can negatively influence the interaction of the medical personnel with relatives of children patients that lowers the efficiency of the carried-out therapy. Measures for the prevention of this phenomenon in the conditions of the children's infectious hospital are proposed.
Bioethics. 2017;10(1):40-41
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Non-developing pregnancy: a medical or social issue?
Selikhova M.S., Zakharova E.A., Kostenko O.V.
Abstract
The editorial Board of the journal "Bioethics” held a meeting of the Roundtable to ascertain the problem of non-developing pregnancy. The experts were representatives of various professional groups; half of them were medical workers. During the discussion it became clear that the emergence of nondeveloping pregnancy is equally dependent on the health and social reasons. . It is noted that the basis of prevention is to monitor and timely correction of the state of health of young girls. In addition, it was revealed discrepancy of opinions on the issue of building trust to doctors for patients.There was no agreement between the doctors of the outpatient and inpatient departments in matters of training schemes of the pregravid preparation after previous missed abortion. Roundtable participants told about what the risk factors are, in their opinion, determine developing pregnancy and how it can be combined methods of medical and social prevention.
Bioethics. 2017;10(1):42-46
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On bioethical component of patient safety in surgery
Remizov O.V., Sazhin V.P., Karsanov A.M.
Abstract
Priority areas in the safe treatment of surgical patients include improvement of doctor-patient communication and optimization of interaction of personnel, which successful implementation is impossible without the development and practical application of modern bioethics. The study of the communication component of the informational and legal safety of patients revealed that 18% of patients are not willing to participate actively in their treatment, relying on the choice of a doctor, who may face difficulties that cannot be solved by algorithms during the implementation of a patient's right to information in the most delicate form. The survey of 110 surgeons revealed that 39.1% of them are not familiar with the basic pro-visions of the Federal Law № 323-FZ, 12.7% - do not consider the problem of compliance with patient’s rights to be relevant, and 55.5% of surgeons were previously involved in conflict situations with patients.
Bioethics. 2017;10(1):47-51
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Ethical problems of medics’s interaction with eldery patiens on the examl of the social group of militari retirees
Agapova E.G., Donika A.D., Esipenko J.V.
Abstract
In the article, the problem of formation of a partnership between doctor and elderly patient as the optimal model of their interaction is being discussed. The relevance of this issue is determined by the need of improving the quality of medical care, especially for retirees, who are a substantial part of the national patient group. The materials of the author's medico-sociological study were used in this article. The empirical base of the research is presented by the results of the survey and the analysis of outpatient cards of military retirees (N=150; mean age - 57, 3±3, 5). The author's focus group with doctors of different specialties was created (N=11; the average length of service 14±7 years) to determine the relationship between the doctors and this group of patients. The explicated problems of interaction between doctors and elderly patients demonstrate the necessity to create and introduce methods of the social rehabilitation of military men in medical activity. As a tool for formation of a partnership model of interaction between doctor and elderly patient we propose to use the basic principles of bioethics, which are performed in “The universal Declaration on bioethics and human rights " (UNESCO, 2005).
Bioethics. 2017;10(1):52-54
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Patients’ bioethical ideas as a regulatory factor of a biomedical technologies’ appliance
Svetlichnaya T.G., Stepanov E.S., Kharkova O.A.
Abstract
This article presents the results of a study of patients' bioethical ideas concerning the “opened " bioethical problems that are necessary to assess the formation of ethical regulators of professional medical activity. Comparative analysis revealed a wide variability, incomplete maturity and age differentiation of representations expressed by adult (18-59 years) and elderly (6074 years) patients in relation to medical interventions in the life and death. A similar study on a model group of elderly patients revealed their negative attitudes to biomedical cloning technology (70,5% and 59,5%), transplantation of organs and tissues (56,8% and 27,1%), euthanasia (52,3% and 34,8%), surrogacy (47,7% and 24,7%) and in vitro fertilization (33,0°%o and 20,4°%). Obtained results support the development of liberal trends in bioethical perceptions of the population living in the active period of life, and predict the future reduction of the impact of ethical regulators in the practice of a new biomedical technologies' appliance.
Bioethics. 2017;10(1):55-60
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Returning to phylosophical foundation of bioethics (Review of the monograph by B.A. Navrotskiy and M. V. Reymer “Philosophical anthropology as the methodology of “culturological turn” in bioethics”)
Sedova N.N.
Abstract
At the end of 2016 year the monograph “Philosophical anthropology as the methodology of “culturological turn” in bioethics” by Volgograd scientists Boris Alexandrovich Navrotskiy and Maria Vladimirovna Reymer was published [1]. The authors have collected the comprehensive material for bioethical discussions in the modern western intellectual community which is compared to the domestic bioethical tradition, though they do not apply the scale 'good-bad'. The main advantage of the book is the freedom of thought which the authors give to readers. There are not any absolute judgments and definite conclusions in the monograph. The authors are likely to suggest that the readers could reflect on the fate of modern bioethics. In fact, there were many difficulties in the development of that field of science.
Bioethics. 2017;10(1):61-63
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PUBLICATION ETHICS OF THE JOURNAL
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Bioethics. 2017;10(1):63-64
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РAPER SUBMISSION GUIDELINES
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Bioethics. 2017;10(1):64-64
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