Samara Journal of Science

Samara Journal of Science was established in 2012. It is a quarterly scientific journal.

The authors of the journal are university academic staff, researchers, postgraduates, candidates for a doctor’s degree, senior students.

By the decision of Supreme Attestation Commission dated of 29.12.2015, the journal is listed in the Catalogue of peer-reviewed scientific publications, where the core scientific results of the candidate and doctoral theses must be published (link, №1924).

The journal is registered in the system “Russian Science Citation Index” (RSCI – eLIBRARY.RU).

The journal is registered in the system “CyberLeninka”.

The journal has professional, highly qualified editorial staff consisted of leading scientists (doctors of science, professors, academicians, correspondent members of Russian Academy of Sciences) – representatives of national and foreign institutions of higher education and scientific organizations.

Samara Journal of Science is an open scientific platform for all interested individuals and organizations, which enables authors to publish the results of their research in psychology and education as well as biological sciences, historical sciences and archeology. The journal promotes an exchange of views on various issues of pedagogy and psychology, biology, history, and archeology between researchers from different regions and countries.

Samara Journal of Science is published quarterly.


Scientific fields of Samara Journal of Science:
03.02.00 General biology
03.02.04 Zoology
03.02.05 Entomology
03.02.08 Ecology (biological sciences)
07.00.00 Historical sciences and archeology
07.00.02 Domestic history
07.00.03 World history
07.00.06 Archeology
07.00.07 Ethnography, ethnology and anthropology
07.00.09 Historiography, source studies and methods of historical research
13.00.00 Pedagogical sciences
13.00.01 General pedagogy, history of pedagogy and education
13.00.02 Theory and methodology of training and upbringing
13.00.08 Theory and methodology of professional education

Current Issue

Vol 9, No 1(30) (2020)

Articles
Research results of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education in 2019
Repinetsky A.I.
Abstract

no

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):10-13
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General Biology
Results of monitoring of natural and anthropogenic agro ecosystems transformation in the Voronezh Region for the period of agricultural environmental management
Almobarak F., Mezhova L.A.
Abstract
The paper deals with the theoretical analysis of peculiarities of agricultural nature management influence on the components of natural environment in the Voronezh Region. A retrospective analysis of soil research reveals a degree of its degradation. Dynamics of agro ecosystems development and the degree of change in the natural background of vegetation are determined; the peculiarities of agricultural impact are shown. The value of land resources in the Voronezh Region is determined by their fertility. The State Center of Agrochemical Service «Voronezh» and the State Station of Agrochemical Service «Talovskaya» control the structure, dynamics and condition of soils. As a result, soils of agro ecosystems on phosphorus, potassium, humus, acidity, heavy metals, mineral fertilizers and pesticides are comprehensively monitored. The Land Committee for the Voronezh Region reveals violations of the land legislation. Agro ecosystems have an unclosed cycle of biogenic elements. This is related to the loss of nutrients during harvesting and the activation of erosion processes. Changes in the balance of basic soil nutrients reduce the quality and yield of crops. Agro ecological monitoring includes systematic observation, study and analysis. In this regard, there is a need for research into the significant magnitude of the associated factors. The existing system of regional monitoring is based on the repeatability of soil, agrochemical and bacteriological studies of agroecosystems. Both continuous and local agro monitoring is conducted. It should be noted that agroecosystems of the region are insufficiently provided with biogenic elements, microelements and in this connection there is a need to create a model of balanced agricultural environmental management.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):14-18
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Biodiversity of Lake Chernoe (Takovets), a specially protected natural area in the Ivanovo Region
Borisova E.A., Kurganov A.A., Lazareva O.G., Markov D.S.
Abstract
The paper deals with some questions of specially protected natural areas (SPNA) of the local level. Lake Chernoe (Takovets) is located in Lezhnevo municipal District of the Ivanovo Region and it was founded as a SPNA in 1975, in 2001 it became a SPNA of the local level. The area of the lake is 10,8 hectares, the area of the SPNA is 17 hectares. The paper contains data of a complex ecological study: the lake’s parameters, the topography of the banks and soil, the features of its flora, vegetation and fauna. 256 vascular plant species from 5 departments, 6 classes, 62 families and 164 genera were registered by 2019. 13 plant species are rare for the Ivanovo Region flora, among them 3 species ( Nuphar pumila , Rubus chamaemorus , Rubus nessensis ) are included into the Red Data Book; their populations are briefly characterized. The species composition of mosses is diverse (29 species were noted in total). The fauna is typical of small closed region lakes. The lake is pressed by anthropological factors, its ecosystems are disturbed, it promotes invasive alien plants (there are 28 alien plant species). The lake has a great hydrological, scientific and environment-forming value, it is perspective for ecological tourism planning.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):18-25
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The aridization effect on the characteristics of the substrate and biotopic distribution of fungi species of the Polyporus s.l. genus in the southeast of Western Siberia
Vlasenko V.A., Vlasenko A.V., Turmunkh D.
Abstract
The paper deals with the features of substrate and biotopic distribution of fungi species of the Polyporus s.l. genus in the southeast of Western Siberia. Most species have a wide range of substrates represented by various species of woody plants. The most widespread and common species are able to develop a wide range of substrates. Rare species are distinguished by a narrow substrate spectrum. For a rare species P . rhizophilus , adapted to exist in the conditions of subarid regions, found only in steppe biome communities, steppe grasses ( Stipa , Festuca ) are the only substrate. Most species grow on deciduous wood, only some species can grow on conifers, and only the taiga species P. tubaeformis develops exclusively on conifers in mountainous regions. Fungi substrates are represented by 11 species of angiosperms, 3 species of gymnosperms and steppe grasses. Most species are common in numerous communities; all of them are characterized by a high frequency of occurrence and colonize a wide range of substrates. Biotopically narrowly specialized species are few in number; they are characterized by narrow substrate specialization. In anthropogenic habitats, 6 species out of 14 growing in natural communities were recorded. On the plain territory, 10 species of the genus Polyporus were identified, while 14 species were found in mountain systems, since mountain humid areas contain the largest spectrum of substrates for fungi. The greatest diversity of Polyporus species is recorded in dark coniferous forests, among which the number of species is dominated by black aspen-fir forests. With an increase in aridization and a change in plant communities, rare relict mountain taiga, nemoral and typical taiga species are eliminated. The smallest number of Polyporus species is found in the steppe communities of subarid regions.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):25-30
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Anthropo-technogenic load on the environment of the Khopyor River Region
Gromova T.S., Siraeva I.S., Ermolenko A.S., Larionov N.V., Larionov M.V.
Abstract
The primary sources of anthropogenic and technogenic impacts on the environment of urban and suburban areas of the Voronezh and Saratov Regions which are part of the Khopyor River Region have been identified. Among the combined urbanized and man-made sources it is necessary to distinguish the activity of pedestrians and road transport. These conditions characterize the local background of the total anthropo-technological load in relation to the settlements of the research area. Its main manifestations include soil compaction, density of the road and path network and clutter. Arithmetic mean values of degradation impacts were analyzed for settlements in the subregion under consideration. A scale of point-based environmental assessment of the state of the environment is developed for differentiated localities in the Khopyor River Region. High anthropogenic and technogenic load is found in Balashov, middle - in Borisoglebsk, Rtishchevo, low - in Povorino and Gribanovsky, an extremely low load - in Romanovka, Arkadak and Novokhopersk. The obtained and analyzed values of anthropogenic and technogenic loads on the environment demonstrate the features of its state and the direction of its degradation, the levels of environmental comfort of urbanized areas for the population. The system of environmental quality management, urban and suburban environmental management in the Khopyor River Region should be reoriented to an ecosystem basis using the environmental assessment criteria and the environmental monitoring results presented and analyzed in this paper.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):30-36
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A rating analysis of the APEC countries on the basis of sustainable development indicators
Zaznobina N.I., Gelashvili D.B., Abdulkhakov T.M., Golubkov V.A.
Abstract
The paper presents a rating analysis of socio-ecological and economic systems (SEES) of the APEC countries on the basis of sustainable development indicators. For an objective analysis and a correct comparison of different-sized sustainable development indicators proposed by the UN Commission on sustainable development and the World Bank the information folding procedure has been used which provides the use of a generalized desirability function. The calculated values of a generalized desirability function allowed to assess the socio-ecological and economic status of the APEC countries. The rating of the studied countries for 2007-2016 is as follows: New Zealand > Peru > Australia > Chile > Canada > Russia > Malaysia > Mexico > Thailand > Philippines > Vietnam > Indonesia > USA > Republic of Korea > Japan > Singapore > China. The SWOT analysis has revealed strengths and weaknesses, identified threats and promising opportunities for environmental, economic and socio-demographic development of the APEC countries as a single regional entity. The rating of the countries made on the basis of a set of sustainable development indicators with the use of a generalized desirability function is confirmed and analytically explained by the SWOT analysis which is considered to be a method of strategic planning of regional development.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):36-41
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The structure and state of coenopopulations of the rare species Hedysarum gmelinii Ledeb. (Fabaceae) in different parts of the range
Ilina V.N., Abramova L.M., Mustafina A.N.
Abstract
The paper studies the ontogenetic structure features of coenopopulations of a rare representative Hedysarum gmelinii Ledeb. (Fabaceae) on the periphery of the range (the Middle Volga and the Bashkir pre-Urals) and in its central part (the Altai Mountains). The main demographic indicators are determined - the age index and the aging index. Taking demographic indicators into account, the types of coenopopulations were determined according to the «delta-omega» criterion: in the Bashkir pre-Urals they are mostly young, transitional in the Middle Volga region, and mature in the Altai Mountains. In habitats with great moisture in populations, an increase in the proportion of regenerative individuals was noted. Anthropogenic load (mainly in the form of grazing) has a greater impact on the number and density of individuals, but not on the type of ontogenetic spectrum of coenopopulations. The spatial and ontogenetic structure of coenopopulations of H. gmelinii is characterized by a rather high variety of ontogenetic spectra types (and types of populations, respectively) in the European part of the species range. Differences in the demographic parameters of the populations of the Samara and Orenburg Regions from the populations of the Bashkir pre-Urals and the Altai Mountains were revealed, which is associated with the difference in climatic conditions (primarily the degree of moisture). Features of the organization of H. gmelinii populations indicate their greater instability on the border of the range.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):42-49
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The pollution level of wastewater from dairy processing enterprises of the Tyumen Region
Kovaleva O.V., Sannikova N.V., Shulepova O.V.
Abstract
The agro-industrial complex has a huge potential for increasing the efficiency of the use of natural resources, which means it is a good platform for introducing the best available technologies. The main problem is the formation of wastewater. Since dairy enterprises use large enough volumes of water to process containers, equipment, for floor washing as well as use them to cool dairy products. Naturally, the main pollutants are organic compounds. Wastewater from dairy processing plants contains: suspended solids (solids from dairy processing), fats (their content varies depending on the variety of products produced by the enterprise), nitrogen (in the form of amino groups of protein compounds). The pH of the water itself also changes, the value of this indicator will also vary from the volume and range of products. As a result, it was revealed that in the production of 53982 tons of dairy products per year, 496929,2 tons of wastewater is formed, which is 9 times more than the volume of the company’s production. In addition, most enterprises in the Tyumen Region do not have an opportunity to drain the resulting wastewater into the central sewage treatment plants for various reasons. This is either a tens of times excess of discharge standards, or the lack of sewage treatment facilities in the settlements where the enterprises are located. In this regard, enterprises of the agro-industrial complex are sources of pollution not only of the atmosphere, soil, but also of water bodies, so the wastewater of dairy plants should be treated and discharged with minimal risk of environmental pollution.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):49-54
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The influence of diatomite rock on humus substances of sod-podsolic soil in conditions of agro ecosystems and physical-chemical mechanism of their interaction
Kozlov A.V., Kulikova A.K., Rumyantsev R.I.
Abstract
The paper provides an assessment of physical and chemical changes of humus substances in the sludge-colloidal fraction, isolated from the sod-podsolic sandy loamy soil, during its interaction with the diatomite rock of the Inzen deposit in conditions of agro ecosystem of the Nizhny Novgorod Region. The experience was a 3-year (2015-2017) microfield experiment, laid down on one of the fields of «Elitkhoz». The diatomite was added to soil once during the summer season of 2014 in doses of 3, 6 and 12 t/ha, on which winter wheat, barley and peas were subsequently grown (varieties are zoned in the Volga-Viatskiy Region). Each year, upon completion of crop cultivation, a silo-colloidal fraction was isolated from selected soil samples by the Kachinsky gravimetric method and analyzed on an IR-Fourier-spectrometer, determining absorption spectra in frequency range of 4000-400 cm-¹. In soil samples the content of specific organic substance (humus) was also determined by the Thurin method with spectrophotometric termination. The studies revealed that interaction of diatomite with the organic soil matrix resulted in organosilanes RnSiH4-n (930 cm-¹), organosilanes oxygen-free Si-CH3 (1253 cm-¹) and oxygen-containing compounds Si-O-CH3 (1110 cm-¹), as well as siloxane bonds of Si-O-Si (570 cm-¹). The obtained facts directly indicate formation of silicon-containing organo-mineral complexes in sludge-colloidal fraction and participation of silicon in their formation. It is evident that an active diatomite represented by various silicon acids (HnSiOm) was involved in formation of these bonds. The use of diatomite has helped to maintain content of humus substances in soil at the control level, which can also confirm effects of interaction of silicon substances with organic part and, as a result, prevent its degradation. Based on the obtained results and analysis of scientific literature, a mechanism is proposed for possible physical-chemical interaction of active silicon substances with an organic component of the sludge-colloidal fraction of the sod-podsolic soil, which consists in polymerization of silicon on organo-mineral complexes (bonds -Si-O-Si-), as well as in interaction of the hydrolyzed part of humus substances with silicon with subsequent formation of organosilanes, which are subsequently connected with an organic Si-O-CH3 matrix. Due to the fact that organic matter of soils is involved in the formation of ecological stability of soil cover the established effects make it possible to speak about the increase of agro ecological stability of humus substances in sod-podsolic soil due to the use of diatomite rocks.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):55-61
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A comparative environmental assessment using bioindicator plants in conditions of anthropogenic impact of Saransk and Insar
Labutina M.V., Maskaeva T.A., Chegodaeva N.D., Kurynova E.A.
Abstract
The paper studies the reaction of pendent white birch ( Betula verrucosa ) as the main urban culture used in urban greening at different levels of anthropogenic impact. Annual studies indicate that there is no sustainable trend to reduce man-made emissions in the region. Greening of large industrial centers is of great environmental importance. According to morphometric and some reproductive parameters, the birch has an adaptive response to environmental conditions. The studies have shown that habitat conditions directly affect the morphometric and reproductive characteristics of plants. To a greater extent, in conditions of anthropogenic impact increase, the reaction of biomorphological parameters of the pendent white birch is manifested. When using the method of fluctuating asymmetry, its integral indicators showed the reaction of plants to the increase in anthropogenic impact in the city. The germination and germination energy of birch seeds collected from different study sites are indicative in this respect. The variable coefficient on the size of fruits and seedlings revealed, as a rule, a very high variability (20-40%), which explains the high plasticity of plants to living conditions even at the early stages of their development.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):61-66
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Zooplankton of the Kama river, the fauna composition and structure, the assessment of the ecological state of the environment
Lyubin P.A., Ziganshin I.I.
Abstract
The paper deals with the study of zooplankton in the lower stream of the Kama river, the largest tributary of the Volga, which has important economic importance for the European part of Russia. The obtained results allowed to establish the summer composition of zooplankton fauna of the studied reservoir, to determine the quantitative characteristics of the communities. 61 taxa belonging to 3 types were identified: Rotifera, Arthropoda (Cladocera, Copepoda groups) and Mollusca (Bivalvia). The average species density in the study area is 10 ± 1 taxa per station. The average biomass in the study area was 0,679 ± 0,434 g/m³, the average number was 49,50 ± 8,01 thousand specimens/m³. The average daily zooplankton production was 0,043 ± 0,020 g/m³. The biocenotic analysis has allowed to allocate five types of communities with the dominance of the major species of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in the study area. The two-factor analysis showed that the structure of communities is more influenced by the local features of biotopes than the general conditions at the study sites. The wellbeing index indicates that the communities of zooplankters in the lower stream of the Kama river are in a state of near stress. The environmental assessment on the composition and structure of types of indicators is possible to attribute this body of water to moderately polluted water (β-mezosaprobic zone).
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):66-75
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The study of the genus Hydrangea L. representatives reproduction by cuttings in various environmental conditions in the Republic of Bashkortostan
Murzabulatova F.K., Polyakova N.V.
Abstract
The paper deals with the study results of the Hydrangea species reproduction by green and lignified cuttings based on the collection of the South-Ural Botanical Garden-Institute of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The purpose of the work is to study the reproduction by cuttings of species and varieties of the genus Hydrangea and to identify optimal environmental conditions for the most effective result of cuttings. During the experiments green cuttings were rooted in 5 different types of substrates (sand, peat, a mixture of sand and peat, a mixture of sand and perlite, a mixture of peat and perlite). As rooting stimulants Kornevin and Heteroauxin were used. The reproduction of Hydrangea by lignified cuttings was studied after various storage methods during winter. It was found that the maximum rooting percentage is obtained when peat is used as a substrate (rooting reaches 96,7%). The maximum root-forming ability when reproduced by green cuttings using rooting stimulants (Kornevin and Heteroauxin) was observed in H. arborescens (86,6-93,3%) and its varieties (79,8-96,5%). High results were obtained when tree hydrangea was reproduced by both green and lignified cuttings. The root-forming ability of lignified cuttings increases when they are stored during winter under snow.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):75-78
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A.L. Belgard and N.M. Matveev’s ecological and coenotical groups (coenomorphs) for the forest-steppe and steppe of the Volga River Region
Nazarenko N.N., Pokhlebayev S.M.
Abstract
The paper examines the coenomorphs scheme of vascular plants species by A.L. Belgard which was introduced for the Volga River Region flora by N.M. Matveev. The coenomorphs scheme assessment has been done for 752 vascular plants species of flora by an expert and statistical approach, which included three variants of classification (by N.M. Matveev and by A.L. Belgard with halophyte and psammophyte groups’ identification and without it) with the use of discriminant analysis and phytoindication scales. It has been proved that it is possible to rate N.M. Matveev’s coenomorphs in phytoindication scales for the forest-steppe and steppe of the Volga River Region. The biotope optimums of coenomorphs are identified for 12 edaphic and climatic factors. It is necessary to specify the halophyte coenomorph as a coenotical group of mesophytic biotopes of basic and alkaline soils with irregular and shallow moisture penetration of root zone and poor carbonate and sulphate salinization and specify the psammophyte coenomorph as a coenotical group of mesoxerophytic biotopes of subacid and poor nitrogen soils. The steppe-ruderal, meadow-ruderal and silvan-ruderal coenomorphs introduced by N.M. Matveev are not specific ecological and coenotical groups, they are not identified as ruderal and their identification as individual coenomorphs don’t appear to have sufficient reasons. But these groups can be used as indicators of such biotopes: steppe on poor carbonate soils (steppe-ruderal group), mesophytic meadow (meadow-ruderal group), and not-shade (half-shade and half-light) sylvatic (silvan-ruderal group).
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):79-84
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The influence of germination temperature and ultra-low doses of benzotriazole on morpho-physiological parameters of onions of different species in model experiments
Selezneva E.S., Gryaznova M.O.
Abstract
The adaptation of plants is manifested in the preservation of their physiological functions when exposed to various extreme environmental factors. In model experiments, we examined the influence of the combined action of such factors as alcohol solutions of benzotriazole in low concentrations (0,00001; 0,0001; 0,001 mg/ml) and contrasting positive temperatures (+12°C and +22°C) on germinating ability and growth processes of three species of onions ( Allium sulphur , Allium fistulosum and Allium schoenoprasum ) differing in various adaptive capabilities. It was found that, regardless of the germination temperature, with an increase in the concentration of benzotriazole solutions in a selected concentration range, stimulation of seed germination is observed for all studied species compared to the control. Benzotriazole had the maximum stimulating effect at a concentration of 0,001 mg/ml when germinating seeds at a temperature of +12°C. The effect on growth processes was determined by the average length of the roots of onions on the fifth day of growth. It was found that the length of the roots of onions of all studied species when germinating in benzotriazole solutions at a temperature of +12°C does not significantly differ from that in the control. When germinating seeds at +22°C, the root length of only two species ( Allium cepa , Allium fistulosum ) was higher than in the control. Possible mechanisms of the observed phenomenon are discussed.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):84-88
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Ecological state assessment of recreational areas in Nizhny Novgorod on heavy metal soil pollution and bioindication indicators of Betula pendula Roth leaves
Sidorenko M.V., Yunina V.P., Erofeeva E.A., Savinov A.B., Kuznetsov M.D., Novozhilov D.A.
Abstract
In this paper the ecological state of recreational areas in Nizhny Novgorod was assessed by the level of soil contamination with heavy metals (HM) and the values of bioindication indicators of the birch (Betula pendula Roth). The objects of the study were 4 recreational areas. The forest park «Shelokovsky Farm» located far from pollution sources was chosen as a control site. The excess of normative indicators (in multiplicities of normative indicators) on gross content of HM was observed in soils only for nickel: in the park «Switzerland» in 1,3 times, in «Raspberry Ridge» - in 2,3 times. The soils with the pollution category «moderately dangerous» were the most polluted by HM according to the total indicator of pollution: in the protected area «Crimson Ridge» and in the park «Oaks». Bioindication indicators of a birch leaf deviated from the conventional norm in a number of studied areas. The quality of the environment, estimated by fluctuating asymmetry of birch leaves in «Shelokovsky Farm» and the park «Oaks», correspond to 2 points (a slight deviation from the norm), in the Park «Switzerland» - to 3 points (the average deviation from the norm), and in «Crimson Ridge» - to 4 points (a significant deviation from the norm). In the two most contaminated sites («Oaks» and «Crimson Ridge»), a decrease of chlorophyll content in birch leaves relative to the control («Shelokovsky Farm») was observed.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):88-92
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Ecology and distribution of rare lichens of the Chuvash Prisurye
Sinichkin E.A., Bogdanov G.A., Dimitriev A.V.
Abstract
The paper contains data about 20 new and rare lichens of the Chuvash Prisurye. 10 lichens are new for the Chuvash Republic, 5 species are new for the Privolzhskaya Upland. The identified lichen species are indicators of old-growth, undisturbed and intact forests that have been preserved in specially protected natural areas. There are 18 species in the National Park «Chuvash varmane» and 8 species in the State Nature Reserve «Prisursky». Geographical coordinates, distribution features in neighboring regions, ecological-substrate and phytocenotic confinement and age status are indicated for each species. The information on the ecology and distribution of rare lichen species is updated. 18 species of lichens ( Bryoria nadvornikiana , Br. trichodes , Cetrelia olivetorum , Cresponea chloroconia , Evernia divaricata , Heterodermia speciosa , Leptogium cyanescens , L. saturninum , Nephroma parile , Scytinium subtile , Sc. teretiusculum , Sc. tenuissimum , Usnea dasopoga , Us. florida , Us. subfloridana , Ramalina thrausta , R. sinensis , Xanthomendoza ulophyllodes ) are proposed in the new edition of the Red book of the Chuvash Republic with the Status III - rare species. 2 lichen species ( Cetraria ericetorum , Lobaria pulmonaria ) are classified as category II-vulnerable species, declining in number.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):92-100
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Environmental assessment of health indicators of woody plants in natural and man-made conditions
Siraeva I.S., Larionov M.V., Larionov N.V., Soldatova V.V., Gromova T.S., Ermolenko A.S., Kulagina E.Y.
Abstract
The indicators of the sanitary condition of woody plants in the conditions of natural and artificial ecosystems of the Voronezh and Saratov Regions were established and analyzed. In suburban ecosystems of the research area, the state of woody plants is determined at the level of weak damage. In suburban areas of Balashov with the greatest economic and technosphere potential, woody plants reach an average (moderate) degree of damage. In remote relatively preserved ecosystems (control parameters), the state of these organisms corresponds to a weak ecological diagnostic criterion. According to the identified average arithmetic sanitary indicators in the Voronezh Region, the best condition is characterized by woody plants in the ecosystems of Novohopersk and Gribanovsky, in the Saratov Region - in Turki and Samoylovka. There were also significant differences in the arithmetic mean parameters of the sanitary condition of this group plants representatives differentiated by functional zones. The highest damage values are typical for woody plants in the urban ecosystems of industrial zones. The maximum danger to woody plants was observed within these zones in Povorino, Borisoglebsk, and Balashov with high-level average values of damage to these organisms. Significant concern is also caused by the defeat of the analyzed group of organisms in these cities as part of the ecosystems of the settlement zones. The results of the assessment of the sanitary condition of woody plants should be used as a scientific basis for landscaping, environmental protection and reforestation. Measures are proposed to improve the condition of woody plants in various types of ecosystems in the research area. According to the sanitary state of these organisms, it is possible to determine the limits of sustainability of ecological frameworks and differentiate the parameters of environmental comfort for the local population in different territorial categories.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):100-106
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Legs morphometric characters of the Dolichopus Latreille species, 1796 (Diptera, Dolichopodidae)
Chursina M.A., Negrobov O.P.
Abstract
A comparative analysis of 30 species of the Dolichopodidae family in a phylogenetic context was conducted to examine interspecific variation in the legs morphometry. Five relative traits of legs from 12 and seven absolute traits from nine showed significant phylogenetic signal. A set of traits, such as relatively short hind tibia and relatively long fore and middle tibia and the first segments of the hind legs allowed to allocate Dolichopus species from the other ones. The projection of the phylogenetic tree of Dolichopus species into the morphospace allowed us to divide it into four individual areas: not closely related species, but species having similar modifications of males’ legs tended to cluster. This suggests that the legs morphometric traits should be mainly under pressure of sexual selection. It has also been revealed that the elongation of the first segment of hind tarsi in Dolichopus species is associated with the distal displacement of the insertion point of dm-m with M4 and the decrease of the length of R4+5 . The functional significance of these characters set is discussed.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):106-112
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Alien species of Poaceae Barnhart family in communities of South-East Europe saline soils
Yuritsyna N.A., Vasjukov V.M., Saksonov S.V., Keller S.A.
Abstract
The paper considers the introduction of alien species of Poaceae Barnhart family into plant communities of South-East Europe salted habitats. In the region only two cosmopolitan alien members of this family - Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. (archaeophyte of South Asian origin, ksenophyte, epecophyte) and Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. et Schult. (archaeophyte of East Asian origin, ksenophyte, epecophyte) - are registered on the specified ecotope type, but very limited both synthaxonomically (number of lower units) and geographically (only in the Lower Volga region - the Volga Delta and the south of Volga-Akhtuba flood-plain). Echinochloa crus-galli invades on saline habitats most actively, in some communities it can be both a constant and a rather abundant species but, most likely, is able to influence significantly the formation of only individual coenoses of a number of associations. Both species are registered in communities of associations distributed on soils of a full range of a salinity degree (both weak- and strongly-salted). Compared to associations on strongly salted soils, they slightly strengthen their positions in these ones with weakly salted soils - both species are registered there more often, and Echinochloa crus-galli is even more plentifully.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):113-117
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Historical Sciences and Archaeology
The results of the study of the Algay site (2019) in the lower Volga Region
Vybornov A.A., Vasilyeva I.N., Baratskov A.V., Gilyazov F.F., Kosintsev P.A., Kulkova M.A., Kurbatova L.A., Roslyakova N.V., Yudin A.I.
Abstract
The processes of Neolithization and Eneolithization are two of the most important in the study of the human prehistory. The territory of the Lower Volga is of particular importance. In the Neolithic period, one of the oldest ceramic traditions in Eastern Europe appears. In the Eneolithic, cultures with signs of a productive economy are recorded rather early here. A further study of these issues depends on a quality source base. Monuments of the Neolithic and Eneolithic in the Volga steppe are rare. Therefore, the study of the new site Algay is very relevant. Its importance increases due to the discovery of stratigraphic data in 2019: the Eneolithic and Neolithic layers are separated by relatively sterile layers. This allows us to establish reliable periodization. Features of the lower cultural layer allowed us to trace the process of its formation. The work was interdisciplinary. The results of the technical and technological analysis of ceramics revealed the characteristic features of the Neolithic and Eneolithic. Archaeozoological definitions established the species composition of animals in the Neolithic and Eneolithic. New radiocarbon dates provide a basis for determining the exact chronological framework of the Orlovskaya and Caspian cultures in this region. Among archaeological materials, rare artifacts have been discovered that testify to social stratification already in the Neolithic period.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):118-131
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Burial practices of the population from the Konda River Basin in the Mesolithic and Neolithic Periods
Klementyeva T.Y., Pogodin A.A.
Abstract
The paper is dedicated to burial practices of the Stone Age population that inhabited the territory of the North-West Siberia. The source base is represented by 14 complexes. The burial grounds and solitary graves are located on high slopes in the terrace conifer forest areas along the tributaries of the Konda River. The Mesolithic burials date back to the period starting from the 9th-8th millennium BC through the end of the 7th millennium BC, while the Neolithic can be traced starting from the 7th-6th millennium BC to the middle of the 4th millennium BC. The taiga hunters traditionally buried their deceased relatives in the ground. The burials tend to be clustered into linear groupings within the cemetery area. Solitary graves are found on the territory of apparently abandoned settlements near the foundation pits of houses or inside them. Two forms of burial were practiced: inhumation and cremation followed by the burial of burnt remains. Generally, the dead were buried in the extended position, i.e., lying flat with arms and legs straight. The bodies were covered with red ocher, wrapped or swaddled, and put into graves. A special type of Mesolithic burials was «vertical» burials, i.e., the dead were placed into a vertical shaft like pits. The cremated remains were buried in ocher graves. The burned bones were placed in the center of each pit. Solitary burials prevailed. Less common were paired and multi-tire graves. Children were buried in the same way as adults, the age range of the dead varied from 5-7 to 60 years. The deceased were buried together with stone tools, jewelry, fragments of dishes, funeral and memorial food. The burial things were «prepared» following a special ritual - the blades of stone adzes were sharpened, the pottery was broken. There are signs of special respect to the skulls of the dead. The traditional burial practices of the taiga population from the Konda River Basin remained the same throughout the Stone Age.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):131-141
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The belt buckles of the early Sarmatian period of Turgay
Seitov A.M.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to belt buckles of the early Sarmatian period of the Turgay steppes. Turgay deflection is a vast territory located in the north-western part of Kazakhstan. In the north, Turgay deflection turns into the west Siberian lowland, and in the south it turns into the Turan lowland. In the west, the bend touches the Trans-Ural plateau, while in the east - the Kazakh hills. Three buckles originating from burial № 5A of mound 1 of the Karatomar burial ground and mound 1 of the Kenysh 3 mound group are analyzed. The paper deals with the cultural and chronological position of Turgay belt buckles in the context of the distribution of such products of the belt headset on the territory of Eurasia. The problem of the origin and chronology of these items is also touched upon. Buckles similar to the Karatomar one have so far been found only on the territory from Central Asia and Kazakhstan to the Lower Volga region. Kenysh buckle finds an analogy from the Volga-Don interfluves to the north of China. In General, types of buckles, similar to Turgay, existed in the II-I centuries BC. The studied buckles should be considered in the context of the general fashion for wearing a belt headset made of metal, bone and stone, associated with the military activity of the Huns.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):141-146
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Burial mounds of the Samara Region in the focus of satellite images
Valkov D.V.
Abstract
The paper focuses on two archaeological problems - the correctness of the accounting system for archaeological monuments and the effectiveness of their detection, especially in the areas of upcoming construction work. The urgency of the problems is revealed by the author on the history of the study of the burial mound «Samarsky (Prosvet) I» as well as on the example of the survey site analysis of heterogeneous data in Earth remote sensing (ERS). It was concluded that the burial mound had been examined by at least 8 expeditions within the time period of 1973-2016. During this time, the accumulated errors in the description had led to the situation when this burial mound, having a single name, was recorded twice in two different administrative districts, having 2 difference reference numbers in the system of accounting for objects of the archaeological heritage of the Samara Region. The author created a set of ERS data for the area of the burial mound, which included archival and modern satellite images. Then all the data and the locations of the mounds identified by the previous researchers were brought to a single projection by means of a purpose designed software. From 31 to 180 areas of specific contrast pixilation are allocated according to various ERS data. The locations of all mounds previously identified in the field match them. Consequently, many of these areas may correspond to fully agriculturally plowed mounds, the safety of which is endangered by the close oil pipelines construction sites. This method was used to check the territory of four more burial mounds surveyed within 2015-2017 time period and located on the construction sites. Mounds that hadn’t been identified by researchers earlier and consequently damaged during the construction work were found. The author comes to the conclusion that the field archaeological survey should be preceded by the analysis of heterogeneous remote sensing data (ERS); the most reliable method is the study of the burial mounds by means of excavation of a «wall-to-wall» area covering the inter-mound space. However, this method, being the most expensive, requires adjustments based on the ERS data and other non-invasive methods.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):146-159
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The extinct Calusa tribe as the hegemon of the South Florida in the XVI-XVII centuries: reasons for its military leadership among other aborigines of Florida
Ashrafyan K.E.
Abstract
The result of this work was the identification and designation of several cornerstones in the deep thousand-years history of the aboriginal society of South Florida - the Calusa Indians, who led this people to the leader position in the region. The results of the study combined and used numerous of old written sources that mention various points of contact between Spaniards and disappeared civilizations, as well as new documents - books and dissertations, thesis of leading professors of Florida and the United States, dedicated to the extinct peoples of the Florida region. In addition, artefacts and reconstructions of local life in South Florida were investigated, studying them during numerous visits to Florida museums by the author. It has been hypothesized that there is an important link between the creation of large dwellings among the Calusa people and their way of life as a fishing-hunting-gathering society with the mobile organization of the armed forces and the mobility of the entire community in the face of annual Florida natural disasters. The result of the work was also an elimination of the «white spot» in the Soviet and Russian scientific literature about a fairly ancient and atypical settled people of fishermen-hunter-gatherers when covering the events of the era of great discoveries and the collision of two worlds during the Spanish conquest.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):159-164
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Pirate republic in the Bahamas: the causes and the impact on the system of government
Pautov D.A.
Abstract
The subject of the research is the military-political, economic, ideological and natural-geographical reasons for the emergence and characteristics of the organization of the Pirate Republic in the Bahamas. The object of the study is the social relations that developed in the process of development of the pirate community as a special social group, its expansion into the Bahamas of the Caribbean in the 17-18 centuries. Particular attention is paid to the relationship of the British Crown with the pirates and the factors that influenced the transformation of this policy. The author examined in detail the political and legal features of the organization and functioning of the public authority system in the Bahamas during the period of pirate domination. The research methodology was composed of historical, structural, systemic and comparative methods, which made it possible to formulate theoretical conclusions relevant to the processes taking place in the world today and ongoing scientific discussions about the fate of Western civilization, the possibility of building multicultural societies, and the adaptation of political and legal institutions to these processes. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that it is the first experience in the study of the causes and essence of the Pirate Republic in the British colonial system in Russian historiography. It is concluded that, not being a state in the strict sense of the word, the Pirate Republic was a unique experience of social and territorial self-organization. The experience of its emergence and existence left a bright mark in the development of not only the colonial system, but also in world history, as a whole, becoming yet another evidence of the viability of one or another local alternative political model, without a support of influential geopolitical forces and factors.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):164-168
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The nobility of Simbirsk Governorate at the end of the 18th - the first half of the 19th century
Aizatullova A.S., Sudakov M.A.
Abstract
The goal of the paper is to analyze the socio-economic situation of the Simbirsk Governorate nobility in the late 18th - first half of the 19th century. The authors have characterized the dynamics of the number of nobles in Simbirsk Governorate (in comparison with indicators of Kazan Governorate and the Penza Governorate). The nobility is divided into two groups - hereditary and personal. The authors reveal the position of both groups in the structure of the estate in Simbirsk Governorate and other Middle Volga governorates and trace the dynamics of this indicator. It is noted that hereditary nobility prevailed in Simbirsk Governorate during the study period, although its specific gravity decreased. Another trend was the «bureaucracy». The authors have shown the heterogeneity of the nobility in the region in terms of soul ownership (stratification by this criterion is the most justified). Within the studied class, the highest, middle and lower strata are distinguished. The analysis of the highest stratum composition made it possible for the authors to identify the nobles who were distinguished by the highest level of well-being (P.I. Myatleva, V.P. Orlov-Davydov, A.M. Potemkin, A.S. Urusova, the Rodionovs). The authors come to the conclusion that there was a distribution of landlord estates pledge and their auctioning in the first half of the 19th century. This should be considered evidence of the impoverishment of the nobility on the eve of the Emancipation Reform.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):168-173
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«Physiological collectivism» of Alexander Bogdanov: idea and practice
Morozova A.Y.
Abstract
The goal of the paper is to study the idea of «physiological collectivism» and attempts to implement it. This idea was proposed by Alexander Bogdanov (1873-1928), a philosopher, naturalist, and one of the leaders of Bolshevism, who saw it as the highest manifestation of collectivism, on the principles of which the society of the future would be based. In Bogdanov’s opinion, «a peculiar revolutionary meaning» of blood transfusion consists in «support of one organism by vital elements of another …, in direct biophysical cooperation». In the last years of his life Bogdanov concentrated his efforts on the activity of the Institute of Blood Transfusion created by him and on the researches and experiments connected with blood transfusion, which he considered as practical realization of the idea of «physiological collectivism». It is this story that is considered in the paper, but not from a medical point of view, but as one of the manifestations of Bogdanov-collectivist. The author of the paper considers various assumptions as to why in 1926 Bogdanov, who was disgraced and «excommunicated» from Bolshevism, was given the opportunity to create the Institute of Blood Transfusion, and comes to the conclusion that this decision was most likely dictated by the desire to channel Bogdanov’s activity in the sphere as far from political life as possible. The paper also analyzes the circumstances of Bogdanov’s death as a result of the experiment (the 12th exchange transfusion of blood) and concludes that it was not a suicide or a disguised murder, but a tragic accident associated with the lack of development of medical science at the time. This conclusion is based on the results of modern physicians’ research. The author of the paper emphasizes the role and importance of the activity of the Institute established by Bogdanov in the process of building the blood transfusion service in this country.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):174-178
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The East Prussian operation (1914) coverage in Russian newspapers
Pimenov O.V.
Abstract
The paper deals with the issues of the East Prussian operation (1914) coverage in Russian Newspapers. On the basis of various newspapers the author analyzes the coverage of the Russian and German troops actions in East Prussia in August-September 1914. The author also reveals fundamental themes of Russian newspapers when covering the East Prussian operation. The paper is based on various newspapers of the Russian Empire. The following Russian newspapers were analyzed: «Vestnik voyny», «Donetskaya zhizn», «Mariupolskaya zhizn», «Moskovskaya kopeyka», «Novoye vremya», «Permskaya zemskaya nedelya», «Rech», «Russkoe slovo», «Utro v Kharkiv». The study was focused on Petrograd and Moscow newspapers, as well as regional newspapers that, among other things, reprinted material from other publications on their pages. The study showed that Russian newspapers, when covering the East Prussian operation, were characterized by creating a positive impression among readers, focusing on the successes of the tsarist army. Readers were introduced to victories, both at the level of large military formations and at the level of small military units. The defeats of the Russian troops were presented by the newspapers not as a tragedy, but as a short-term failure, followed by quick victories.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):178-183
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Conflicts of peasants in March-October 1917 (based on materials from the Vladimir province)
Ptitsyna G.M.
Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of the social behavior of peasants in the Vladimir province in March-October 1917 for their conflicts and highlights the main directions of confrontation. The characteristic of the elaboration of the problem by both Soviet and modern historical science is given. The limited use of statistics on the selected region is explained and the methodological basis of the study is determined. The author considers the conflicts of peasants not only from the side of statistics, but also from the standpoint of individual plots that better reveal everyday behavioral practices. The work describes in detail and group the clash of interests of peasants with the surrounding social reality. The conclusion is drawn about the baselessness of the thesis of the Soviet historiography that the main enemies for peasants were landlords, kulaks and the bourgeois’ Provisional Government. The analysis of sources revealed that the peasant commune in March-October 1917, solving its pressing issues of food and land-use, was against all. Its conflicts took place on several directions at once: «city - village», «commune - private owners», «commune - commune» and intra-commune disputes. There were also conflicts with the state, but they were not political.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):183-189
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The history of national constructions of 1940 (by the example of the Ferghana Valley)
Nasritdinov K.M.
Abstract
Based on scientific, historical and archival sources the author of the paper analyzes the history of developing plans aimed at irrigation of virgin lands in the central part of the Ferghana Valley in the first half of the 20th century by large Russian scientists and specialists. The author also shows a historical picture of the construction of the irrigation facilities of the Ferghana Valley using the high-speed «hashar» folk method in 1940. With the construction of hydraulic structures such as the northern and southern Ferghana canals, a new stage began in the development of irrigated agriculture in the Ferghana Valley, since the water of these hydraulic structures made it possible to irrigate new virgin lands in the central part and foothill areas of the Ferghana Valley. But it should be noted that these large and complex irrigation canals were constructed by the peoples of Uzbekistan mainly with the use of primitive tools such as a hoe, a crow, a shovel, a stretcher and pickaxes. For nearly 80 years, these hydraulic structures have provided agricultural areas with life-giving water. The author of the paper also summarizes the essence of economic measures carried out by the Soviet government on the development of irrigated agriculture in the valley.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):189-192
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The soviet school system in Central Intelligence Agency estimates at the initial stage of the Cold War
Mamedov Z.I.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the analysis by the Central Intelligence Agency of the USSR school system. The US was in dire need of information about its new adversary. The situation was aggravated by the closed nature of the Soviet state and the absence of a long continuous tradition of intelligence activities of American intelligence. The president and other government bodies wanted to have comprehensive knowledge of any processes and phenomena in the world. US intelligence should have been able to solve this problem. In this regard, the first stage of the Cold War for the CIA was largely due to an analysis of official and semi-official sources, as well as the development of various strategies. In order to find out about various areas of the life in the USSR, analysts extracted information from Soviet scientific literature, press, radio, legislation and interrogations of former German prisoners. The National Assessment Bureau, led by William Langer and Sherman Kent, compiled reports on Soviet military capabilities, industry, agriculture, the political system, etc. The Soviet school system was considered by American intelligence specialists in the framework of the military and economic potential of the enemy, as well as the strategy of psychological warfare. The paper analyzes the reports concerning the educational system in the USSR in the aspect of school education, its strengths and weaknesses. The results allow us to conclude that the information about the Soviet school system contributed to the formation of the foreign policy and domestic policy of the United States.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):192-197
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The development of medicine as a factor of «epidemic transition» in the urban population of the Middle Volga region
Rumyantseva M.A.
Abstract
In the paper the author considers the development of medicine in the twentieth century as a factor that significantly changed the morbidity and mortality of the population of the Middle Volga region. The emergence of penicillin and streptomycin, mass vaccination campaigns and promotion of healthy work and life, vector control and advances in medical science, an increase in the number of doctors and hospital beds per capita and affordable free medical care led to a significant reduction in the number of dangerous epidemics in the country. The urban population of the Middle Volga region faced these processes, too. Cases of polio and malaria, anthrax and tularemia, plague and diphtheria, smallpox and cholera were reduced to a few ones, cases of typhus and dysentery decreased significantly, which inevitably led to a shift in the structure of mortality in the region, exogenous mortality factors gave way to endogenous ones. The shift of morbidity towards neoplasm’s and cardiovascular diseases was also a trend of the time. And it was the process of «epidemic transition» that occurred in the second half of the last century, as part of the demographic transition, that determined the current trends in morbidity and mortality of the region’s population.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):197-200
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The school system reform in 1958-1964: challenges and miscalculations
Repinetskiy A.I., Ryabov V.V.
Abstract
The paper considers the reasons for the educational system reform in the late 1950s, which began with the adoption of the law «Strengthening the connection of school with life and further development of the national educational system in the USSR». The main propositions of the secondary school reform included labor polytechnic schools establishments where students were supposed to get profession along with the study of general education subjects. The period of study at a secondary school was supposed to be three years (grades 9, 10, 11). Schools and industrial enterprises where industrial training was to take place were not ready to organize industrial training. Despite the extensive campaign, the perception of the reform in society was controversial. The reform did not achieve its main goal - schools could not carry out pre-professional education of students.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):200-205
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The military coup in Turkey on May 27, 1960: background, drivers and it consequences
Tovsultanova M.S., Tovsultanov R.A., Galimova L.N.
Abstract
In the 1950s, the Democratic Party came to power in Turkey, relying on the provincial bourgeoisie and clericals. The charismatic leader of democrats Adnan Menderes became the prime-minister. The Democratic government pursued an active foreign and domestic policy. In particular, abandoning its traditional neutrality, Turkey joined NATO and CenTO military blocs. Concessions were made to religious circles. The government also carried out large-scale reforms, for which the society was not ready, due to which an economic crisis erupted in the country, the most characteristic manifestation of which was high inflation. By introducing repressive laws against dissidents, attempts to isolate the opposition, in particular the leaders of the Republican People’s Party (RPP), the Democrats pushed the latter to search for allies in the army. In the ranks of the latter, under the influence of Western agents and the dissatisfaction of the officers themselves with the situation in the country, the idea of a military coup came about on May 27, 1960. As a result of the coup, the National Unity Committee came to power, consisting of representatives of the generals and leaders of the Republican People’s Party. In 1961, a new constitution was adopted at a referendum, reforming the system of legislative power in the country, after which power again passed to civilian political institutions. The leader of the military who carried out the coup, General Jemal Gürsel, became the prime minister, while the chairman of the Republican People’s Party Ismet İnönübecame became the president of Turkey.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):205-209
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110th anniversary of the teacher Dora Naumovna Keyser (1909-1972) who worked at the Faculty of History at Kuibyshev State Pedagogical Institute
Khramkova E.L.
Abstract
The paper is dedicated to the 110th anniversary of the teacher Dora Naumovna Keyser (07 March 1909-14 May 1972) who worked for General History Department at Kuibyshev State Pedagogical Institute. The author of this paper for the first time considers the biography of D.N. Keyser on the basis of materials from the archive of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education, the Central State Archive of the Samara Region and the Samara Regional State Archive of Socio-Political History. D.N. Keyser’s scientific activity was examined using bibliographic sources stored in the library of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education, Samara Regional Universal Scientific Library and the Russian State Library. The author also studies the circumstances and consequences of the defense of the first PhD by D.N. Keyser, which made it possible to supplement the idea of the content of political and ideological campaigns of the second half of the 1940s - early 1950s at pedagogical universities. It was possible to find new documents about one of the opponents of her dissertation - Professor of Syzran State Teachers’ Institute Vladimir Evgenievich Favorsky. In general, the analysis of documents proved the prospect of further archival research aimed at expanding the research field of studying the history of higher historical education in the province and the fate of historians in the post-revolutionary period.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):209-216
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Reconstruction of the conflict: IRA foundation in the British military assessments
Starostin V.V.
Abstract
The paper examines the views of the British military on the process of becoming one of the first paramilitary organizations in the history - the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Special attention is paid to how the British military was one of the first to try to explain this new phenomenon. The paper analyzes the reasons for the British military’s rejection of such concepts as «guerrilla warfare», «Irish rebels», etc. The main reasons that formed the views of the British military on the IRA as a criminal group and a «gang of murderers» are investigated (the need for counter-propaganda against the Irish and some British media of the time; the fundamental atypy of both the Anglo-Irish conflict and the Irish Republican army; the weakness of the British military intelligence in Ireland, whose employees were later able to approach the answer to the question of the IRA origin). The methodological basis of the paper, which helps to understand the British military’s misunderstanding of the IRA phenomenon, is the theory of the Irish historian P. Hart, who argues that the insurgency as a whole always has three ways of development: passive waiting, defense and attack. It is the choice of one of the three paths that determines what form the conflict will take and how power relations in paramilitary groups will be redefined.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):216-219
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Historical e-sources on the problem of the irrevocable human losses during the great Patriotic war of 1941-1945 (by the example of the Kuibyshev (Samara) Region)
Igoshina O.Y.
Abstract
This paper considers one of the urgent problems of the great Patriotic war history - the irrevocable human losses during the great Patriotic war. In the 21st century mass sources (electronic databases and databanks) were distributed. Some of them can be used while studying how local people of the Kuibyshev (now - Samara) Region participated in the military operations in 1941-1945. The paper analyzes information opportunities of the generalized databank «Memorial» and the consolidated database of the all-Russian information and search center «Fatherland». The paper also analyzes the electronic database of the irrevocable human losses of the Kuibyshev Region that is founded on «The Memory book» and made by the author of the paper. The databank «Memorial» and the database «Fatherland» are on the Internet and help to determine the fate or find the information about the dead or missing relatives and friends as well as to determine their burial place. Sections of the victims are accompanied by links as well as by digital copies of archival documents that confirm the information about the date, place of service, death and burial of soldier. Electronic resources have unique features and value for achieving the historical truth about the price of Victory.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):220-225
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Pedagogical Sciences
Development of primary school students’ speech-cognitive activity through visual modeling at literacy classes
Avdonina A.Y.
Abstract
This paper deals with the urgent problem of primary school students’ speech-cognitive activity development through an active inclusion of various types of visual modeling in the educational process at literacy classes. Today, the number of children in Russia who are not ready for systematic education exceeds 32%. The researchers consider that excessive intensity of the educational process and the mismatch of technologies and techniques used in teaching to their age and functional capabilities are among the factors negatively affecting the neuropsychic health of primary school students. There are also various deviations and health problems that impede speech skills development by traditional methods. Analyzing the data of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation and the Federal State Autonomous Institution «National Health Medical Research Center for Children» on the health status of children aged 6 to 8, school practice as well as scientific and methodological literature on the research topic, the author comes to the conclusion that it is possible and necessary to use a method of visual modeling working with children studying by correctional programs as well as by basic ones, implementing a differentiated approach to learning.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):226-229
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The use of a form phenomenon in the process of training students majoring in art and design
Biryukov M.Y.
Abstract
The main purpose of higher education is to provide training of highly qualified personnel for all basic directions of socially useful activity in accordance with the needs of society and the state, the needs of the individual in intellectual, cultural and moral development, deepening of knowledge, abilities and skills and their expansion. In modern pedagogy and aesthetics there is an undeniable opinion that in spiritual activities of the individual creating a work of art is a major component of an artistic activity. The foundation of artistic activity is considered to be any object of reality and a substantive or spiritual environment. Creating a work of art its author enjoys social and individual emotional experience, reflecting the reality in the form of artistic images, which consist of art ideas, art assessment and the artistic emotions. Analyzing design activity, we can say that its main purpose is a holistic understanding and design of environmental objects. At the intersection of design with the production of the phenomenon of shape is beyond the scope of art, acquiring great importance in the industrial life of society. In this regard, familiarity with the form and special attention to it is important in the study of artistic and design disciplines in the process of professional training of students majoring in art and design.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):229-234
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The historical experience of teacher classes organization in Russian schools (in the Orenburg Region as an example)
Bugakova E.V.
Abstract
This paper discusses a historical experience of teacher classes creation and development in Russian schools. It describes teacher classes organization in different historical periods, starting from the 18th century to the present (the Orenburg Region is taken as an example). In the 20-30s of the 20th century «pedagogical classes» of second-level schools were introduced since there was a huge demand for teachers for first-level schools as well as a high demand for their network expanding and students’ training improvement. The author notes that this practice corresponded to its time, aroused keen interest among the pedagogical community, the public education authority, practicing teachers, methodologists and students who belonged to groups with a pedagogical orientation. The author makes a special emphasis on the 1970-1990s development of pedagogical classes. As an example the author considers the experience of pedagogical classes activities organization by Vologda teachers who actively collaborated with local pedagogical universities. The author also considers Moscow schools where a differentiated approach was practiced, taking the level of students’ educational abilities into account. Making the transition to the modern situation in the sphere of professional orientation towards pedagogical professions, the author highlights features of the changed approaches, in particular, the emphasis is on the person choosing a profession, on supporting the choice of a life position, on helping to determine the educational trajectory that an individual needs. To solve the problems identified in the paper the author thinks that it is necessary to return to the experience of the past, taking into account the peculiarities of modern times, the revival of the teaching classes, an attempt to determine their status and form. The author presents her own vision of the essence of pedagogical classes based on the experience of their organization in the Orenburg Region.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):234-240
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An analysis of how senior students of the Medical Institute know basic concepts of bronchopulmonary system diseases
Dyachkova A.A., Khoreva D.V., Blinkova M.S.
Abstract

Respiratory diseases are one of the most pressing problems of modern internal medicine, which is associated with their prevalence, significant impact on the quality of life and social activities of a person. This study is done not only by the complexity of diagnosis and treatment of major respiratory diseases, but also by the rapid development of modern pulmonology. The paper determines the level of knowledge of COPD and community-acquired pneumonia basic concepts among students of 5-6 courses at the Medical Institute of National Research Ogarev Mordovia State University majoring in «General medicine» with the use of an anonymous questionnaire. The survey was conducted using questionnaires developed on the basis of clinical national recommendations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia. The study found that less than half of senior students do not give correct answers to basic questions about the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture or treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). More than half of 5-year-students have difficulties answering questions about the etiology, classification, diagnosis, and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. The results of the survey predispose to additional educational solutions in the field of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, community-acquired pneumonia and to focus more on prevention and therapy.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):240-245
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The unity of physical and moral education: value foundations
Klychkov S.A.
Abstract

The paper substantiates the urgency of the problem of educating a person whose body and spirit are in harmonious unity - a healthy person both physically and morally. As one of the ways to solve this problem, the development of a moral personality within the framework of physical education is proposed. Evidence of the relationship of the physical and moral development of man in the process of education is given. The situation is substantiated that education is an introduction to values and it is proved that education of a person in harmony of body and spirit is possible in the process of his involvement in the values of physical culture and moral values. The specificity of value is revealed as a conscious meaning that defines a person’s attitude to the world, to people and to himself and shows the place of relations in moral culture and in physical culture of a person. It is proved that values can be both components of physical culture, embodying ideals and ideas about the standard of a physically perfect person, and components of moral culture (a standard of moral man). The correlation of moral values and values of physical culture is determined and specific values are identified that are the value foundations of the unity of physical and moral education: «freedom», «justice», «dignity», «culture», «moral perfection», «mercy», «intellectuality». The essence of the moral component of physical education is revealed. It consists in the fact that in the process of such education personality’s attitude to health, to a healthy lifestyle, to himself and to other people, as well as human morality are developed.

Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):245-250
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The experience of teaching «Inorganic Chemistry» course at an agricultural university
Kondrashova A.V.
Abstract
This paper discusses the experience of teaching «Inorganic Chemistry» course to the 1st-year-students of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Chemistry Department at Saratov State Agrarian University. The idea is substantiated that the content of the chemistry course is aimed at merging theory and practice. As practice shows, this course consists of giving lectures with the use of multimedia, performing laboratory work, practical exercises and test controls. The author proposes a method of organizing independent work among students, which leads to the successful development of the educational program of higher education. The paper contains some sample tasks of input control to control residual knowledge as well as sample test tasks and questions for student’s knowledge correct assessment. The author shows that such types of students’ knowledge control allow us to assess the level of material assimilation and identify problem points. The paper assesses the fact that a textbook developed by the department is used for a conscious and purposeful preparation for seminars, laboratory practice and exam. The author of the paper has come to the conclusion that the teacher acts as an assistant for students on their way to solve small scientific problems independently.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):250-254
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Testing as a way to assess the development of bachelors’ environmental competence at pedagogical universities
Makarova E.A., Stepanova E.S.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the problem of prospective teachers’ ecological competence development, as well as to the peculiarities of diagnostics of ecological competence components development. The goal of the paper is to show the experience of implementing a competence-based approach for a professional training of bachelors majoring in Pedagogical Education and methodological approaches aimed at assessing the process of professional competencies development. The paper deals with the concepts of «environmental education» and «environmental competence». The authors define the environmental competence of a pedagogical university graduate as an integrated quality of personality based on theoretical knowledge, practical skills in the field of ecology and readiness of a prospective teacher for environmentally adequate and professionally appropriate behavior in situations of moral choice. A student’s environmental competence is presented as a complex system that includes a number of components (cognitive, value-motivational, professional-activity). The authors describe means of assessing students’ environmental competence development, paying special attention to a pedagogical testing. The paper defines the main stages of designing a pedagogical test and the conditions for its use. The paper also contains the results of a pedagogical experiment which was done at Natural Geography Institute of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education. The use of testing for professional education makes it possible to determine the compliance of the content, level and quality of students’ training, while systematic testing allows you to evaluate the process of pedagogical university students’ environmental competence development.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):254-259
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Excursion as an organization form of educational activities in Peter the Great Botanical Garden of Komarov Botanical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences
Musinova L.P., Kalugin Y.G., Mitina E.G.
Abstract
The paper provides an overview of the tour guide activities in one of the oldest gardens in Russia - Peter the Great Botanical garden of Komarov Botanical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences. It is the first time the authors have summarized the experience of working with visitors of the Peter the Great Botanical garden from the end of the 19th century to the present. Much attention is paid to the history of the excursion business in Russia and in the Botanical garden. The incentive to work was the growing interest in Botanical gardens and various forms of the excursion activity that now exist in the Botanical garden of Saint Petersburg. Modern science about excursions broadly describes general basics of conducting excursions, but practical techniques are not presented enough. Therefore, the task of methodological developments for the guides of the Botanical garden becomes relevant. Based on historical experience, the authors describe the rules for preparing for excursions in the Botanical garden, aspects when choosing information for excursions, special training methods, and general recommendations for excursions organization. Specific knowledge about the content of excursions in the Botanical garden will help specialists effectively and competently organize activities for environmental and biological education of both adults and young visitors.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):259-267
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Dynamics of students-choreographers’ readiness for health care activities after their participation in the educational program «Health saving in choreography - the basis of professional longevity»
Pavinskaya K.V.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of an empirical study of readiness indicators for health-saving activities of students-choreographers after participating in the educational program «Health-saving in choreography - the basis of professional longevity» as well as professionals (teachers and choreographers) who have been trained in the program of additional professional education and have 3-year experience in health-saving activities. The research work with students-choreographers was carried out from 2012 to 2017 on the basis of Institute of Contemporary Art. The analysis of the initial level of students-choreographers and professionals’ readiness for health-saving activities presented in the work showed that the group of professionals (teachers and choreographers) differs in the level of readiness for health-saving activities from students-choreographers. The paper presents diagnostic tools that made it possible to evaluate readiness indicators for health-saving activities of students-choreographers after their participation in the educational program «Health-saving in choreography - the basis of professional longevity». The paper also contains the results of a statistical analysis of the research data.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):268-273
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Phenological observations of woody plants as a means of school students’ research skills development
Solovieva V.V.
Abstract
The complex phenomena studies of seasonal phenology (from the Greek fenomen-phenomenon and logos-doctrine) is the science of phenomena, taking into account and systematizing the laws of the order and timing of seasonal phenomena, i.e. studying the laws of seasonal development of nature. In Russia phenological observations began to be carried out at the beginning of the 18th century. Phenological observations are important for the study of Biology. The research of plant objects with the use of phenology methods contributes to the development of students’ mental operations: analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization. Phenological observations are also important for students’ research skills development. During nature excursions, besides above mental operations, students develop observation, that is, the ability to notice signs and features of objects and to identify significant features. The problem of students’ research skills development is quite urgent in the modern educational process. One facet of this problem is a direct role of phenological observations in this development. According to the «Concept of the Federal target program of the education development for 2016-2020», research activity is of great importance in the educational process and has an important pedagogical meaning: a teacher, acting as an organizer of phenological observations, needs to know the methodology of such observations, the rules of their organization, registration and conduct. Therefore, the issue under consideration is relevant and has practical significance. The purpose of this paper was to show the importance of the organization of woody plants phenological observations to develop students’ research skills. The tasks of the research were to generalize the methodology of woody plants phenological observations and to develop tasks for woody plants phenological observations on the example of specific species of plants, to identify the features of woody plants phenological development.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):273-277
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Urgent problems of teaching methods of scientific research to postgraduate students-linguists
Stoikovich G.V., Stoikovich L.Y.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the description of the organization and content of the teaching process at the Foreign Language Department, SSUSSE, concerning postgraduate students of Linguistics, namely, the experience of teaching them research activities and methods of fulfilling them. In addition, the authors rely on the experience of prominent scientists and specialists in this sphere. Scientific research activity is one the most important components in masters’ training, as its goal is the development of certain competences, reflected in their graduation qualification paper (master’s thesis). The authors present the stages of scientific research work, including the introduction into the methodology of linguistic research, research practices, writing course papers, master’s thesis, reports for conferences; they note how it is important to use methods of linguistic analysis to make the research valid. The paper characterizes and substantiates both general and specific scientific methods used for research in the sphere of translation and cross-cultural communication (comparative, descriptive, component, discourse analysis, content analysis and others), which are illustrated by the examples of their use in students’ research papers. The authors’ conception is based on the official standards and authoritative sources in the spheres of linguistics, lingua-didactics, and translation study.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):278-283
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Taking into account Chinese students’ cognitive and psychological characteristics while teaching Russian grammar
Sun Y.
Abstract
This paper aims to discuss the problem of nationally oriented teaching of Russian grammar to Chinese students. The author analyzes the works that are devoted to the study of Chinese students’ cognitive and psychological characteristics. The analysis revealed specific learning strategies that Chinese students use when learning a foreign language. When training a mono-ethnic group, the national-oriented approach is considered optimal. To implement this approach, a comparative analysis of systems of contacting languages is necessary to determine the zones of interlanguage and intralanguage interferences. The most important factor in the effectiveness of the educational process is the adequacy of the teachers’ ideas about students from different regions. The author concludes that in order to maintain motivation for mastering the Russian language and optimize the learning process as a whole when developing curricula and class books for Chinese students, it is necessary to strive to make the learning process not only effective, but also as comfortable as possible for students. Taking into account Chinese students’ cognitive and psychological characteristics will not only contribute to the development of strong grammar skills, but will also ensure the development of oral speech skills in Russian. The paper provides recommendations for intensifying the process of teaching Russian grammar to Chinese students. The following research methods were used: a comparative analysis, an analysis and a synthesis.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):283-288
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The development of youth spirituality in the modern realities of Russian society
Fortova L.K., Yudina A.M., Evsyukova N.I.
Abstract
This paper discusses the problems that inhibit the development of spirituality in the youth, shows the role of educational institutions for young people’s moral stability development, reveals a personal paradigm that initiates self-actualization and improvement of students for socialization in modern Russian society. The paper analyzes the problems of spirituality and intelligence development in Russian universities. It is argued that the presence of spirituality creates a barrier to destructive social phenomena, while intelligence represents the internal and external culture, dignity and morality of the individual. The paper emphasizes that spirituality and intelligence should be protected by the individual from the destructive influence of the criminal environment and dubious offers. Students relying on the theory of reactance must learn to say «no». It is noted that according to students the significant components of spirituality are the desire to develop their country, national virtues, the less significant ones are the willingness to sacrifice personal interests for the interests of the fatherland. The role of a comfortable psychological environment in the development of self-education, self-criticism, self-actualization of student youth is shown. It is postulated that an educated person respects other people, recognizes their intrinsic value, originality, meaning and dignity.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):289-292
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Educational design as a resource for improving the quality of prospective engineers’ training
Charikova I.N.
Abstract
The paper discusses the features of using project-technologies in the university educational process. Educational design is the intellectual foundation and creative source of innovation in creative appeal to professional development of prospective engineers. The author shows that it’s necessary to train engineers in conditions of educational design development of prospective engineers on the basis of fundamental (theoretical) knowledge transformation into the field of practical skills and skills of design activity in interdisciplinary fields of engineering knowledge. The paper also considers evolution of the project technologies. The work presents the main conceptual provisions for the effective practical implementation of the development of design for prospective engineers’ training, formulated on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the experience of research projects in Russian universities. The feasibility of basing the methodology of project training on information technologies, interdisciplinary approach and integrated design is justified. The use of a personalized educational information environment for training is recommended. The author shows that it is important for different-year-students who are supposed to be like-minded people to communicate and to participate in the project. Motivation of students’ participation in project activities is also very important as well as involvement of employers in discussion/implementation of the obtained results. These solutions are of a research nature and can be used in other similar Russian and foreign projects, as well as be implemented in the creation of personalized e-learning systems and online courses in the dynamics of educational design development.
Samara Journal of Science. 2020;9(1(30)):293-300
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