Vol 8, No 1(26) (2019)

Articles
Research results of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education in 2018
Repinetsky A.I.
Abstract
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):10-15
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03.02.00 – General Biology
Elements-indicators of oil refineries impact in the components of adjacent ecosystems
Baranovskaya N.V., Boev V.V., Boev V.A.
Abstract
This paper discusses differences in chemical elements concentration by the components of an ecosystem exposed to the refinery, relative to the territory taken as the background. The study was conducted in the Antipinsky Oil Refinery location area, the territory of the Tyumen Federal Reserve was considered as the background. The change in the elemental composition of the soil, bedding, grass stand, and birch leaves has been studied. The study was carried out by instrumental neutron activation and atomic absorption analysis methods. For all considered components of ecosystems, the patterns of the spatial distribution of elements with respect to refinery were analyzed (both to remote and to cardinal directions). The change in the associations of chemical elements in technogenic conditions was studied. The obtained results were compared with the clarke and literature data, on the basis of which the background status of the natural territory was confirmed, and low pollution of the technogenic region was revealed. According to the results, an elevated content of many of the studied chemical elements in the upper soil horizon was found. For most of them, a change in the distribution over the profile was recorded. The greatest pollution among the studied objects is characteristic of birch leaves. The spatial distribution of pollution is different for the components considered, but is consistent with the predominant wind direction. In the studied components of the technogenic ecosystem, an accumulation of elements specific to the oil refining industry was found: Br, Sb, La, Tb, Yb, Ce, As, Hg, Zn, Co. In all considered components of the technogenic ecosystem a violation of correlations and the presence of specific associations were recorded.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):16-21
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Wastewater production of ethylenediamine and the assessment of their toxicity by phytotesting
Bykovsky N.A., Kantor E.A., Puchkova L.N., Fanakova N.N., Fanakov V.S.
Abstract
This paper discusses occurrence of toxic wastewater from the production of ethylenediamine by aminating 1,2-dichloroethane with ammonia. It is shown that wastewater from ethylenediamine production is formed at the stages of evaporation of ethylenediamine dihydrochloride and rectification of a mixture of amines obtained as a result of evaporation. In the first case, the wastewater contains a saturated NaCl solution with a content of 1 ÷ 2% polyethylene polyamines, and in the second case, the drain contains a solution containing about 1% of ethylenediamine and about 2% of ammonia. To study the toxicity of these wastewater, watercress of Zabava and Krupnolistovoy varieties were used. The assessment of toxic properties of wastewater was carried out according to such values as seed germination, the average length of seedlings and the dry weight of seedlings. It is revealed that the studied drains have an acute toxic effect on the watercress of both varieties. It is shown that the regression equations obtained for the dry weight of seedlings and seed germination, in contrast to the length of the seedlings, do not adequately describe the experimental results and cannot be used to determine the safe multiplicity of breeding. The safe multiplicity of breeding, calculated using the average length of seedlings, ranges from 489,1 to 892,9 for various drains and watercress varieties. It is shown that the most toxic is the runoff containing a saturated NaCl solution with a content of 1 ÷ 2% of polyethylene polyamines Zabava is the most sensitive to the degree of toxicity of runoff.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):21-26
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Features of the spatial and ontogenetic structure of the Stipa korshinskyi Roshev. (Poaceae) cenopopulation
Zenkina T.E., Ilina V.N.
Abstract
Mathematical methods of analysis of the spatial and ontogenetic structure of rare plant species cenopopulations allow us to reveal organization features of individual plant populations and phytocenoses as a whole. The authors study the features of the Stipa korshinskyi Roshev. (Poaceae) population structure in the Samara High Trans-Volga Region (Sernovodny Shihan, Sergievsky District, Samara Region). Spatial location and age conditions of individuals are determined according to traditional population-ontogenetic methods. The characteristics of the distribution of individuals of S. korshinskyi , taking into account their age, are determined using modern mathematical methods. With the help of the nuclear function, it was revealed that the density of the feather grass individuals in the described cenopopulation varied in the range of 1-3 individuals per 1 m². Analysis of S. korshinskyi individuals location intensity in coenopulation using the square method showed the presence of compacted and rarefied sections. The graphical interpretation of the Ripley function showed that in the studied cenopopulation the plants are randomly distributed. Using the distribution map of the dominant age states it was noted that the generative plants were closer to the periphery of the site. Graphic interpretation of Ripley’s cross-function showed that young and mature plants are placed randomly in cenopopulation. Apparently, on the whole, the random nature of the individuals distribution is characteristic of S. korshinskyi cenopopulations experiencing a significant anthropogenic load in the composition of the phytocenoses.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):26-30
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Estimation of rat population (Rattus norvegicus) and reducing their number in the urban environment
Zorina A.A., Kireeva M.L.
Abstract
In the paper the authors consider traditional, modern and promising (at the stage of development and testing) methods of urban Rattus norvegicus population monitoring and activities on its numbers reduction. The analysis of rodent population assessment methods showed the absence of a universal method for determining urban rats number, which would take into account both ecological and biological characteristics of the species and the characteristics of a particular city, the territories of which may differ significantly in the ratio of residential, recreational, industrial and other areas. The main recommendation for monitoring organization is to assess the direction of change in the number of urban rats, determine reduction or increase trends of its population. Measures to reduce rat numbers in urban areas are divided into technologies to reduce the capacity of their habitat (preventive methods) and the actual deratization. A variety of deratization methods and its simultaneous using is not enough for complete extermination of rats in urban environment. High ecological valence of the species, peculiarities of human habitat and vital activity (including safety of people and non-target groups of animals) and other factors with low degree of prognosis (predetermination) lead to the absence of effective universal models of rats elimination in the cities of Russia and abroad. According to population biology, the task of reducing the number is not just to reduce it, but to prevent the «explosion» - the moment when generations of young rats come into reproduction (for most regions - this is midsummer). Acting on the rat population twice a year (May, July), it is possible to stabilize its number at a relatively low level. The main difficulties in the standardization of measures and preparation of regulations for the control of rats number in the urban environment are listed.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):30-35
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Ecological and geographical testing of garden roses in three climatic zones
Klimenko Z.K., Vasilyeva O.Y., Zorina E.V., Dzuba O.V.
Abstract
The paper states that it is necessary to expand the work in the field of ecological and geographical testing of economically valuable plant objects in the system of Botanical institutions supervised by the Council of Botanical gardens of Russia. The role of unique natural polygons of three Botanical gardens belonging to the Russian Academy of Sciences is emphasized. The main collection funds of the Nikita Botanical Garden are located in the Mediterranean climate zone (Yalta). In the Central Siberian Botanical Garden of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences plants are introduced into the culture in the conditions of the continental climate of the forest-steppe of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk). In the Botanical Garden-Institute of Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences the gene pool of cultural and natural flora is studied in the monsoon climate (Vladivostok). The authors describe peculiarities of seasonal development, morphogenesis, organogenesis, ontogeny and reproductive biology of garden roses varieties of the Nikita Botanical Garden selection in three climatic zones. It is shown that in the geographical point of varieties breeding located near Yalta, the influence of climatic conditions leads to the absence of winter rest and natural end of the growing season - it is artificially regulated by the annual February pruning. In the monsoon climate of Vladivostok, the largest number of cloudless days (up to 80%) is observed in winter, which can not affect the vegetation of roses in the open ground, but has a beneficial effect on the development and cutting production of roses in greenhouses. In the forest-steppe of Western Siberia varieties from the groups of tea-hybrid, floribunda, grandiflora, Cordes roses and miniature throughout the study period did not enter the postgenerative period, the final ontogenetic state was g3. The main criterion for the selection of garden roses promising varieties in a continental climate is biomorphological - the ability of annual shoots to bloom. Breeding work with roses in the southern coast of the Crimea is carried out in the open ground, in the continental and monsoon climate - in greenhouses.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):36-42
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Sanitary and chemical indicators of surface water source and drinking water on the Kola coast (on the example of Severomorsk)
Konovalova I.I., Trotsenko A.A., Khazov P.A.
Abstract
The paper presents data on the study results of sanitary and chemical indicators of water from the surface source and drinking water in Severomorsk for the period 2017-2018. The authors have revealed that the main indicators (smell, iron, pH, total hardness, chlorides, sulfates, ammonia nitrogen, nitrates and nitrites) of the water in the capital of the Northern fleet fully complies with SanPiN 2.1.5.980-00 «Hygienic requirements for the protection of surface water». During the study period, there were slight fluctuations in indicators due to seasonal dynamics. The analysis of the data showed that drinking water in all areas of Severomorsk in color in 2017 exceeds the limit of MPC. The greatest excess is observed in summer. This is due to the fact that in spring and summer a large number of fulvic and humic acids, which lead to an increase in color, comes to the pond with rain and swamp waters. A direct dependence of color on iron parameters was also revealed. The iron content in drinking water for 2017-2018 exceeds the MAC boundary, which can be associated with water stagnation, which causes an increase in the concentrations of this indicator. The obtained data can be used in the implementation of measures to improve water treatment, drinking water treatment and allocation of the necessary funds for the implementation of the plan of utilities overhaul.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):42-47
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Adaptations of the hooded crow (Corvus cornix Linnaeus, 1758) to urban environment
Korotkova T.B., Poddubnaya N.Y.
Abstract
The crow birds are an inalienable component of anthropogenic ecosystems and the most successful species is the hooded crow. The success of a species depends on the conformity of a speed of adaptation process to the change rate in the environment. Organisms, adapting to the new environmental parameters in the city, demonstrate adaptive mechanisms, and can be a model for studying the evolutionary process. The process of urbanization of the hooded crow continues at present in many parts of its range, but the causes and mechanisms of these processes are not fully understood. The tasks of our research included finding out the directions and rates of the hooded crow adaptations to the changing urban environment. The research was conducted in 1997-2018. In Cherepovets, the hooded crow began to adapt to the urban environment in the late 1950s. The fastest rate of adaptations of the species was observed in the last decade. The main adaptive processes of the hooded crow in the urban system were the following: 1) territorial changes - occur at different rates, following changes in the urban development of residential buildings and in the age composition of trees, as well as changes in the culture of household waste collection service; 2) changes in the habitats of the hooded crow - are the increase in the tree species used for nesting and changes in the height of the nests, and occur during the last 15 years; 3) changes in seasonal life - in Cherepovets, hooded crows begin breeding 2 weeks earlier than in the vicinity; 4) changes in trophic links - increasing the proportion of anthropogenic feed in the diet of hooded crows as Cherepovets develops; 5) ethological changes - hooded crows became less careful at the end of the 1990s and have learned the skills of extracting food from different packages, cleaning contaminated food and dry food maceration.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):47-54
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Hydrobiocenoses of lake Tulos, Southwestern Karelia
Kuchko Y.A., Ilmast N.V., Kuchko T.Y.
Abstract
The following paper assesses the current state of the phyto- and zooplankton and benthic communities of Lake Tulos, which geographically is a part of the Green Belt of Fennoscandia. The lake is located on the territory of the planned National Park «Tulos». The species diversity, the ratio of major taxonomic groups and the structure, abundance and biomass of predominant aquatic organism species in the littoral and pelagic zones of the lake were studied. According to the obtained results (the level of quantitative development and the ratio of phytoplankton species during the growing season 2018) the waters of Lake Tulos can be assigned to the third quality class, grade 3a («fairly clean»), which corresponds to the β-mesosaprobic zone by the saprobity scale. According to Pantle-Bukk saprobity index calculated on the basis of zooplankton, the lake’s water can be attributed to oligosaprobic - the 2nd class of quality, pure natural waters. Indices of abundance of macrozoobenthos correspond to the oligotrophic class, according to the ratio of its main groups, the lake belongs to the «chironomid» type of lakes. The reservoir has a high recreational potential, according to the ichthyofauna composition it belongs to the water bodies of the first fishery category. Lake Tulos is a reference water body convenient for environmental monitoring in near-border areas.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):54-58
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Materials for the ecological-geographical analysis of Kuznetsov Mountain (Samara Region) vascular plants flora
Makarova Y.V., Golovlyov A.A., Prokhorova N.V.
Abstract
According to the results of the ecological-geographical analysis, the aboriginal fraction of the vascular plant flora of Kuznetsov Mountain (Samara Region) is presented Eurasian (74,8% of species from the composition of the aboriginal fraction), Pluriregional (14,5%) and European (10,7%) geographical elements. The largest number of species have Eurasian (32,2%), European-West Asian (14,4%), Holarctic (12,1%), Euro-Siberian (10,3%), European (8,8%) and European-West Siberian (8,4%) longitude areal types. The latitudinal component of the areal is dominated by plurizonal (36,9% of the natural fraction of the flora), boreal-nemoral (21,5%), forest-steppe (15,4%) and nemoral (12,1%) plant species. The adventive fraction of flora is mainly formed by species of the Mediterranean, the North American (28,3% each of the composition of the adventive fraction) and the Iranian-Turanian (24,5%) origin. The current geographical distribution of a significant part of the adventitious species is associated with Holarctic (30,2%), Eurasian (22,6%), Hemicosmopolitan (17,0%) and European-West Asian (11,3%) areals. The endemic species ( Crataegus volgensis Pojark.) and 8 relict species [ Anemone altaica Fisch. ex C.A. Mey., Bupleurum aureum (Hoffm.) Fisch. ex Hoffm., Laser trilobum (L.) Borkh., Pulmonaria mollis Wulfen ex Hornem., Geranium robertianum L., Caragana frutex (L.) C. Koch, Aconitum septentrionale Koelle, Corydalis solida (L.) Clairv.] have been identified in the flora of the vascular plants of Mountain Kuznetsov. The boundaries of the areals of 7 flora species [ Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro, Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth, Aconitum septentrionale Koelle, Crataegus volgensis Pojark., Bupleurum aureum (Hoffm.) Fisch. ex Hoffm., Campanula latifolia L., Anemone altaica Fisch. ex C.A. Mey.], represented on Mountain Kuznetsov, pass through the territory of the Samara Region.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):59-65
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Soil and vegetation cover evaluation in the forestry area «Mekhzavodskoy» of the suburban Samara forestry enterprise area
Matveeva T.B., Kazantsev I.V., Molchatsky S.L.
Abstract
The paper presents data on the state of soil and vegetation cover of oak forests of suburban forests near the village Mekhzavod. Being in the ring of large highways as well as located relatively close to Samara, they experience a complex impact of many adverse conditions. In the course of the study in these forest communities using the method of laying ecological profiles, we assessed a degree of recreational load impact on the vegetation cover of the green zone. The author estimated the percentage of road and path network development, described stages of recreational digression (for R.A. Karpisonova) and identified the main indicators of anthropogenic load, a vital status of major forest tree species and the factors contributing to its deterioration. The author also revealed a classification of soils with the help of laying soil profiles in different quarters and the subsequent chemical analysis of the selected samples. It is determined that the gray forest soils indicated for this area on the soil map of the Volga Region are not found. Taking into account the unsatisfactory state of the vegetation cover of the studied area, a number of recommendations for its rational use are proposed, which can further contribute to the preservation and improvement of these forests stability.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):65-69
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Influence of direct seeding on the yield of agricultural cultures in the Rostov Region
Mokrikov G.V., Minnikova T.V., Kazeev K.S., Kolesnikov S.I.
Abstract
Tillage technologies that promote resource conservation and increase crop yields, especially in conditions of dry climate, are increasingly being introduced into the Russian agriculture. However, taking into account a diversity of soil and climatic conditions in Russia, it is necessary to study the agro-ecological state of agro landscapes. In Russia, in recent years, an increase in the yield of winter wheat and sunflower has been observed. From 2014 to 2018 in production conditions in the Rostov Region, the effect of direct sowing technology (No-Till) on the yield of winter wheat and sunflower was studied. The yield of sunflower and winter wheat largely depended on the amount of precipitation during the critical growing season of each agricultural crop. In 2014-2017 the yield of winter wheat in agrocenoses using direct sowing technology increased by 26-114%, sunflower by 27-92% compared with the traditional technology. The authors show that direct seeding compared to traditional technology of dump plowing (traditional tillage) contributes to saving motor fuel, increasing crop yields and lowering the cost of the main crops of the Rostov Region: winter wheat and sunflower.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):69-75
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The study of halophytic vegetation of the Penza Region and its protection
Novikova L.A., Vasjukov V.M., Gorbushina T.V.
Abstract
15 sites with saline soils have been identified and described in the Penza Region. Only 2 of them have a status of a nature sanctuary. They are the «Solontsovaya Steppe» in the Luninsky District and the «Danilovskaya Solontsovaya Polyana» in the Maloserdobinsky District. The other 13 sites are proposed to be included in the existing system of specially protected natural territories of the Penza Region as nature sanctuaries. They are «Zhmakinsky Solonetz», «Kaysarovsky Solonetz» (Kolyshley District); Litvinovsky Solonetz (Lopatinsky District); «Chunak Solontsovaya Glade», «Korzovaya Hollow» (Maloserdobinsky District); «Kellerovsky Solonetz», «Mansurovsky Solonetz», «Karnovarsky Solonetz» (Neverkinsky District); «Olshansky Solonetz», «Andreevsky Solonetz», «Vasilyevsky Solonetz» (Penza District); «Serdobsky Solonetz», «Krasny Solonetz» (Serdobsky District). We provide the following data for each site. This is the history of discovery (dates, researches), location, belonging to the basins of large rivers, approximate area, information about economic use in the past and the degree of anthropogenic disturbances, the characteristics of the relief and soil. The main attention is paid to the description of the nature of the distribution of halophilic vegetation, depending on the degree of salinity and soil moisture. Data on the steppes vegetation, meadows and swamps found in the described sites are also given. Dominant and rare species of vascular plants (in The Red Book of the Penza Region) are listed.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):75-82
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Limits of seed germination of phytomeliorants under conditions of heavy metals toxic concentrations
Oznobihina A.O.
Abstract
The aim of the study is to conduct biological testing at the initial stages of plant objects viability in the model conditions of heavy metal pollution. The paper presents the results of laboratory experiments to assess the impact of different concentrations of heavy metal salts on the viability of yellow melilot and great trefoil seeds. In the course of the conducted experimental studies the author has been established a direct dependence of the decrease in the indices of germination energy and laboratory germination of seeds with an increase in the concentration of phytotoxicant salts, determined the critical (threshold) concentration of the studied elements and the metal content, in which the processes of growth and development of seeds remain. The concentration of 0,01% cadmium, zinc, lead and copper was optimal for germination of melilot seeds, where germination was equal to 80%, 74%, 69% and 64%, respectively. For great trefoil seeds, high germination rates were noted in case of 0,01% contamination with lead, zinc, cadmium and copper - 82%, 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively, and in 0,1% salt solution of lead, copper and zinc there were recorded 75%, 74% and 72% of seedlings. Zinc in the concentration of 0,01% at the initial stages of germination of phytomeliorant seeds stimulated germination energy. The tendency of resistance to pollution by lead, zinc and copper was observed at sprouts of a great trefoil, and to pollution by cadmium the greatest resistance was shown by a melilot yellow. Defining the limits of the leguminous plant seeds germination in the presence of a toxic agent will allow research and development in respect of biological restoration of contaminated soils and can be used in technologically disturbed lands.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):82-86
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Sexual structure of the bloodsuckers-flies (Diptera, Hippoboscidae) population of the genus Ornithomya Latreille, 1802 in the central region and northern part of Russia
Pavlov A.V., Bykov Y.A., Matyukhin A.V.
Abstract
In this paper the authors consider sex ratio in populations of the bloodsucker of the genus Ornithomya Latreille located in the Vladimir and Murmansk Regions. During the ringing of birds since 2014 we have been collecting the bloodsucker flies parasitizing on them. For just four years in the Vladimir Region we have examined 12515 birds, from which 94 females and 17 males of the bloodsucker Ornithomya avicularia L., 1758, as well as 142 females and 37 males Ornithomya fringillina Curtis, 1836, were taken. On the territory of the Murmansk Region in 2016 and 2017 465 females and 91 males of Ornithomya chloropus Bergot, 1901 were collected from birds. As a result of our research we obtained and summarized original material on the composition of the sexual structure of the population in bloodsucker flies (Diptera, Hippoboscidae) belonging to the genus Ornithomya Latreille, 1802. Females dominate males in Ornithomya avicularia , Ornithomya chloropus and Ornithomya fringillina in populations located on the territory of the Vladimir and Murmansk Regions of the Russian Federation. The study of seasonal changes in the sexual structure of the above species showed a gradual decrease in the number of male individuals during the season.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):86-90
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Catalase activity of herbs in conditions of urban environment pollution
Petukhov A.S., Khritokhin N.A., Kremleva T.A., Petukhova G.A.
Abstract
Pollutants entering plants cells are able to cause biochemical malfunction, including lipid peroxidation, which leads to the change in antioxidant system activity. Sustaining redox balance in cells is a required condition of plants survival in conditions of anthropogenic pollution. The goal of this research was the investigation of catalase activity in meadow grass, wild vetch, red clover, coltsfoot and chamomile near various factories of Tyumen. Plants were gathered near the highway as well as close to the metallurgical plant, engine factory, oil refinery and accumulator plants. The change in catalase activity in the cells of plants turned out to be species-specific. The decrease in catalase activity was observed in the meadow grass and wild vetch cells, while in coltsfoot, red clover and chamomile both decrease and increase in enzyme activity was obtained. Pollutants from all the examined factories affected more or less on the catalase activity, but the greatest effect was registered near the metallurgical factory, that probably related to high heavy metal concentration in plants. The lowest effect on catalase activity, compared to control, was observed near the highway.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):90-95
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Comparative ecological and morphological analysis of the Corvidae birds aircraft
Repin D.V., Repina N.V.
Abstract
This paper provides a comparative ecological and morphological analysis of the aircraft of Corvidae birds: rook, daw, gray crow and magpie. These species of birds have a different character of flight and different flying activity - among them there are both resident and migratory species. Ecological and morphological characteristics of the rook, jackdaws, crows and magpies aircraft were studied in the Chuvash Republic in the autumn and spring during 2014-2018. The paper describes the field observations of the nature of the flight of the studied species and the results of morphometric measurements. The following morphological parameters of birds were used: body weight; body length; tail length; wing length; wingspan; wing width. To study the development of the avian musculature, the masses of the subclavian and pectoral muscles and the indices of the relationship of these parameters to body weight and among themselves were determined. These indicators were used to calculate a number of indices. Studies of the birds’ aircraft revealed interseasonal differences in some parameters related to body weight. In addition, the specific features of the Corvidae birds’ aircraft structure have been identified; they are associated with the nature and speed of flight as well as the duration of migration.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):95-98
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Trends of some rare flora species populations in the Southern Urals foothills (Orenburg Region)
Safonov M.A.
Abstract
The results of long-term (1994-2018) studies of the distribution and abundance of rare plant species in the foothills of the Southern Urals in order to identify their spatial and temporal trends are discussed. Some species retains its low numbers; in some species the number of populations and their amount were reduced, and some, probably, entirely disappeared from the flora. It is a new species in the local flora - Bupleurum aureum , but its low number does not allow to assess objectively its status and the necessary measures of protection. Spreading of Epipactis helleborine is also sporadic. The population of Veratrum lobelianum is gradually spreading to the South due to mesophytization of the climate and changes in pasture load on meadow and meadow-steppe ecosystems. The populations of the Cicerbita uralensis and Lathyrus litvinovii are in the critical condition. Thus, the change in environmental conditions leads to the fact that simultaneously with the reduction of the rare fraction, some species that previously had a small number, begin resettlement, contributing to the change in the appearance of the vegetation cover of the southern Urals foothills.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):99-105
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Analysis of benzotriazole influence on some morphological and physiological characteristics of Allium fistulosum
Selezneva E.S.
Abstract
The increase in anthropogenic pressure has led to the need for model experiments to assess the ability of organisms to adapt to xenobiotics. The study of negative effects is usually carried out in laboratories using animals as test objects, while it is more interesting to study tolerance and adaptive capabilities in plant organisms, because, unlike animals, they are not able to leave an area uncomfortable for existence. In order to obtain an objective response in experiments, it is necessary to choose test objects related to species that are ubiquitous in ecosystems, and xenobiotics that are widely used and able to enter the environment. Allium fistulosum L. was used in model experiments and was affected by benzotriazole to study the possibility of developing an adaptive response in plants to anthropogenic pollutants. Plants were preadapted to a toxic dose of benzotriazole at a concentration of 0,1 mg/ml, by exposure to alcohol solutions of benzotriazole at a concentration of 0,0001 mg/ml or 0,001 mg/ml, and the time of preliminary exposure varied from 1 day to 4 days, then test objects germinated in a solution of high concentration. There were three controls, where the seeds were germinated for five days in all three used concentrations of benzotriazole, as well as in a solvent, which was 0,5% isopropyl alcohol. The possibility of adaptive response was assessed using two morphophysiological indicators, these were the germination of seeds and the average root length on the fifth day of the experiment. Experiments have shown that a solution of benzotriazole at a concentration of 0,1 mg/ml inhibits seeds germination and roots growth compared with the control (germination in 0,5% isopropyl alcohol), while at a concentration of 0,0001 mg/ml it stimulates. Exposure to low concentrations reliably creates a preadaptation to the toxic dose, but the responses significantly differ in effectiveness depending on the duration of preadaptation and the concentration of the substance. The greatest effect on the toxic effect of benzotriazole is created by preadaptation in low concentrations over 3 days. Possible preadaptation mechanisms are discussed.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):105-109
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Dynamics of Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. and Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. population structure on Tilia cordata Mill. in the flooded lime-tree forest of the Bolshaya Kokshaga river
Suetina Y.G., Ivanov S.M.
Abstract
The paper deals with perennial dynamics of the population structure of the epiphytic lichens Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. (2008-2016) and Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. (2010-2016) with the different life forms and the ecological strategies. The research was carried out in the Mari El Republic in the flooded lime-tree forest. The authors studied the density (number of thalli on a tree) on the trunk from 0 to 1,5 meters, the size and the ontogenetic structure of population of both species of different ontogenetic states: virginile (v1, v2), potentially generative (g1v, g2v, g3v), subsenile (ss) on 17 trees of Tilia cordata. The density of E. prunastri and H. physodes population increases. These changes are more specific for E. prunastri . Thalli of E. prunastri have a bigger size than thalli of H. physodes . These differences are observed on g1v, g2v, g3v, ss thalli. The decrease of thalli size is observed for both species but the difference is more for E. prunastri . The comparison of ontogenetic spectra of populations was made according to their heterogeneity within trees. The values of the effects (the effect is the parameter of the ontogenetic spectrum of the population) decreased in 2016, which indicated a shift of the ontogenetic spectra to the left, i.e. an increase in the proportion of young thalli that can be traced in the total ontogenetic spectra of populations. At the same time, the differences between the ontogenetic spectra of the E. prunastri population are statistically significant.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):110-115
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Przewalski’s horse reintroduction in the State Natural Reserve «Orenburgsky»: the first results
Tyurin A.N.
Abstract
This paper presents a chronology of the main events taking place within the framework of the program to resettle Przhewalsky’s horses to the territory inhabited by their close relatives, the tarpans, to create a new and sustainable population of these animals. The Przewalski’s horse population under natural conditions of the State Natural Reserve «Orenburgsky» will allow having a reserve of healthy, well-developed animals as a guarantee of keeping the species clean for a very long period of time. By the end of the 19th century, not a single Przewalski’s wild horse remained in its natural habitat. The paper discusses a gradual reintroduction of Przewalski’s horse and presents the first results, taken from open sources, on the restoration of the wild horse population in the Orenburg Region. The first results allow you to look to the future with confidence. 5 healthy foals have already been born in the reserve; PA scientists are optimistic about the spring of 2019 and hope that the stock of wild horses will continue to grow. The Przewalski’s horse reintroduction program enjoys a personal support of the Orenburg Region Governor and is among the key projects for the protection of wild animals, personally supervised by the President of the Russian Federation.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):115-119
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Assessment of the stability of bat ectoparasite communities using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method
Fadeeva G.A., Boryakova E.E.
Abstract
The paper deals with a research of epiparasite communities in native karst caves in the South of Nizhny Novgorod Region. Six species of bats such as Daubenton’s water bat, Brandt’s bat, whiskered bat, pond bat, northern bat and long-eared bat were examined. A Principal Component Analysis was used to identify factors influencing the composition of ectoparasites as well as the number and distribution of mites in mixed colonies of bats. As the cave and its inhabitants can be considered as a microbiotope, it is obvious that there are specific relations between inhabitants in caves. Special habitat conditions indirectly influence the parasitic systems developing there which are characterized by certain stability. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to estimate the difference between samples of animals from different habitats. Methods of nonparametric statistics didn’t find significant distinctions by the hosts, years and biotopes, the bat colony and their ectoparasites can be estimated as a single complexly organized system, existing long in space and time. From all possible factorial space four factors have significant effect on systems. The contribution of the first and second factors is equal to 65% of variance (specificity of parasites to hosts and a factor of dominant species presence). In parasite communities of bats interrelations which cause successful existence of all types without the expressed competition are observed. Our results indicate a complex relationship between the parasites in the community on the one hand, and long-term existence of the community on the other hand. Each member of parasitic system has a position in factorial space. In parasite communities of bats we met only one factor-dependent species ( Spinturnix acuminatus, Sp. plecotinus, Leptotrombidium russicum ). Species that show moderate and positive, moderate and negative correlation dependence with several factors are found. For example, Spinturnix myoti , Sp. kolenatii , Macronyssus heteromorphus , etc. Heterogeneity of environmental impact on the parasitic systems which are formed in natural caves provides stability of bat parasite communities in general.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):119-124
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The influence of different systems of fertilizer on the microelement’s composition of soil and grain of winter wheat in Primorsky Krai
Fadyakina I.S.
Abstract
This paper presents the effect of the aftereffect of mineral, organic and calcareous fertilizers on the agrochemical and environmental indicators of meadow-brown bleached soil of Primorsky Krai. The accumulation of microelements by the winter wheat grain is considered according to the variants of experience. Field experiments were carried out in 2011-2014 in the crop rotation of the agrochemical station of «Federal Scientific Center of Agrobiotechnology in the Far East named after A.K. Chaika». The content of trace elements in soil and grain was determined on a Shimadzu AA-6200, atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. According to the results of our research, it was revealed that the aftereffect of various fertilizer systems affected the content of a number of gross and mobile forms of microelements in the studied soil. It is established that the soil does not prevent the accumulation of mobile forms of nickel, lead, cadmium, zinc, copper and cobalt in it. The ability to resist contamination of the food chain (system barrier), that is, the manifestation of the protective mechanisms of the grain, from nickel, copper and cobalt varies only slightly according to the variants of experience. For lead, cadmium and zinc, the barrier of the system is in the moderate degree of dispersion of data on the variants of experience, showing more effective protective capabilities on the variant with the aftereffect of the lime-organic fertilizer system, where the content of the latter reaches its maximum values.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):124-129
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Influence of motor transport on species composition and number of roadside habitat carabid beetles
Yakushkina M.N., Malkova A.S.
Abstract
This paper examines the impact of road transport on species composition and abundance of roadside habitat carabid beetles. The studies were carried out in Saransk and its suburban area, because it is cities that are most affected by anthropogenic press, as they evolved and exist in concentrated and intensive impact of human society. When analyzing urban fauna one can get objective information about how harmful pollution of air, soil, water, plants to organisms, how effective those or other environmental measures, what dynamics of ecological situation is in the city. The study of carabid fauna in these circumstances, is оf great interest, as it allоws to find measures to restore damaged ecosystems and to track the dynamics of changes in the implementation of these measures.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):129-134
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07.00.00 – Historical Sciences and Archaeology
The experience of distinguishing constructively chronological types of swords of the first half of I millennium AD in Prikamye
Malykh O.O., Shmuratko D.V.
Abstract
Current trends include the use of mathematical methods for Humanities studies. One of the methods that have proven to be effective in interpreting mass material obtained during archaeological excavations is a discriminant analysis method. Discriminant analysis is a section of mathematical statistics that assumes the presence of an object that was accidentally extracted from one of them. The proposed work is an application of this method for the study of swords used in Prikamye in the first half of I millennium. Based on discriminant analysis data for each subperiod of the first half of the I millennium an attempt will be made to isolate reference finds, which parameters and design features are most characteristic for a certain time interval. On the basis of mathematical calculations rather than a subjective opinion, the author concludes that there were four types of swords used on the territory of the Prikamye. The proposed paper discusses a possibility of dating accidentally found weapons, based on a comparison of the characteristics of their parameters and design with the data of swords originating from closed burial complexes.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):135-145
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The daily life of the Francs according to written sources at the time of Gregory of Tours: diseases, medicine, hygiene and food
Kazakov I.V.
Abstract
This paper is an attempt to collect and systematize information about the material conditions of life in the Frankish state of the Merovingians in the 6th century. The choice of the topic is due to the need to compose a complete picture of a person’s life from the beginning of the early Middle Ages, which until now has remained poorly researched, unlike the Carolingian period. The sources used are the writings of Gregory of Tours, Venantius Fortunatus, Apollinaris Sidonius, The Chronicle of Fredegar, «The History Book of the Franks» and others. The paper contains data on the diseases and epidemics that were widespread during the mentioned period, methods of their treatment and the state of medicine in general, hygiene in the Frankish society, as well as the diet and composition of products. The collected material says that: a) the sources of the early Merovingian period are extremely scarce data in the field of life descriptions; b) the Frankish society was very vulnerable to a wide variety of diseases, and the priority of faith over medicine did not allow them to resist; c) ideas about the absence of elementary hygiene in the early Middle Ages are greatly exaggerated, and d) the set of consumed products was distinguished by simplicity and at the same time diversity with rudimentary skills in cooking.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):145-151
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Origin of Knyaz Mikhail Andreevich chronicle article of 1305
Abukov S.N.
Abstract
Among many controversial issues of Russian genealogy, a special place belongs to the problem of Knyaz Mikhail Andreevich origin, the chronicle article of 1305. It is known that he was married in the Horde and came to Nizhny Novgorod, where he executed the insurgent residents. The problem of his origin is related to the early history of Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod knyazes dynasty and the inheritance of power in Rus in those years. In general, the history of the Russian lands in the XIII-XIV centuries is poorly covered by sources, and each new fact complements our understanding of this period. The name of the father of the knyaz is not mentioned in the sources. There are two opposing opinions in the scientific literature that cannot be combined. Some historians consider this knyaz to be the son of Andrei Alexandrovich of Gorodets, others - Andrei Yaroslavich of Suzdal. In the paper the author, on the basis of a critical analysis of the sources and arguments of historians, comes to the conclusion that Mikhail Andreyevich is the son of Andrei of Gorodets, who came to the city of his father. This is indicated by the presence of his name in the synodics, his mention in those years, connection with the inheritance of the knyaz of Gorodets, the marriage policy, etc. On the contrary, Mikhail of Suzdal is mentioned long before 1305 and has nothing to do with Nizhny Novgorod, which was not yet a part of the Suzdal Principality at the beginning of the 14th century. According to the author, the knyaz died early and was not the ancestor of the Suzdal knyazes.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):151-155
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A failed circumnavigation of «Elizabeth»
Mikheev D.V.
Abstract
The second circumnavigation, accomplished by the Englishman under the leadership of Francis Drake, followed the expedition of Magellan to one of the most important enterprises of the Age of Discovery. The expedition members who returned with Drake on the «Golden hind» became heroes and were enriched by the robbery of the Spanish colonies on the Pacific coast of America. However, another ship was able to return to England under the command of Captain Winter. We can judge about his journey, relying on the few reports and diaries of two members of the crew of «Elizabeth» - notes of John Cook and more detailed notes of Edward Cliff. The Vice-Admiral’s ship «Elizabeth», having lost the flagship of the expedition, was thrown back into the Strait of Magellan and returned to its homeland across the Atlantic, without having made a circumnavigation. The choice of the way back and the refusal to continue the expedition was the sole decision of Captain Winter. Attempts to go along the Brazilian coast in order to achieve profitability by means of trade or robbery led to serious losses among the crew and the prosecution of the Captain Winter. Probably for this reason British studies don’t pay any serious attention to the journey of «Elizabeth».
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):156-161
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Participation of the Armenian Apostolic Church in the educational and administrative activities of Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages
Avetisyan V.R.
Abstract
The Institute of Oriental Languages (Lazarev Institute) throughout its existence (1815-1921) has undergone a number of transformations, namely, having started its activity from a private school, it achieved the status of a state higher educational institution. Understanding a special role of religion in preserving the ethnic characteristics of the Armenian nation in the absence of statehood, prominent Russian public and state figures of Lazarev contributed to strengthening the status of the church within the walls of the institute. Representatives of the Armenian Apostolic Church (AAC) provided all possible assistance to the educational process, first at school, and then at the institute. The apogee in 1841 became the legal consolidation of the rights of the AAC to directly participate in leading the institute and obtaining the status of the honorary member of the institute by the Catholicos. Many Armenian clergies have made a significant contribution to the development of the educational institution, acting as a guarantor of the cultural foundations of the Armenian people. With the assistance of the church, new directions acted at the Lazarev Institute, scholarships were established, and literature was published. The materials obtained during the research can serve as a basis for further studying the role of church organizations in the educational life of secondary and higher educational institutions of the country.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):161-165
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General-criminal prisons of the Russian Empire in the XIX century (on the example of the Orenburg province)
Kuznetsova Y.V.
Abstract
The paper attempts to provide, on the basis of archival and published materials, a brief description of the state of general prisons in the Russian Empire in the 19th century on the example of the Orenburg province. In the first half of the XIX century, many prison buildings were in a dilapidated state, most of them were wooden. The prisoners suffered from overcrowding, they were not separated by sex and age, the sick were kept together with the healthy ones, they were hungry, they lived in begging. Very often the premises for prisons were private rental houses. There were no medical personnel in prisons, there were epidemics that led to a huge increase in mortality. As for the work, in the first half of the XIX century in prison locks and guards it was introduced in the rarest cases, since there were no special rooms for this. In the post-reform period, many prison premises were repaired, premises began to be rented for hospitals, the prisoners’ diet improved in the 1980s. The payment for arrest labor was introduced, the «educational» activity in prisons improved. Despite the measures taken by the government, the state of ordinary prisons in the southern Urals throughout the XIX century was still deplorable due to the fact that there was not enough money, or the local administration was not interested in improving the situation of the prisoners and the state of the prisons themselves.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):165-169
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Orthodox missionary in interfaith interaction in the south of Western Siberia in the second third of XIX - beginning of XX century
Nasonov A.A.
Abstract
The paper considers the problems of the Christian doctrine spread in the context of incorporation into Russia and the cultural development of the Siberian territory. The object of the research is the Orthodox missionary; the subject is the specifics of the missionary activity of Orthodox adepts in interfaith relations and contradictions. The author sets a goal to determine the role of Orthodox missionary in interfaith interaction in the south of Western Siberia in the second third of XIX - beginning of XX century. The paper focuses on the traditional and innovative tactical methods of improving preaching, which was transformed under the influence of changes in the state course with regard to national outskirts, and the intensification of confessional rivals. In the paper on the example of changes in the religious situation at the beginning of the XX century the author characterizes reaction of the Altai spiritual missioners to the public manifestation of the Burkhanist movement, which was a regional syncretic variation of Northern Buddhism. The author concludes that as a result of its purposeful activity, Orthodox missionary actualized the ideas of monotheism and messianism in the traditional religious consciousness of the indigenous people, but they were more successfully interpreted by Buddhist adepts in the dogma of Burkhanism. This fact contributed to the transition of missionary work from predominantly flexible methods of Christianization and to more hard and intensive methods of dogma spreading.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):170-174
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Fraternization in the 8th army of the South-Western front in March-August 1917
Kuritsyn S.V.
Abstract
This paper attempts to explore specifics of fraternization in one of the most efficient armies of the Eastern European Theater during the First World War - the 8th army of the South-Western front. The election of this chronological framework - spring-summer 1917 - was due to the fact that it was during this period of fraternization and its close forms when soldiers of the opposing armies were unprecedentedly widespread on the Russian front in general and in the 8th army in particular. This was due to the fact that after the fall of the monarchy in Russia, the soldiers masses wanted to put an end to the war. Fraternization at the front became possible due to the weakening of the power of the command staff in the conditions of the revolution. The paper presents the facts of the Austro-German side interest in fraternization development, as well as the measures taken by the command of the Russian army and the soldiers’ committees to stop fraternization. It should be noted that for most Russian soldiers fraternization was of great interest because it allowed them to barter with the military forces of the Quadruple Alliance, which had an opportunity to obtain bread in exchange for any things or alcohol.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):174-182
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The fate of cultural and historical values of Russia at the crossroads of eras (1917-1927)
Tatarenkova N.A.
Abstract
The paper deals with the problems of preserving objects of Russian history and culture in 1917-1927. The author analyzes contradictory processes in the cultural life of the Soviet state in the first post-revolutionary decade. Based on archival sources, she shows the activities of the departments for protection of art monuments and antiques, the role of creative intelligentsia in saving and museumification of cultural and historical values. For example, she describes the first state inventory of art and historical values, as well as realization difficulties of their protection policy in some provinces. There are also some wreck and ruin examples of nobility’s country estates. The author emphasizes the role of creative intelligentsia in saving and museumification of cultural values and characterizes some cultural workers of the designated era accentuating that they «have corrected», to a certain extent, revolutionary nihilism of the authorities concerning the cultural heritage. Due to this fact, the 1920s became the «Golden age» in the history of museum business. During this period, public and private repositories replenished country’s museums with works of art and antiquities. The author concludes that the museumification of Church buildings and objects relating to divine worship was a way to save them for total destruction. The author uses new dates, gathered in the central and regional archives of Russian Federation.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):182-186
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Weeds, diseases and plant pests as factors of famine in 1932-1933
Nazarenko N.N., Bashkin A.V.
Abstract
Land tenure system (individual land using and conventional farming) which had been formed in the USSR by the middle 1920th, single-crops and low farming techniques and farming chemicalization led to emergency development of weeds, diseases and plant pests. In spite of agricultural enterprises consolidation and attempts to remove farming techniques backwardness, the grain production in the USSR had been doomed for weeds, diseases and plant pests outbreak that occurred in 1932 in main cereals regions of the USSR. Consequently, catastrophic epizooties of some plant pests and catastrophic epiphytoties of weeds as well as cereal crops mycosis led to catastrophic losses of yield that took place in 1932 in main cereals regions of the USSR. The highest level of pest infestation, dockage of grain was observed in 1932, it was the cause of cereals crops baking value fall. From quarter to half of gross grain yield was off-grade and from 30 to 70% of grains were unapt for food in 1932-1933. The most sufferers were the main cereals regions - Ukraine and Northern Caucasus, where the greatest mortality was observed in 1933. Thus, weeds, diseases and plant pests were one of principal factors of crop failure and bad cereals crops baking value as well as famine in 1932-1933. In spite of high mycosis infection of grains, high mortality from mycosis intoxication wasn’t confirmed.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):186-193
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RAND Corporation: Robert Komer activities
Lyozin A.I.
Abstract
RAND Corporation is a «think tank» in the USA. It is a corporation in which experts of different fields of science write analytical works devoted to that or other problem. RAND has strong authority in the USA. Many works on Vietnam were done by the state order of the USA (from the Ministry of Defense), including Robert Komer’s works (conducted by the request of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency at the U.S. Department of Defense). It is the research of this expert that is discussed in this paper. The paper looks at the biography of Robert Komer in the context from the conflict in Vietnam to cooperation with the RAND Corporation. In Vietnam, on the personal instructions of the US President Lyndon Johnson, Komer was the head of the program of «appeasement» or officially: the program of «Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support» (CORDS). Having completed his activities in Vietnam, Komer shared his experience and knowledge in reports for the RAND Corporation. His works are addressed to the problems of the counterpartisan war. The paper describes the work of Robert Komer in the framework of the RAND Corporation. In conclusion, the relevance is emphasized. Due to the events such as the US invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq, Komer’s activities in the implementation of the CORDS program in Vietnam have gained increased interest from many modern experts.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):193-196
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The problem of the protest movement development in the Pridnestrovian Region of the Moldavian SSR (late 1980s)
Slobodyanyuk G.E.
Abstract
The subject of the study is an analysis of the causes for the protest movement development in the Pridnestrovian Region of the Moldavian SSR in 1988-1989. Particular attention is paid to the «language issue», which became the main reason for the creation of the Pridnestrovian protest movement. The paper describes the socio-political situation in the Moldavian SSR in the late 1980s, which contributed to the creation of the main acting forces of civil conflict in the republic, namely, nationalist organizations and the internationalist protest movement. The novelty of the study is the analysis of the process of creating a protest movement in the Pridnestrovian Region of Moldova. This problem has not been studied in the historiography of Pridnestrovie and the Republic of Moldova yet. The author comes to the conclusion that the nationalist-minded part of the republican leadership, with the direct support of the Popular Front and the inaction of the Central Committee of the CPM, contributed to the politicization of the «language issue», while taking the course toward secession from the USSR and the subsequent entry into the state of Romania. In this historical situation, the Russian-speaking multinational population, together with the Moldovan population of the Pridnestrovian Region, was forced to create a protest movement in order to protect its civil and constitutional rights, as well as preserve the territory of its region within the Soviet state.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):197-202
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Public ecological organizations of the Volga Region and their relations with the government in 1980-1990
Makeeva E.D.
Abstract
In 1980-1990 in the Soviet Union the activity of nature protection movement has sharply increased against processes of society democratization and considerable deterioration of ecological conditions. A considerable number of various public ecological organizations were established; they tried to adjust dialogue with the government and actively involved the population in sociopolitical life of the country. The following paper considers contribution to ecological movement development in the cities of the Middle and the Lower Volga Region where the public fought against the policy of nature management directed first of all on satisfaction of the USSR economic departments interests as well as against inability of the authorities to solve local problems of environment protection effectively. The author considers most widespread forms of the public ecological organizations activity, analyzes their relations with the local and regional authorities in dynamics. The paper also contains examples of interactions of the government and the public when solving nature protection problems. Studying the experience of the Volga Region ecological movement activity can promote making positive relations of ecologists with representatives of the government in modern Russia that finally will allow to improve the general nature protection situation in the country.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):203-208
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«Democracy distribution» strategy as a mechanism for U.S. foreign policy goals achieving (late 1980s - first half of the 1990s)
Belevtseva S.N.
Abstract
The paper deals with the US foreign policy during the presidency of George W. Bush and B. Clinton’s first presidential term. The author analyzes practical steps of the American administration related to the use of «democracy distribution» strategy as one of the main tools of the American foreign policy. The paper traces the use of «democracy distribution» strategy for the purpose of American global leadership achieving in the conditions of the unipolar world. The author also shows the influence on the US foreign policy precedent creation - lack of deterrent in the face of the USSR. Special attention is paid to the promotion of American-style democracy to the regions of the world where conflict situations arose. The paper also contains the facts that the American establishment justified the necessity of American leadership in international affairs as well as the assessments of the US foreign policy of power pressure under the slogan of «democracy distribution». The paper is based on the documentary materials of the US presidents G.W. Bush and B. Clinton, as well as documents of the U.S. Department of state and Congress. The views of prominent American political scientist Henry Kissinger, President of the American economic strategy Institute Clyde Prestowitz and Russian historian Vladimir Sogrin are used to assess the activities of the American administrations.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):208-213
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Japanese collection of V.V. Vereshchagin: questions, answers, secrets
Katsnelson G.S.
Abstract
The paper is dedicated to the collection of Japanese art objects, which were bought by the famous Russian artist V.V. Vereshchagin during his travelling to Japan in 1903. The paper represents the main information about the travel and excerpts from Vereshchagin’s memories about the country and art objects he bought. The description of the Vereshchagin’s collection was made on the base of the memories of Vereshchagin’s son and the catalogue of the collection which was published for the trade-exhibition in Moscow in 1910. Japanese collection’s part of the catalogue consists of the objects № 76-355. Some groups were distinguished among those artifacts: interior items, textile, clothes, accessories, enamel, bronze, turtle, porcelain, faience and different trivia. The description of the collection was made in connection with those groups. Some thoughts are represented about the main reasons of the collection’s trade-exhibition and its fate after the trade-exhibition. Analyzing the art objects, which were brought by Vereshchagin from Japan could help to understand what artist’s interest was in Japanese life.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):213-219
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War, Imperialism, and colonies: a view of the US press
Buranok S.O.
Abstract
Questions about the perspectives of the European empires colonial system after the Great War, forms and ways of its transition to postcolonial age, relativity of the colonial powers experience to the US foreign policy, were very popular and quite debating for the American public opinion during and after the end of the World War I. colonial system research cannot be complete without studying the press of the powers that signed the Versailles Treaty. In order to give a detailed analysis of international relationships in terms of the global transformations from the American point of view relevant newspaper articles published after the Great War should be analyzed. The results have shown changes in priority in schemes of colonial system transformation as it was viewed in American public discourse during 1919-1922. Woodrow Wilson plan for the colonial powers dismantle was gradually replaced by the less radical plans, which presupposed the use of the colonial experience in the US foreign policy. Materials of the American press for the 1919-1922 reveals that there was a search of the most effective and optimum strategy of the relations with the European empires as well as with its dependent territories. Analysis of American press reveals its steady interest in negative and positive experience of colonial empires in search of the «lessons of history». In 1919-1922 most prominent journalists were focused on Europe, which was represented as the cornerstone for the US foreign policy by the White House, the US State Department and the media. And we can clearly see another factor affecting approaches to the colonial issue in American press. It was the Soviet Russia attention and support to the national liberation movements in Asia and Africa. The «Red Menace» had become one of the factors that forced American media to redefine the colonial issue in light of the new world order which had been created after the end of the Great War on the base of the Versailles Treaty.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):219-222
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13.00.00 – Pedagogical Sciences
Conceptual foundations of higher education in the digital economy
Bogoslovskiy V.I., Busygina A.L., Aniskin V.N.
Abstract
In the paper the authors identified seven key conceptual foundations of higher education based on the analysis of organizational and substantive features of networking, digitalization and on-lineization process of the Russian education system (NDORES), as a continuation of e-Learning development in the digital educational environment (DEE) and the results of the assessment of the Russian higher education readiness to the digital economy, obtained by N.V. Dneprovskoy. These include conceptual condition for the recognition of the leading role of the DEE in the system of «science - culture - learner - intelligence» for education subjects reflection development in human-machine systems and information society; optimization of continuous education concept on the basis of NDORES principles; directive change of educational process (EP) stereotypes in DEE; creation of a system of mandatory training and retraining of education subjects for daily learning and teaching activities in DEE; optimization, adaptation and digital transformation of the content of the main professional educational programs (MPEP) of training in the framework of existing and future Federal state educational standards of higher education (FSES HO); determination of effective motivational and value bases for communicative competence development of education the subjects in NDORES; changing legislative and policy approaches to the organization of NDORES, including provisions of the Labour code of the Russian Federation in the part concerning the rights and responsibilities of teachers carrying out their work in the context of DEE. The paper substantiates the demand for these conceptual foundations in the strategic and tactical directions of digitalization of higher education in the digital economy.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):223-230
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Problems, essence and forms of students’ research activity organization in the system of higher education
Brazhnik O.Y., Batrachenko E.A.
Abstract
This paper describes features of students’ research activities organization. The authors consider possibilities of research use while studying the courses of the variable part of the educational program. This paper focuses on the role of industrial practice in the implementation of research activities. The approximate content of practices programs, as well as the typology of tasks aimed at research work intensification is given. The authors emphasize the role of research activities for general professional and professional competencies development. The paper also considers peculiarities of estimation and ways of scientific-research work optimization while studying for the Master’s degree. The conducted studies have shown that the assessment of competencies development can be carried out on various indicators, the following indicators are of fundamental importance: practical nature of scientific and innovative activity (participation in fundamental landscape and geographical research, modernization and creation of landscape programs of general scientific and applied importance), originality of the idea and creative approach, use of the latest technologies of landscape planning and design.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):230-234
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Cultural, professional, job-related competences and development of the course «Fitness and gymnastics for yoga coaches»
Buranok O.M., Serper S.A.
Abstract
The paper deals with specifics of cultural, professional, job-related competences development of Physical Education and Sports Bachelors (training code 44.03.01). Teaching programs are designed according to the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard (the third generation), approved by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. Acquiring professional competencies are crucial for any coach or specialist in athletics. Moreover, the personality-oriented approach to the system of modern higher education presupposes development of personal skills such as independence, self-motivation and self-reliance. These qualities help the field experts build a healthy Russian society. The authors define knowledge, skills and abilities for cultural, professional, job-related competences to implement in the syllabus of Fitness and Gymnastics for Yoga Coaches.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):235-238
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Task approach to introducing values to prospective lawyers
Vdovin S.A.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to the problem of training a prospective lawyer who is able to build his professional activity on value grounds. The urgency of the problem of introducing values to prospective lawyers is argued from the position that the values of good, truth, justice, etc., becoming motives for the activities of a lawyer, ensure voluntary, free and informed fulfillment of moral requirements, which is an important condition for ensuring the security of individuals and the state. The content of the task approach to the introduction of values to prospective lawyers is revealed through the «task» concept content, and a problematic place occupies a special place. The «suprasituative level of problem detection» and the «situational level of problem detection» are considered in relation to the «task» concept. It is substantiated that the task approach orients the teacher to the introduction of values to prospective lawyers in the process of their involvement in solving problems of a supra-situational level in which they (prospective lawyers) find personal meaning. The author shows the effectiveness of personally-oriented tasks use for introducing values to prospective lawyers. It is shown that the penetration into the personal meaning of the task is possible both through its content and through the methods of its solution. An algorithm for solving a personally-oriented task is given: 1) an analysis of the situation of the lawyer professional activity; 2) formulation of the problem on the basis of the given situation; 3) analysis of the available means suitable for choosing ways of finding a solution to the problem; 4) action planning; 5) analysis of the results of their actions; 6) setting of new tasks. The author gives an example of how to use a personally-oriented task in the process of prospective lawyers’ training.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):239-243
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Formative assessment techniques as a tool for the development of the behavioral-reflexive component of the future teacher’s professional culture
Voronina M.A., Zubova S.P., Kochetova N.G.
Abstract
This paper discusses current issues of future teachers’ training, in particular their professional culture development. There are five components in the teachers’ professional culture. The problem of its behavioral-reflexive component development is posed. The authors analyze the federal state educational standard of higher education as well as highlight prerequisites for the development of the behavioral-reflective component of future teachers’ professional culture. The paper considers techniques of formative assessment as an important element of future teachers’ professional training. Formative assessment strategies are analyzed; they are divided into five groups. The authors argue that the use of formative assessment techniques for future teachers’ training at universities contributes to the development of the behavioral-reflexive component of their professional culture. The analysis of educational and methodical literature allowed the authors to single out the techniques of formative assessment used in the process of future teachers’ training. The methodologies identified by the authors formed the basis of the developed educational-methodical complex of the course «Professional culture of the teacher» aimed at future teachers’ professional culture development. The paper presents the results of the experiment aimed at development of the behavioral-reflexive component of future teachers’ professional culture.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):243-248
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Prerequisites and prospects for health-saving pedagogy development in the Murmansk Region
Kievskaya O.G., Erokhova N.V.
Abstract
The paper briefly presents an analysis of students’ competences development at Murmansk Arctic State University: readiness to maintain the level of physical training, providing a full-fledged activity, as well as readiness to ensure students’ life and health protection within the Federal state educational standard of higher education. On the basis of the pedagogical research conducted among students of Murmansk Arctic State University, the authors propose prerequisites and prospects for health-saving pedagogy development in the Murmansk Region, define priorities of the health center, opened at the University, work out organizational and pedagogical recommendations for the educational process optimization, focusing on physical culture, preservation and strengthening of students’ health, taking into account climatic and geographical features of the region. The following tendency is revealed: introduction of the individual differentiated approach into the educational process of physical education taking into account the type of students’ constitution showed its efficiency in comparison with other approaches in physical education of students. The main thing is the use of this pedagogical method contributes to the development of young people’s motivational-value attitude to physical culture and a healthy lifestyle: as a result of pedagogical experiment, the majority of respondents expressed a desire to be engaged in physical training on a regular basis and showed interest in health-saving technologies.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):248-252
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Theory and organization of complex control at Physical Education
Korovin S.S.
Abstract
The quality of the directed usage of physical culture in education values, comprehensive and complex reproduction of the personality, demands a system organization of physical education processes management, which, in its turn, makes it necessary to create and realize a system of complex control of physical culture «translators» processes and the results of its assimilation. Complex control in this case is a system of management, organization, diagnostics and estimation actions to define the effectiveness of physical education process (processes of physical culture assimilation) and the quality of its correspondence to the established purposes-demands. The system of complex control is represented by two components - directions of its organization and realization: control of a physical education system (including control of external environment factors; physical education competences; educational environment) and the control of a physical education object (including medico biological, psychological and pedagogical forms of control concerning the basic and physical culture of the personality separately). Psychological and pedagogical control is realized with regard to total sizes of the body, physical, technical, behavior, mental and theoretical readiness as well as with regard to each component of the basic culture of the personality (ethical, aesthetic, civil, labour, intellectual (cognitive), communicative). The medico biological form of control comprises diagnostics and evaluation of physical growth data (total sizes of the body, first of all), correspondence of the passport age to the biological and functional readiness (the state of the vascular and respiratory systems), physical working capacity and physical adaptation as well as general state of health.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):253-259
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Interpretation of the communicative approach in the education of primary school in an inclusive class by the participants of the educational process (based on the study of educational institutions of Perm Krai)
Kosolapova L.A., Lyskova G.T.
Abstract
The research work deals with the study of the concept of communicative approach in the education of children with disabilities, the study gives the definition of «communication», «competence», «speech activity», «inclusive education». The research attempts with the review of theoretical literature on the problem of the communicative approach in teaching children with disabilities in general education institutions of the Russian Federation. The authors analyze the material of the regulatory framework for the implementation of inclusive education in the Russian Federation, refers to the empirical base of research questionnaires of teaching staff of educational institutions through the prism of the viability of inclusive teaching methods in Perm Krai. The authors point to the shortcomings of the forms of interaction between the teaching staff and children with special needs in the development, conclude that the implementation of the communicative approach in education is the most effective method of interaction within the framework of the inclusive education program in the Russian Federation, provide recommendations for the successful implementation of this approach. The analysis showed that information and communication competence most successfully developed in the work of small groups, with the group use of the case method in the application of the model method of training, especially when using different variations of business games and technologies based on the use of information and communication electronic technologies.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):260-265
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Methods of population study in a biology course at school
Lamekhov Y.G., Lamekhova E.A.
Abstract
This paper discusses methods of population study in a Biology course at school based on characteristics of educational process organization at secondary and high school. The concept of «population», introduced in biology at the beginning of the XX century, was not immediately included in the school course, although at the moment it is used in the study of both private and general biological sciences. The connection of the concept content with genetics, ecology and synthetic theory of evolution is obvious. On the basis of this, there are different interpretations of the «population» concept, mutually complementing each other. The paper states that it is necessary to give correct examples of populations that should emphasize the state of isolation, duration of existence and the possibility of crossing between organisms within a population. The importance of using a schematic representation of populations and its examples is also noted. A schematic representation is a reflection of two basic variants of organism’s distribution in the population and discussion of the role of these variants in the maintenance of the population existence. However, the considered subordination in the population is also important in ensuring the evolutionary process. The development of the population concept is based on the Hardy-Weinberg’s law introduced in a Biology course at school, which until recently was only studied at the University course of Genetics. But full awareness of the population is possible only when considering this law, which characterizes the genetic structure of populations. The proposed approach is based on the ecological-evolutionary approach to the study of basic general biological concepts in school and University courses.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):265-271
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Pedagogical ways of military university students’ professional experience development in crisis situations
Malashenko L.I.
Abstract
The paper deals with the role of professional experience in training military specialists to work in modern conditions, associated with the emergence and development of crisis situations that permeate virtually all spheres of society. It is obvious that the existence of any state is unthinkable without professionally trained, qualified and experienced defenders. This increases interest in the development of professional experience of officers as an important component of the readiness for effective action of anti-crisis orientation. The paper shows methodological approaches to the study of the process of military university master’s experience development. The author proposes a definition of a military specialist professional readiness on the basis of scientific works analysis. The author also considers distinctive features of the officer’s professional experience development. The author defines the main ways of professional experience development in crisis situations for military university undergraduates. They combine theory with practice and research activities, the use of international experience and experience of veterans of wars and military conflicts, pedagogical support of students with the value content of education, differentiation of training with a special position of the teaching staff, with special attention to military university students’ professional experience development.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):271-277
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«Russian world» concept in the course of foreign students’ sociocultural competence development
Marchuk S.V.
Abstract

In this paper the author analyzes the «Russian world» concept which has become a stable term in Russia as well as around the world; the analysis of the concept is accompanied by teaching the Russian language to foreign students. The author describes how foreign students can use knowledge of the Russian world traditions during their stay in Russia while learning the Russian language. The author also explains why the concept of the Russian world should be written without quotation marks. Ideological postulates are being assessed critically. A new approach to the Russian world concept is offered taking into account historical and philosophical consequences. The author of the paper interprets the main sense of the concept for studying the Russian world traditions by foreign students who learn the Russian language. The aim of the paper is to develop sociocultural competence with the help of an adequate interpretation of the Russian world concept to foreign students who learn the Russian language. The author considers that a teacher (an instructor) is responsible for correctness and completeness of the information given to students. Hence teaching foreign students depends on teachers’ (instructors’) ideology, knowledge and methods of teaching. According to the author it is especially important to study the offered subject at present.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):277-281
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Development of primary school prospective teachers’ project competence in the process of higher education
Parfenova T.A., Sevenyuk S.A.
Abstract
The paper considers some results of a fundamental research devoted to development of primary school prospective teachers’ project competence in the process of higher education. The authors reveal the relevance of the pedagogical design study and students’ project activities. The paper contains advantages of the design paradigm of education, competence model of teaching. The authors reveal the problem of prospective teachers’ project competence development in the unity of system, cultural, activity and personality-oriented approaches. The paper proposes a definition of a teacher project competence, a structure of a project competence, as well as the author’s model of development of primary school prospective teachers’ project competence in the process of higher education, and highlights blocks, stages, components, criteria and levels. The authors have developed indicators of three levels of teachers’ project competence development. The paper describes in detail the experimental work on prospective teachers’ project competence development: methodical approaches to the organization of the experiment are described, methods, stages are listed and tasks of the experiment by stages are revealed. The paper also presents the authors’ technology of project competence development, it identifies three modules: socio-cultural, psychological and pedagogical. The paper describes in detail the results and analysis of the final stage of the experimental work: empirical data of several sections, qualitative analysis of the results in the experimental and control groups.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):282-288
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Pedagogical practice as an essential component of methodological training of students majoring in biology
Razakhanova V.P.
Abstract
The paper pays attention to the practical orientation of students’ professional training at pedagogical universities. The author considers that pedagogical practice is the most effective form of a prospective Biology teacher training, when professional competencies develop on the basis of professional problems solving in a real educational process at school. The paper presents the study results showing that the content of pedagogical (intern) practice, structured as a set of educational and professional tasks corresponding to the professional tasks of a teacher, develops students’ interest in the professional work of a Biology teacher. When selecting the content of the pedagogical practice, it should be taken into account that students face problems arising in the conditions of the real educational process; actively interact with all participants in the process, learn to think critically, make responsible decisions. It was noted that the lack of willingness of modern students to solve professional tasks of a Biology teacher is explained by the students themselves for several reasons: lack of desire to work at school due to low wages; lack of knowledge and skills in Biology and methods of teaching Biology; indiscipline and gaps in knowledge; health problems. It was revealed that students are not ready for pedagogical practice at school because of a low level of some methodological skills important for the work of a Biology teacher.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):289-292
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Integral cognitive tasks as a means of schoolchildren’s meta-subject competences development and evaluation
Sagaydachnaya V.V., Sagaydachny V.A.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the urgent problem of schoolchildren’s meta-subject competences development, which requires optimal methodological approaches identification and specific teaching tasks development. The authors, on the basis of a categorical-conceptual apparatus analysis of a competence-based approach to learning, identify and analyze characteristic features of didactic means used for these competences development. The paper discusses a possibility of integral cognitive tasks use as a means of schoolchildren’s meta-subject competences development for teaching natural science subjects, in particular, Chemistry. The paper also presents principles for integrated cognitive tasks development, contains their characteristics as well as examples of such tasks. An important condition for meta-subject competences evaluation is the choice of tools that allow them to carry out a comprehensive diagnosis. The authors have shown that it is possible to use integral cognitive tasks for assessing the level of schoolchildren’s meta-subject competences development. They also provide diagnostic tools and present an example of task assessment. The paper discusses meta-subject results; their achievement is possible when teaching Chemistry at a secondary school, an attempt is made to correlate them with meta-subject competences. The results of an experimental test allow us to speak about the effectiveness of the developed system application at a secondary school if integral cognitive tasks are used as a complex in the educational process.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):292-297
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Environmental education of students by means of hydrobotany
Solovieva V.V., Semenov A.A., Yaitsky A.S.
Abstract
Currently, environmental education is considered as a key principle of sustainable development of society and nature. It represents the uniform continuous educational process directed on development of a system of ecological knowledge, abilities, skills, valuable installations, experience of activity and competence of the careful attitude to environment and rational nature management. Hydrobotany has great opportunities in terms of environmental education of students. We consider hydrobotanics to be the science of aquatic plants, their communities, processes of overgrowing of ponds and streams. It studies the features of external and internal water macrophytes structure, their life processes, the relationship between them and the environment, diversity, distribution, introduction, role in nature and human life (outecology); composition and structure of aquatic phytocenoses, their production and destruction, as well as the processes of formation of aquatic vegetation and its dynamics (synecology). Hydrobotany has its purpose and objectives, object, subject and methods of research, open laws, special conceptual apparatus, history of development. It occupies a certain place in the system of sciences. In Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education Hydrobotany is included in the curriculum of the main professional educational programs of the bachelor’s degree «Pedagogical education» (majors «Biology» and «Geography», «Biology» and «Chemistry», «Biology») as a discipline for students’ choice. We have developed a model of environmental education of students in the process of teaching Hydrobotany. It consists of four components: targeted, substantive, procedural, monitoring and evaluation. The target component-includes the purpose and objectives of the discipline «Hydrobotany» in the field of environmental education of students. Content component-covers the system of environmental knowledge on Hydrobotany; skills and experience of activities on the ecology of aquatic plants; value systems for aquatic plants and their communities; special competence of aquatic plants ecology study, their protection, careful and rational use. Procedural component-contains forms, methods, tools and technologies of environmental education. Control and evaluation component includes educational results; forms, types and methods of control, as well as a system of evaluation of individual achievements of students.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):298-303
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Cognitive processes development of future interpreters in the course of the professional training
Timofeeva N.P., Fokeeva Y.A., Fedorchukova L.A.
Abstract

The paper deals with the specifics of interpretation skills development. The authors review the role of an interpreter in the act of communication, point out different aspects of interpretation, the success of which is determined by the ability for cross-cultural dialogue. As far as several sensory channels in the work of the interpreter are used, the necessity of special training of concentration, memory, thinking and oral skills and abilities is stated. Moreover the ways of cognitive processes development of future interpreters are described. It should be noted that a set of special exercises for cognitive processes perfection is given. The technique was tested during the training of third-year students studied interpreting. The paper contains a comparative analysis of results taken from diagnostics of both student groups training by the mentioned system of tasks and student groups training without this system. The studies carried out show that students training with special set of exercises focused on cognitive processes development demonstrate higher results. The data obtained can be used for further theoretical studies and for search of progressive methodical decisions.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):303-307
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Determinants of students’ healthy lifestyle development
Tyumaseva Z.I., Orekhova I.L., Bistray E.B., Artemenko B.A., Chelnokova E.A.
Abstract

The paper focuses on the importance of a healthy lifestyle development among students, which is reflected in the Concept of Health System Development in the Russian Federation until 2020. The authors identify the determinants of a healthy lifestyle development, which include: spatial-environmental, motivational-reflexive, activity-methodical, tutor-project determinants. These determinants are interrelated; it provides an increase in the efficiency of a healthy lifestyle development among students. In the field of activity-methodical determinant the authors consider problems of practice-oriented training of teachers. The results of a survey among students and teachers show that students are not ready to accept the values of a healthy lifestyle while teachers are not ready to use health-saving technologies. In this regard, the authors have developed and tested a program for improving teachers’ qualifications in the field of health preservation, contributing to the development of skills to apply health saving technologies. The tutor-project determinant determines a functional field of the tutor in project activities of students aimed at health preservation.

Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):307-313
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Application of pedagogical theories, concepts and teaching methods for intelligent learning systems design
Tsybov N.N.
Abstract
The analysis of intelligent learning systems efficiency revealed a number of contradictions between the capabilities of software-integrated computer hardware facilities and low didactic efficiency of their use. Therefore, when designing intelligent learning systems, the task of researching and analyzing the existing psycho-pedagogical theories, concepts and training methods is still urgent today. The purpose of the paper is to study existing theories, concepts and learning methods for adapting them to automated software-integrated hardware learning facilities. The paper proposes variants of teacher and student’s adaptation to intelligent learning systems capabilities. Meanwhile, in the process of user’s adaptation to intelligent learning system by changing the color presentation of information blocks, it’s possible to gain a chance to influence students’ psycho-emotional state favorably. The author considers various fonts (words image) application which influence the efficiency of perception and capture of visual information; the author takes into account psycho physiological capacities of human capture of visual information and considers functionality of informing software-integrated hardware facilities, namely: volume and speed of visual information processed; - increasing the sizes of graphic pictures by which a certain person cannot analyze information presented. The methodological basis of the research is a complex application of mutually supportive approaches and methods based on the principles of general scientific methodology. The main approaches were - Person-oriented, system-working and competence-oriented approaches. The analysis of existing theories and concepts has shown that each of the studied educational concepts has its values. The paper considers shortcomings of basic theories and educational concepts from the position of a complex approach to the solution of educational tasks. Thereunder, any of basic applied theories and concepts can be adopted as a single universal educational basis for educational process structuring. A specific emphasis in the paper is aimed at the advantages and disadvantages of the concept of personal-oriented education, which is the most progressive in learning process structuring in author’s opinion and which causes more discords of opponents. Using the results of theories and education concepts analysis the author gives recommendations how to design technical requirements to intelligent learning systems. The conditions of feasibility of intellectual learning systems and their didactic values have been formulated. The results of the research can be used in the design of intelligent learning systems for the purpose of selecting a complex of didactic educational tools.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):314-321
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System of exercises for teaching general knowledge of Russian language and specialty language to Chinese engineering students
Yun L.G.
Abstract
The paper deals with the problem of optimizing the language training process for Chinese engineering students in the framework of joint Sino-Russian programs. The existing curricula on the Russian language as a foreign language (RFL) used to train future engineers have several disadvantages, and therefore do not provide a high level of subject and language competences. This is primarily due to weak contacts between teachers of special disciplines and teachers of the Russian language, the lack of coordination of teaching methods used by Russian and Chinese teachers of Russian. Features of training in a non-linguistic and linguistic environment predetermine the expediency of interconnected teaching of all types of speech activity in Russian. In this case, the system of exercises should be based on taking into account the ethno-psychological characteristics of Chinese students and the learning strategies they use when learning a foreign language. Particular attention should be paid to teaching the language of the specialty on the material of authentic video lectures of subject teachers in Russian. The author concludes that it is necessary to develop nationally oriented teaching aids for Chinese students-non-philologists who study in joint training programs for engineers in 2 + 2 and 3 + 1 schemes.
Samara Journal of Science. 2019;8(1(26)):322-330
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