No 3 (2019)

Articles
«NEW NOBLEWOMEN» IN ENGLAND OF THE FIRST HALF OF THE XV CENTURY: BETWEEN THE NORM AND REALITY
Chernova L.N.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the urgent and poorly known problem of the place and role of women in the English gentry’s community of the first half of the XV century. Using the information from the correspondence of the Armburghs (The Armburgh Papers), the author traces the main stages of Joan Armburgh's life and varieties of her fortune and that of her nieces and finds out how typical they were in accordance with generally accepted ideas about the place and mission of a woman from the gentry’s family. The article shows that the status of a woman was determined by the family and her well-being depended on the relatives - her father and husband. However, this did not exclude the active role of the woman in asserting her rights and interests of the family. The biography of Joan Armburgh and the facts from the life of her nieces, who belonged to the gentry, contradict the idea of weakness and humility of wives in noble families. Difficulties that they had to deal with forced these women to show a surprising for noblewomen activity and persistent desire to defend their interests, relying on their own connections in society and knowledge of law, and on men’s support.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):3-11
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MIGRATION PARADIGM IN GERMANY IN 2000S: CHANGE OF PRIORITIES
Yakubova L.A.
Abstract
The given paper touches upon the problem of German migration policy in contemporary period. The on-going processes allow us to conclude that the German migration paradigm has been changing as well as one of the most successful states in the European Union and as a state endowed with the greatest peace load after the crisis of 2008. The study gives the main qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the German migration policy in the 2000s. First of all, it is characterized by changes in the geography of migration flows. In 2004, with ten new countries entering the EU, the inflow of migrants from Eastern Europe countries began to increase. During this period, the number of immigrants from Poland has almost doubled. After Bulgaria and Romania joined the EU, the number of people from these countries also increased by more than three times. At the period of 2008 crisis, the inflow of migrants from Italy, Spain, Greece and the Balkan countries intensified; the number of migrants from Croatirapidly increasedafter this country joined the EU in 2013. The author analyzes the qualitative composition of migrants and concludes that, from the beginning of the 21st century, the working migration, having dominated for many decades, is gradually changing in favor of skilled workers’ migration. The important role of universities in order to attract highly qualified specialists is substantiated. The migration impact on the labor market is studied with a special attention. It is due to the fact that, when arriving in the country and getting the opportunity to apply skills and realize their human capital, a migrant becomes a kind of investor in the hosting country economy, contributing to its growth. One of its main advantages is that, already having a certain set of knowledge and skills (the hosting country does not need to pay for his education), he can generate new knowledge, create innovations, thereby increasing the competitiveness of the recipient country economy. Germany has a policy of attracting highly qualified migrants to the country. The paper touches upon the innovations in the migration policy of Germany in the 21st century. A “Blue Card” has been introduced for highly qualified professionals in accordance with the EU directive and labor market regulation has been changed. The need to reduce the number of legal restrictions for migrants from third countries, and to improve attitudes towards migrants, despite the failure of the multiculturalism policy, is indicated too. There are still many obstacles to immigrants’active participation in the labor market, such language difficulties, differences in educational systems, and lack of information about vacancies.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):12-17
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SNP - LABOUR COALITION: A DREAM OR A REALITY?
Kozlova D.A.
Abstract
This article is an attempt to analyse the collaboration between the Labour and the Scottish nationalists in the context of the formation of the modern British political agenda. The participants of the British political space, being concerned about the questions of the United Kingdom leaving the European Union, inevitably face a number of challenges, and the problem of their internal interaction remains one of the most significant. Opposition parties are at an impasse: the Brexit negotiations seem as good as paralysed. The Prime Minister is being put in a very difficult position: a motion of no confidence in December, the failure of her proposals for the Brexit deal in January. The ruling conservative party itself is deeply divided. Every now and then there are some calls for a second United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. And in that event, to which extent is the opposotion coalition possible - the Labor Party and the Scottish nationalists? And if so, what are its future prospects?
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):17-23
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GERMAN POLITICAL PARTIES AS A RESOURCE FOR SOCIAL REFORM IN GERMANY IN THE 70S OF THE XIX CENTURY
Bespalova L.N.
Abstract
The paper analyzes the role of political parties and other political resources in the context of social reform in the German Empire in the 1870s. Not only political parties and movements, but also professional associations, entrepreneurial groups that demonstrate a certain degree of social responsibility are referred to political resources. The indicated period in Reich Chancellor O. Bismarck’s domestic policy was marked by an active search for like-minded people represented by representatives of various political parties, economists, and large industrialists for social reforms development and implementation. It is proved that in search of the all-German social support, O. Bismarck demonstrated the ability to maneuver between political parties and groups, business and other social strata. The study focuses on Reich Chancellor’s strategy was aimed at reducing the severity of political and social problems and creating a social balance between different social strata. The author emphasizes that the head of the German government not only sought to isolate the working class out of the social democracy through social concessions, but also to maintain peace and harmony in new industrial society, open the way to its consolidation, which was supposed to come to stability through social reforms. The author pays particular attention to the structure, organization and influence of the political parties. The study provides the statistical data on the share of voters who voted for the parties and the number of deputy mandates received from the results of general elections, as well as describes various political programs.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):23-32
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KAZAKHS IMAGE EVOLUTION AS A PART OF THE STEPPE REGIONS INTEGRATION INTO THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
Gorbunova S.V.
Abstract
The article deals with developing of the Kazakhs image under the influence of changing Russian socio-political environment of the XIXth century. Though the Kazakhs area was nominally a part of the Russian Empire, the Kazakhs were still a serious threat for Russian near-border settlements. It drove to the tensed national relations thus promoting an aggressive and hostile image of the Kazakhs. Later mostly due to boundary conflicts having been arranged and attacks upon the Cossacks having been stopped as well as to closer interpersonal relations having been developed, the negative “barbarian” image of the Kazakhs gave way to a new more positive and attractive one of a little naïve and light-minded, but generous, hospitable, curious, kind and softhearted nation. After The Central Asia was conquered, it had to be completely incorporated into the Russian Empire, and the Kazakhs were treated as the main allies in the process. The further image developing exposed such significant Kazakhs traits as intelligence (they were characterized as “sharp-minded”, “clever”, “curious”), striving for education, seeming religion tolerance (“absence of fanatism”), good-treating the Russians (“Russia favoritism”). All these together held out a hope of the steppe-dwellers easy and quick incorporation into the Russian Empire.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):33-39
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THE USA PRESS ABOUT THE LINER «LUSITANIA» CRASH IN 1915
Soykin A.A.
Abstract
The paper is devoted to one of the most interesting problems in the modern historical science; it analyzes the crash of transatlantic liner “Lusitania” and the reaction of the US printed press towards it in 1915. The importance is increased by the fact that periodicals, being considerable historical sources, are able to introduce new data on the liner wreck with a help of interpolation, as well as to determine the American society’s attitude to this tragic event. As a result, the paper’s subject is the American printed press of 1915 as a source of information about particular events of the World War I. The study analyzes the US periodicals of 1915, such as The New York Times ; The New York Herald ; The Brooklyn Daily Eagle ; The Evening Telegram-New York . The given items are published on the Library of the US Congress’s official website and contain information about the Americansociety’s attitude towards the wreck of Lusitania. The author carried out research using the US newspapers with a help of general scientific research methods, such as: description, analysis, comparative method. We also used special methods of historical research: the historical-comparative method and the cultural-semiotic approach. The given work came to conclusion that the wreck of Lusitania was actively discussed in the USA in 1915. The focus was on the following facts: the number of people killed, the causes of the crush, the American government’s attitude to this tragedy etc. The results of the study allow us to reveal the USA press’s attitude towards Lusitania wreck.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):40-46
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PRAGMATIC FRIENDSHIP OF CHINA AND EAST TIMOR, ITS PREREQUISITES AND POSSIBLE PERSPECTIVES
Tarasova D.A.
Abstract
This article is devoted to cooperation between the People's Republic of China and East Timor (Timor-Leste) as part of Chinese cultural and economic expansion to Southeast Asia. There're a number of reasons for this kind of support, including traditional backup for Timor's independence, China's desire to diversify its energy sources and gain new markets for Chinese goods; consolidate its status as an important partner of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries and to prevent the possible growing influence of Taiwan (the Republic of China). Economically, China for Timor-Leste means cheap imports and potential exports; while Timor remains the base for many projects of Chinese businessmen ever since its getting independence, despite the crisis of 2006. This cooperation leads to impact on other significant actors in the region, such as Indonesia and Australia, which also support Timor, as well as the United States; which oppose the expansion of Beijing's influence in this geostrategically important area. The example of Timor-Leste also illustrates the growing sophistication of Chinese diplomacy and its commitment to using soft power as a counter to the obsolete perception of China as a threat that prevailed earlier in Southeast Asia. In conclusion, if Timorese oil reserves run low, cooperation between two states can be slightly transformed from economic to military; however, the radical changes in Timor's foreign policy, which struggled for their independence for so long, are unlikely.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):46-55
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SOVIET-AMERICAN RELATIONS IN THE PERCEPTION OF CHINESE MEDIA: FROM 1985 THROUGH 1987
Chang X.
Abstract
The article addresses main issues of United States-Soviet Union relations in 1985-1987 as per perception by the Media of the People's Republic of China. After World War II, the world split into two opposing blocs, led by the USA and the USSR. The 1980s brought about a significant shift in international economic relations. In 1985, new trends emerged: firstly, a number of developed and developing countries opposed the arms race fearing it might expand as far as the outer space and bring back the military polarization with unpredictable consequences for the economy; secondly, the demands of renouncing the tough confrontation were voiced within the military alliances. The leaders of both blocs found themselves unable to effectively control their allies. These changes forced the leadership of the USSR and the USA to adopt new foreign policies. This paper describes the course of negotiations between the USSR and the USA, the attitude of the Soviet leaders to American politicians, and the assessments of the actions of Soviet leaders by Chinese media. The evolution of Soviet foreign policy at that period can be divided into three stages: simultaneous dialogue and confrontation, first Soviet concessions and compromises, and two concessions of the USSR. In order to objectively and fairly describe the historical facts of the Soviet-American negotiations in 1985-1987, the author carefully analyzes the most important foreign policies of the USSR from the standpoint of the Chinese press and quotes the opinions of major Chinese newspapers, such as Renmin Ribao , Guangming Ribao , Xinhua Ribao and Zhongguo Qingnian Bao .
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):55-61
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A TSENTROBALT MEMBER: REVISING THE REVOLUTIONARY BIOGRAPHY OF A SARAPUL-BORN MAXIMALIST
Bekherev S.L., Bekhereva L.N.
Abstract
The article addresses the problem of mastering the anthropological approach and the biographical method in studying the events of early Soviet history. This research aimed to reconstruct the life path of a member of the Central Committee of the Baltic Fleet (Tsentrobalt), one of the leaders of the Socialists-Revolutionaries Maximalists Pavel Agafangelovich Krasnopyorov, who was born in Sarapul Prikamye. The study relies on official documents, periodical press of the Russian Civil War period, sources of private origin, including protocols of the Red Guards and Red Partisans committees, publication in such Soviet, Red Army and party newspapers as Volya, Truzhenik and Borba, memoirs of Krasnopyorov’s wife A.D. Krasnopyorova-Egorova-Zamytskaya, memoirs of prisoners of the Death Barges P.M. Nevler and A. Ralnikovs and others. Many of sources were first introduced into scientific discourse. The materials and conclusions were compared with historiographic results obtained by other authors. The analysis of historical evidence revealed how Krasnopyorov, who was born in a poor peasant family in the village Chernovo in Arzamastsevsky volost, Sarapul uyezd, Vyatka governorate, Russian Empire, rose to become a statesperson and a party leader at the regional level. Commissioned by Tsentrobalt and Petrosoviet, he actively contributed to the establishment of Soviet power in the Kama region and was killed by his enemies during the Izhevsk-Votkinsk Uprising in October 1918. The findings can be useful for those who study biographies of historical figures of the same period, helping to understand and evaluate their place and role in the socio-political process without bias.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):62-72
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TARSKY DISTRICT AND HIS EMPLOYEES IN THE FIRST THIRD OF THE XVIII CENTURY
Puzanov V.D.
Abstract
The article examines the situation of Tara uyezd and service people who lived in the town of Tara in the first third of the 18th century. The research relies on such archival materials as responses of officials of Tara uyezd who completed to Prof. G.F. Miller’s questionnaire, books and tables of Siberian prikaz on the servitors in Siberia, and materials from the Senate fund. The article provides data on the town of Tara and Tara uyezd in the 1730s. Tara had a near-border position. A large Oirat state -Dzungar Khanate - was located to the south of Tara, and noble Oirat nomads collected tribute from the Turkic population of the uyezd. The reforms of Peter I made profound changes in the social world of Siberia. In the first third of the 18th century, the composition of the uyezd’s population was significantly altered. A new social group raznochintsy was formed of the relatives of servitors and clergy, and a large part of Tara’s service people were transferred to the garrison regiments of Siberia and the Orenburg governorate. The conflict between Tara’s horse Cossacks and captain Yakov Cheredov is indicative and important for understanding the service in favor of the state at that time. The Cheredovs were a deep-rooted clan of Russian service people who had lived in Tara since its founding. The Cheredovs held a number of important offices in Tara, and many of them became Boyar scions and nobles. After the 1722 Tara Rebellion, in which the Cheredovs played a significant role, they lost their privileged position and became raznochintsy . The ‘old’ service people who were nobles, Boyar scions and Cossacks remained the main military force in Siberian uyezds after the reforms. However, their dependence on the state increased. New garrison regiments in the region were formed in the 1730s, mostly of ‘old’ service people.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):72-81
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BEREZOV UYEZD IN 1595: THE REBELLION OF «FOREIGNERS» AND THE SERVICE PEOPLE
Solodkin Y.G.
Abstract
In 1595, shortly after founding, the Berezov fort was besieged by the Ostyaks (probably under the command of the Kunovat-Lyapin prince Shatrov Luguev) and the Samoeds. A quarter century later, three servicemen from Berezov evidenced in the Kazan Prikaz that the siege, during which the ‘foreigners’ burned the fort, lasted over six months. Contrary to the common opinion, the reliability of this evidence can be doubted because it does not completely agree with the news on Shatrov Luguev’s assault of Berezov in 1594-1595. Moreover, the garrison of the fortress on the Severnaya Sosva river was rather numerous (three hundred Cossacks and ‘Lithuanians’) and it is likely that they were able to make the assaulters retreat. The agitation among the local Ostyaks and Samoyeds subsided, probably, only a few months later, and Moscow considered it expedient to send a punitive detachment, commanded by Prince P.I. Gorchakov, to the Urals. In 1596, together with the Kodi Ostyaks and, apparently, the Berezovites, Gorchakov defeated the Obdor principality and founded the Obdor (Nosovoy) fort.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):82-88
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ON THE DATE OF BIRTH OF PATRIARCH HADRIAN OF MOSCOW AND ALL RUSSIA
Avdeev A.G.
Abstract
The Russian historiographic sources recognize three probable birth dates of Hadrian, the last Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia in 17th century, i.e.1627, 1637 and 1639. The fourth date, 1636, is not widely recognized. Two epitaphs to the Patriarch Hadrian, both written by Karion Istomin, a major court poet of that time, serve as the main source of information about the life of the head of the Russian Church. The first epitaph is prosaic, mounted on his tomb in the shrine of the heads of the Russian Church in the Assumption Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin, and the second is poetic, preserved in the papers of the poet. . This paper establishes that the cause of chronological differences were errors in reading and interpreting the date of the Patriarch's death in the prosaic epitaph, which were made in historical studies of the 19th - early 20th century and without cross-checking with the gravestone inscription were reproduced in various publications. A visual study of the prosaic epitaph, conducted by the author in March 2014, indicates that Patriarch Hadrian died on October 2, 1700 at the age of 62 . The same date is written in the poetic epitaph. The “birthday” of Patriarch Hadrian (October 2), also raises doubts; most likely this date originated in the 19th century on the basis of the day of his baptism. The conducted research on the base of combination of archival sources and critical analysis of the writings of historians of the 19th - early 20th centuries established that Patriarch Hadrian was born in 1638.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):88-93
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TRAVELS OF PARISH PRIESTS AND MISSIONARIES OF THE TOBOLSK NORTH AS A FORM OF INTERACTION OF AUTHORITIES AND SOCIETY IN THE SYNODICAL PERIOD IN THE HISTORY OF RUSSIAN ORTHODOXY
Tsys’ О.Р.
Abstract
The study investigates the relationship between the spiritual and secular authorities regarding travelling arrangements for clergy in the territory of the Tobolsk North during the Synodical Period in the history of Russian Orthodoxy. The difficulties that abbots had to face when travelling to parishes were studied. For a long time travelling arrangements for clergy were unregulated and accompanied by abuse of indigenous population of the region. The search for mechanisms to ensure proper conditions for religious service, including the possibility of visiting parishes, required joint efforts of the state and the church. The secular authorities generally took a negative attitude to the requirements of priests and clergymen to freely use state-owned horses and questioned their travelling needs. Serving the fiscal interests of the State Treasury, the secular authorities were critical of the ‘excessive zeal’ of the clergy and tried to restrain the abuse of wandering and nomadic minorities. By the end of the studied period, the adoption of necessary legislative acts solved the problems of organizing trips for priests and clergymen to entrusted parishes.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):94-107
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THE ATTITUDE OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH TOWARDS THE INFLICTION OF BODILY HARM TO WOMEN BY MEN FROM THE SECULAR AND SPIRITUAL ESTATES IN THE LATE XVIII - EARLY XIX CENTURIES. (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF THE TOBOLSK SPIRITUAL CONSISTORY)
Spichak A.V.
Abstract
At the article discussed the legal status of woman against protection from violence by men in Russia in the late XVIII-early XIX centuries. The author presents the results of a study which content the cases of the Tobolsk ecclesiastical consistory about beating women by men from the high classes and clerical order, identifies common features, identifies the stages of proceedings in such cases at that time, and studies the attitude of the Russian Orthodox church to this problem. It was established that the procedure regarding the punishment of men from high classes and clerical order developed according to the established custom and differed only in the absence of a final paragraph - about sending the order to the lead, because of the lead for clerical order were sovereign Lord. Archival documents indicate that the main cause of bodily harm to women by men in the late XVIII - early XIX centuries were old traditions, and the cause was women «forward behavior» against to, as rule, alcohol intoxication. The consequences were different depending on whether the offender and the victim were married. In the absence of aggravating factors, the offender was waiting only for penance. The Russian Orthodox Church punished her accused wars only with a fine and transfer to another village. Therefore during the period under consideration, she was quite loyal to the bodily harm to women by men irrespective from the classes of the latter.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):108-113
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ZEMSTVO REFORM IN RUSSIAN EMPIRE AND ZEMSTVO MOVEMENT IN TOBOLSK GOVERNORATE
Ugryumova M.V.
Abstract
The article addresses the Zemstvo Reform of 1864 and the Zemstvo Counterreform of 1890 in Russian Empire, in particular, the features and conditions of zemstvo introduction and implementation, including population density and educational requirements, remoteness of territories from central cities and their proximity to the state borders. It is shown that Siberia received zemstvo neither during the reform period, nor during the counter-reform period due to the lack of population that would want a compensation for the losses incurred by the abolition of serfdom. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of the movement for introduction of zemstvo in the Tobolsk governorate. The law-making activity of the State Duma deputies was closely considered since Siberian deputies stirred the zemstvo question. Proposals on introduction of zemstvos by prominent deputies of the Tobolsk governorate N.L. Skalozubov, N.A. Ushakov, I.Ya. Ufimtsev and Governor A.P. Lappa-Starzhenetsky are given for reference. Today, the historical experience in local self-government in the conditions of constantly evolving local authority setup is interesting to historians, office holders, public servants and analysts alike, which explains the relevance of the study.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):113-121
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PETER THE FIRST IN RUSSIAN LIBERAL DISCOURSE OF THE SECOND HALF OF XIXth AND THE BEGINNING OF XXth CENTURIES
Edunova T.Y.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the analysis of the views of Russian liberal leaders of the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries on Peter I and his transformation. The subject of the article is the historical and publicistic works of such authors as M. Pogodin, S. Soloviev, K. Kavelin, B. Chicherin, P. Vinogradov, S. Frank. Using textological analysis, the author aims to analyze the assessments made by representatives of the liberal Russian public of Peter I.'s transformational activities. According to the author, representatives of the Russian liberal discourse spoke about Russia as a part of Europe primarily in the geographical sense, and the common destiny of Russia and Western European countries is often determined by geography. Thinkers believed that European culture found its place in Russia, which before Peter I distinguished by its originality and firmness of the original principles. The author concludes that Russian liberals recognized Europeanization as an organic historical phenomenon caused by the whole progress of development of the country and expressing its needs. In general, the Europeanization of Russia under Peter I was given a positive assessment. Europeanization was considered as a factor in the integration of the Russian state into the European processes and a guarantee of its economic and political development. At the same time, the transformation of Russia in the European direction, as liberal intellectuals believed, was unfinished. Pointing to the incompleteness of the transformation, liberal thinkers put forward various reasons for the incompleteness of the transformation along the European path. The general assessment of the Europeanization of Russia was associated with the assessment of the personality and the activities of the King-converter himself, including in connection with his role in strengthening the state and the autocratic system in Russia.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):122-130
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URBANIZATION PROCESSES IN THE AGE OF ACTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NORTH OF WESTERN SIBERIA (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE CITY OF SURGUT)
Krasovitova E.S.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the problems of construction in the city of Surgut in the age of industrial development of the North in the middle of 1960 - 1980. The key mistakes made by developers during construction were considered. In the 1960-1970s. the main event in Siberia was the formation of the West Siberian oil and gas complex, which most significantly in the history of the twentieth century has changed the importance of the region, both in the country's economic complex and in the global economy. The multi-departmental nature of city planning, the lack of proper supervision of urban planning, the lack of a construction industry base, the irresponsibility of ministries and departments, local organizations, urban planning organizations, the absence of an approved master plan of the city and its single customer, as well as the absence of standard projects that take into account urban planning in the north. All this led to irrational costs, low level of discredit of the elementary foundations of urban development. The analysis was made on the basis of documents, protocols, certificates of the Council of Ministers, national control, etc.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2019;(3):130-136
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