A forgotten Manichaean Sogdian bifolio in Sogdian script

Abstract


The present paper consists of the first edition, translation and commentary of a Manichaean Sogdian bifolio, whose photos are preserved in the Nachlass of Acade-mician Carl H. Salemann at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, RAS (St. Petersburg). The present location of the bifolio is unknown. One joining fragment has been found in the Berlin Turfan collection during the preliminary work on this edition. Two relatively long portions of Manichaean didactic treatises are extant and do not correspond to any known text. The first (I) is a Lehrtext on the duties of Manichaean monks living in a monastery. The second (II) contains the fourth and part of a fifth question, followed by answers, of a catechetical text concerning the fate of the body and of the soul after death.
 
 

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Olga Chunakova, Federico Dragoni, Enrico Morano A forgotten Manichaean Sogdian bifolio in Sogdian script Abstract: The present paper consists of the first edition, translation and commentary of a Manichaean Sogdian bifolio, whose photos are preserved in the Nachlass of Academician Carl H. Salemann at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, RAS (St. Petersburg). The present location of the bifolio is unknown. One joining fragment has been found in the Berlin Turfan collection during the preliminary work on this edition. Two relatively long portions of Manichaean didactic treatises are extant and do not correspond to any known text. The first (I) is a Lehrtext on the duties of Manichaean monks living in a monastery. The second (II) contains the fourth and part of a fifth question, followed by answers, of a catechetical text concerning the fate of the body and of the soul after death. Key words: Manichaeism, Manichaean didactic literature, Sogdian language, Sogdian manuscripts, Carl H. Salemann, Turfan texts, text edition, Iranian philology. The Serindian Collection of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts (IOM, the former Asiatic Museum), 1 Russian Academy of Sciences, keeps a folder named ‘Manichaica’ which holds 8 paper bags and envelopes, six of which contain materials from the archive of Academician Carl H. Salemann (1849- 1916). Two packages signed (not in Salemann’s hand) as ‘Application’, apparently added later, store a working draft manuscript of N. Marr’s ‘The © Olga Mikhailovna Chunakova, Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences © Federico Dragoni, Freie Universität Berlin © Enrico Morano, President of the International Association of Manichaean Studies (IAMS) 1 It is our pleasant duty to thank the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of St. Petersburg and the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften for allowing us to consult and publish their texts. We are greatly indebted to Nicholas Sims-Williams, who was kind enough to read a first draft of this article, providing many valuable suggestions and critical remarks which have been included in our text. 4 Armenian-Georgian lexical notes to the newfound Manichaean texts’ (98 pp.) and a photo of one side of the Syriac manuscript (Syr. 40) brought by S.E. Malov’s expedition from Turfan in 1914. The rest of the packets contains drafts, proofreadings and illustrations of the Manichaean manuscripts of the Asiatic Museum published by Salemann in his article named ‘Manichaica III’ 2 and photos of three already published Manichaean manuscripts from the Serindian Collection (one in Sogdian, published by F. Rosenberg 3 under the signature Kr. IV Soghd. 4, and under the signature SI Kr IV/823 by A. Ragoza, 4 and two photos of the first page of the Uighur manuscript ‘Xwastvanift’). The package No. 8 comprises 2 sheets, the first of which contains a rough transliteration of a Sogdian text in Hebrew letters, while the second contains the same text, partially re-written in Sogdian letters. This text is now published by A. Ragoza under the signature SI Kr IV/813. 5 In addition, the package No. 8 includes two negative photos - Recto and Verso - of a Sogdian bifolio, whose original has not been preserved in the collection. There are also 4 sheets of a rough transliteration of the photos’ text in Hebrew letters in pencil, made by Salemann himself. The transliteration is not complete however and upon some Hebrew letters there is a question mark. The contents of this package, including our text, were firstly briefly described by Yoshida Yutaka in his article on the Sogdian fragments of the St. Petersburg collection. 6 The location of the photographed Sogdian manuscript is unknown. None of the Serindian collections of the IOM, nor the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg branch, which holds the archives of Academicians C.H. Salemann and S.F. Oldenburg (1863-1934), have this manuscript. It is also unknown from whose collection and when this manuscript went to the Asiatic Museum, and especially where it originated. In the Asiatic Museum descriptions of new manuscripts were made rarely. 7 In the same packet, as already mentioned, there is Salemann’s transliteration of the Sogdian text SI Kr IV/813 from the Krotkov collection, presented by the latter to the Academy of Sciences after 1909, 8 and in the folder there is a 2 SALEMANN 1912. 3 ROSENBERG 1927. 4 RAGOZA 1980, 49-50. 5 RAGOZA 1980, 47-49, republished in SIMS-WILLIAMS 1992, 283. 6 YOSHIDA 2001, 108, see also LIVSHITS 2008, 87. 7 RAGOZA 1972, 244-261. 8 RAGOZA 1972, 255-257. 5 photo of the ‘Xwastvanift’, received by the Asiatic Museum before 1909 from A.A. D’iakov. 9 Judging from the fact that Salemann published two fragments from the Oldenburg collection, 10 one of which had been brought from his first expedition to Turfan, Karashahr and Kocho in 1909-1910, the manuscripts of the Oldenburg collection were also familiar to Salemann. It is known that from his second expedition in Dunhuang in 1914-1915 S.F. Oldenburg brought many manuscripts, among which there were two large Sogdian fragments, later published by F. Rosenberg. 11 Thus, the manuscripts which were known to Salemann and which he possibly intended to edit, could have been both from the Krotkov and the Oldenburg collections. The size of the two Sogdian photos is 23×17 cm. Each photograph shows two columns of text with the size of 20.5×6.5 cm. The photos illustrate a double folio with two texts, henceforth Sogd. I and Sogd. II, from pages which are not contiguous. On one side the folio is torn from the top corner to the 10th line. There are no ends to lines 1-10 on the Recto side, and no beginnings to lines 1-10 on the Verso side. On the margins Salemann wrote down in black ink the numbers of the lines of the text: on the one photo he marked 23 lines, on the other 22, as one line, between the 5th and the 6th, was missed. The photos show a clearly visible blank space between the first line and the poorly preserved headings. The margins of the sheets were possibly ruled, but this is not visible on the photos. One can clearly see that the manuscript on the photos was in some parts restored. In the course of restoration, a tracing paper was glued on it. Perhaps in the process of restoration side and bottom margins were cut. Transparent tracing papers were glued on the manuscript irregularly. The two sheets are roughly reinforced by means of thin strips of paper unevenly glued on them. Traces of the restoration can be seen on both sides of the sheet. On one photo, with the text /I/R/-/II/V/, there are eight such patches, on the other, with the text /II/R/-/I/V/, there are four of them. The traces of the glued patches sometimes cover the text and make it difficult to read. While working on the text, Federico Dragoni discovered that a small piece of the Berlin Turfan collection, So 10650(32), 12 joins directly to the top corner of one folio (here f. /I/). The joining Berlin fragment has a Fundsigel handwritten in pencil, T I D, which indicates that the manuscript was found 9 RADLOFF 1909, I. 10 SALEMANN 1912, 19-20. 11 ROSENBERG 1918, 817-842; ROSENBERG 1920, 399-429, 455-474. 12 See RECK 2006, 59, No. 58. 6 in Kocho during the first German expedition. This does not prove, however, that the main manuscript was brought to Berlin and then lost, since there are several examples of joining fragments found during different expeditions and kept in different places. The present whereabouts of the bifolio remains unknown. The first page /I/ contains part of a Lehrtext on the life and duties of monks (šmntʾ) living in a monastery (βrxʾr, Skr. vihāra). Every 200 years some “m(ʾn) wyty disciples” (wyty-minded) 13 will be saved, after having performed all their religious duties. By that time, they will have departed, saving themselves, the gifts and the givers of the gifts. Every 200 years the soul of the disciples will be purified, as the fire purifies the five or six pieces of firewood that one puts into it. After having been purified, the śramaṇas (= wyty-minded disciples?) will dwell in the vihāra in equanimity, holding the Commandment of the Law (cxšʾpt) completely. If a commandmentbreaking monk enters the vihāra, he may contaminate the community causing torments. He has to be expelled just as a half-burnt log has to be removed from the fire. Only in this way will he not be able to cause any further damage. The text then breaks off after the usual formula “every 200 years they will be similar…”. The second page /II/ contains the fourth and part of a fifth question, followed by answers, of a catechetical text concerning the fate of the body and of the soul after death and in the circle of rebirths. First folio: Salemann.Sogd.+So10650(32)/I/ (Pl. I) /I/R/H/ [❀] sʾrst [5-6] /I/R/1/ βwt rtxw [8-9] /I/R/2/ δβrty wβyw rwʾmʾy(c)[Z](Y) ZK /I/R/3/ wy-spw ʾrkw kwnty rt(x)[w kδʾ](c ) /I/R/4/ prm γrʾyw xwʾt Lʾ wʾšt /I/R/5/ mʾyδ [ZY] ms m(ʾn) wyty z-wxškth /I/R/6/ pr wyspw ʾkrtyʾh ʾsptʾk /I/R/7/ wβʾntw kʾm xw(t)y (β)wxsʾnt 13 On this enigmatic expression see commentary below. 7 /I/R/8/ kʾm ZY wβyw δβʾr ZY δβrʾy-nʾkw /I/R/9/ (β)wcʾnt kʾm ○ rtcnn (ʾδ)[wy C] /I/R/10/ srδyh kw ʾδwy C srδ prm /I/R/11/ ZK mʾn wytʾkt z-wxškth /I/R/12/ sʾt MN ʾβcʾnpδy xrtʾyt /I/R/13/ wβʾntkʾm ○ rty prywyδ ʾz-mnwh /I/R/14/ wy-šʾnt z-wxškth mʾyδ /I/R/15/ mʾnwkt wβʾntkʾm cʾnkw ZY /I/R/16/ ZK zmy ʾʾtr ○ rty cʾnkw ZK /I/R/17/ pncw wxw(šw) δʾrʾwk ʾyw /I/R/18/ wy-ʾkyh ʾws(w)[c]y pr ʾʾtr /I/R/19/ [......]n/ʾ δβtyw ZKw z-ʾwr /I/R/20/ [....](.ʾ/n Z)Y rxwšnw swxsʾnt /I/R/21/ [rty] wβyw (rx)w[š](n)yʾkh ZY ZK /I/R/22/ [γ](r)ʾmʾkh δ(ʾrʾn)t? rty wyspw /I/R/23/ [ʾ](r)kw kwnʾnt mʾyδ ZY MN /I/R/H/ The magnificent [...] /I/R/1/ is. He gives [gifts (?) both corporal (?)] and spirit[ual and] he performs all (religious) works and he never allows himself (to become) weak, so [that] also the m(’n) wyty disciples will be perfect in all actions, they will be saved themselves, and they will also save the gift and the giver. And from (2)[00] /10/ years to 200 years the m(’n) wyty disciples will all have departed from the world. And at that time those pupils will be /15/ like the fire for the firewood. And like when one purifies (burns?) those five, six (pieces of) wood in one place in the fire, [...] again the power /20/ [...] and they burn brightly, they hold both brightness and wealth. They perform all (religious) works, so that from... /I/R/H/ sʾrst remains the only recognizable word, the rest of the headline being either scratched away or hidden beneath a thick layer of tape. The unpublished Manichaean Sogdian fragment M575/I/V/ 14 has the same word in its incomplete headline: ❀ sʾrst f(r)[...]. Given the fragmentary state of the text, it is not possible to determine its context. 14 BOYCE 1960, 40. See also GMS § 825. Only three half lines of the text are almost complete. The context remains rather unclear. 8 /I/R/2-3/ For the restoration and interpretation of these 2 lines we are indebted to N. Sims-Williams: rw’m’y(c) can be perhaps a reduced form of rw’nmyc. /I/R/4/ wʾšt could be either 3sg. impf. of the verb ʾwšt ‘to stay, stand’ or 3sg. pres. of wʾc ‘to release, let go’. An impf. would be very unlikely, since the first page consists in a succession of futures and presents. /I/R/5/ For the restored [ZY] cf. the same expression in /I/V/17-18/ below. m(ʾn) wyty z-wxškth is parallel to mʾn wytʾkt z-wxškth of /I/R/11/. The same z-wxškth are also present in /I/R/14/, although they are no more qualified as mʾn wytʾkt, but simply as wy-šʾnt ‘those’. No parallel in other texts was found for such a category of disciples. One could interpret the first two words as an ‘inverted bahuvrīhi’, with an -aka- past participle as second member 15 referring to z-wxškth. If wyty were an -aka- participle from wyn ‘to see’, it could be interpreted as meaning ‘mind-seeing’, lit. ‘by whom the mind is seen’, cf. šyrʾqty ‘by whom good is done’. The second member wytʾk could also be interpreted as an -aka- past participle of a root wʾy ‘to wrap up, surround’. 16 This interpretation, though, does not produce a better comprehension to the entire phrase. /I/R/6/ ʾsptʾk very often with pr in Buddh. Sogd. ‘complete in...’. /I/R/7-9/ The expression occurs twice in our text. An exact parallel is to be found in the Parthian fragment M 6020/I/, 17 whose content seems to be very close to that of the Bactrian Manichaean fragment (M1224). 18 The passage refers to the doctrine of salvation through the Hearers’ gifts. Deliverance will be obtained ‘not only for the light trapped in the food and for the Electi who eat it, but also for the Hearer who provides it’: 19 M6020/I/R/ii/1-14/ pwnwʾr ʿstʾnyndyẖ cwʾgwn qwf ʿyw wzrg ʾwš bwjʾd šhyndyẖ ʾbʾwš wxrd cʾr ○ hm wxd bwxsyd ʾwd ʾw hw[yc] (b)wjyd kyš pwnwʾr dʾd ․ ʾwd ʾby wzynd yʾdyd ʾw (b)gʾn ʾrʾm ○ ○ʾwd ky pwnwʾr ʿstʾnndy cwnd šyfšdʾn ʿyw š: bwjʾd ny šhyn[dyyẖ] ʾbʾwš ʾfrdr k[…] ʾwd nw [...]ʾdwr “…[he who] would take alms food as (much as) a big mountain and could redeem it, should eat it: he himself will be saved, he will also save him 15 Cf. GERSHEVITCH 1946, 147 and GMS § 964. Curiously the -t of the plural is not present in the first occurrence of this compound. Compounds with mʾn as first member are not rare in Sogdian, cf. e.g. mʾn-prmʾty ‘consideration, conscience’. 16 Cf. GMS § 570 and SUNDERMANN 1997, 137. 17 Cf. HENNING 1965, 29-33, retranslated in SIMS-WILLIAMS 2009, 254. 18 SIMS-WILLIAMS 2009. 19 SIMS-WILLIAMS 2009, 253. 9 who gave him the alms-food, and it (i.e. the ‘Living Soul’ contained in the food) will reach the home of the gods unharmed. And he who would take alms-food as much as a single grain of mustard but could not redeem it, then […] better for him […] fire...” 20 The Sogdian sentence appears as an almost word for word rendering of the Parthian text quoted above (except for plur. instead of sing. and future with -kʾm): rty (wβ)yw xwty βwx(s)ʾntkʾm ZY w(βyw) δβʾr ZY δ[βʾ](r)ʾynʾkw βwcʾntkʾm (/I/V/5-7) xw(t)y (β)wxsʾnt kʾm ZY wβyw δβʾr ZY δβrʾy-nʾkw (β)wcʾnt kʾm (/I/R/7-9/) Such an expression seems to be built syntactically upon the contrast between the active βwc and the inchoative-passive βwxs. It could have represented a common formula to describe the Manichaean doctrine of salvation through the hearers’ gifts, and indeed one finds similar expressions e.g. in various hymns: M30/V/i/7-10 jʾmyd wyspwhr ʾw pydr wxybyy kw wxd bwxsʾẖ w: ʾšmʾh bwjʾẖ “Lead the prince to your father so that he be saved and he save you! 21 M7/II/V/ii/4-7 ʾfryd kw bwxtg bwʾẖ ky mn gryw bwjʾẖ ʾc wdng “Gesegnet sei, auf daß erlöst werde, wer meine Seele aus der Not erlöst” 22 “Blessed, i.e. may you be saved, who may save my soul from distress” 23 The expression δβʾr ZY δβrʾy-nʾkw occurs in Buddh. Sogd. texts without ZY (VJ 413 24 and Saṃghāṭasūtra 15 25 ) lit. meaning ‘gift-giving’, hence ‘benefactor’. Here the presence of ZY further specifies the Manichaean doctrine that lies behind our text, making clear that also the gifts will be saved. The same religious ideas are expressed also in M1224, though with a slightly different wording: M1224/R/7-19 (Bactrian Manichaean Fragment) /7/ ʾdyyl ʾwwy(h)[.](β) l(ʾh)wʾn /8/ ʾc(y)d (ʾβ) yβwʾg lyynlyrygʾʾn /9/ p(yd)rw(m)[y](n)d ○ ṭʾʾd hβyś(zn)ng pwwn /10/ d(r)m ʾ(w)[d] lʾdršt ʾwd 20 SIMS-WILLIAMS 2009, 254. 21 DURKIN-MEISTERERNST 2014, 59 22 ANDREAS and HENNING 1934, 29. 23 DURKIN-MEISTERERNST 2006, 36 and 177 n. 136, “explanatory gloss”? 24 BENVENISTE 1946, 25. 25 L 38, 4 in RAGOZA 1980, 31. 10 šy(j)g qyrdgʾn /11/ wy(ś)p ʾs lʾh(w)ʾn (ʿyy)źyd ○ tʾd /12/ ʾww q[d](y)βryyg ʾqydyy(ẖ) lhyyd /13/ [ṭ]ʾ(d pyd) wyśp pwwn bʾgy(g)ynd ʾwd /14/ ywg py(d) hzʾr pwnyng βrg ʾβyryyd /15/ ʾwd wy(ś)p nrẖ śwwhyyd ʾwd pwwn /16/ pydrw(βy)d yʾwydʾnźyg ○ ○ /17/ [7-8](.)ʾcyyd šmnʾn ʾdhn (x)wynynd /18/ [6-7b]wt xwβyc źynʾg l(ʾʾ)hwʾn /19/ [lʾʾd ○ ʾ]wdʿyyẖ ʾdhn ʾβyʾgyrnd “[…] such (are) those… gifts which support (?) the pure Electi, so (that) manifold merits, dharma and lawful and good deeds all spring from the gift; thus, that layman who gives it-he becomes a sharer in all the merits, and obtains merit-fruit a thousandfold and escapes (?) all hells and receives merits eternally. [We know] (?) that the Buddhist monks (šmn) say this, [that the B]uddha [gave] even his own body (as) a gift, and of him they predict this, [that thereby he will save all living beings] (?)…” 26 After this passage, the text reports the sayings of some unknown śramaṇas, possibly about the Buddha giving away his own body. Our bifolio describes later the actions of some śramaṇas and, not unlike M1224, undoubtedly possesses a strong Buddhist flavour. The Middle Persian Manichaean parable of the king and the lamp could also belong to the same Manichaean doctrinal context. It mentions a cyclical period in which the Hearers become negligent regarding the alms giving. But after a period they become again capable of attaining salvation: M47/II/V/10/ ○○ pd zmʾn zmʾn ʾc kyrdgʾn swst w: /11/ frʾmwš bwynd ○○ pwrsyšn bwyd /12/ ○ ps pyrwzyy pdy(r)ynd ○ rwʾn bwxsyd ○ “Von Zeit zu Zeit werden sie in ihren Werken lässig und vergeßlich. (Sie) werden zur Verantwortung gezogen, darauf erringen sie den Sieg, und ihre Seele wird gerettet.” 27 /I/R/14-15/ The phrase mʾyδ mʾnwkt wβʾntkʾm cʾnkw ZY occurs two more times in our text, /I/V/13-14/ and /I/V/22-23/. /I/R/16/ For zmy ‘fuel, firewood’ see MacKenzie 1976, 40. 28 One could interpret zmy ʾʾtr here as a tatpuruṣa compound meaning ‘the fire (that is born) from the firewood’, or just: ‘a fire (consisting) of firewood’. In MP the word ʿymg (NP hīme) is attested mainly with reference to a Zoroastrian fire, see Gōwišn ī grīw zīndag, 3.93-97: 29 26 SIMS-WILLIAMS 2009, 252-253. 27 SUNDERMANN 1973, 88 (ll. 1731-1733). 28 Confirmed by YOSHIDA 1996, 168. 29 SUNDERMANN 2012, 122; English translation at p. 184. 11 -ʾn hym ʾdwr ʿy cyyd zrdrwšṯ ʾwš prmʾd(w)m ʾw ʾhlwʾn cyydn - cynydwm (ʾ)wd (gšn)[g] (m)ʾ qwnyd ʾwd mʾ ʾ(z)r(wbyd c)[ʾw]n mrʾʾn -ʾc hpṯ ʾd(wr y)šṯg ʿy hwbwdʾg ʾwm bryd ʾw ʾdwr wxšn ywjd(hr) -ʿymg ʿyg pʾq ʾʾ(wryd) ʾwd bwy ʿyg nrm ʾwd bwyy(ʾg) -ʾbrwcydm pd dʾnyšn ʾwm dyyd zwhr ʿy pʾq -I am the fire that Zardrušt set and he ordered the righteous to set me. -Set me and do not make (me) […{?}] hungry and do not rob (me) completely like villains! -From seven sacrificial (lit. sacrificed) good smelling fires (collect me) an d bring me to the holy fire-place! -Bring pure firewood and a fresh an d scented smell! -Light me with knowledge and give me a pure offering! /I/R/22/ Since [γ](r)ʾmʾkh ‘wealth’ does not fit the context very well, it could perhaps simply be miscopied for *γrmyʾkh or *γrmʾkh ‘heat’ [NS-W]. (Pl. II) /I/V/H/ [10-11 ]tyʾ /I/V/1/ [ʾδwy C srδy ]kw ʾδwy C /I/V/2/ srδ […..]prm ZKwyh βrxʾry /I/V/3/ [pr sγ](t)mʾnʾʾwʾk ʾskwʾnt /I/V/4/ rtxw cx(šʾ) pt nwm (p)δkh /I/V/5/ ʾsptʾk δʾ[r]ʾn(t) kʾm rty (wβ)yw /I/V/6/ xwty βwx(s) ʾntkʾm ZY w(βyw) /I/V/7/ δβʾr ZY δ [β](r)ʾynʾkw βwcʾntkʾm /I/V/8/ [r]tcʾnk(w) šmny xwδkʾr ZKwyh /I/V/9/ [βrxʾ](r)ʾyk xʾnʾyty tyst /I/V/10/ [w](βy)[w? mʾ](y)δ ZY zʾr cwprsʾr ʾwγʾm /I/V/11/ βy(r)tkʾm ○ rtšy MN ʾz-prt /I/V/12/ ʾkrtyh ptʾyn kwnty kʾm /I/V/13/ rty mʾyδ mʾnwktw wβʾntkʾm /I/V/14/ cʾnkw ZY ʾyw wyʾswγ-tʾk ʾkw /I/V/15/ xwδkʾr βyksʾr ʾpšʾyʾy rtxw /I/V/16/ trxky pz-ty ʾnxʾyz-t ZY ZK /I/V/17/ ʾʾδʾkw z-ʾw(r)[cy](kw L)ʾ βwt mʾyδ /I/V/18/ ZY ms ʾywtʾc (ʾn)xwstcxšʾpt /I/V/19/ šmny Lʾ ZKwyh γrʾywy z-ʾwr(cyk) 12 /I/V/20/ βwt Lʾ ʾnyw ʾʾδʾkw ○ [rtcnn] /I/V/21/ ʾδwy C srδ kw ʾδwy C /I/V/22/ srδ prm sʾt šmntʾ mʾyδ /I/V/23/ (m)ʾnʾwkt wβʾntkʾm cʾnkw (ZY) /I/V/1/ [200 years] to 200 years [...] in the vihāra they will dwell in equanimity and they will hold the commandment of the law /5/ completely. At the same time they will be saved themselves and they will save also the gift and the giver. If only a (single) monk [shall] enter the vihāra houses /10/ [… s]o poison thereupon will cause torment. Then he will separate it from pure actions. They will be like when one casts out (from the fire) /15/ a single half-burnt (log) and a pungent smoke arises, and it is not useful to anyone; so too a single commandment-breaking monk is not useful to himself /20/ nor to anyone else. [And from] 200 years to 200 years all monks thus will be similar, like when... /I/V/2/ The parallel expressions in /I/R/9-10/ would require the postposition prm followed by the subject of the sentence. The gap though does not allow to be filled in with such a restoration. Perhaps one could restore [prm ʾʾδ]prm ‘(…) to two hundred years altogether in the vihāra (...)’. N. Sims-Williams proposes restoring [’ny’m]: ‘till [the end of] 200 years’. /I/V/2/ βrxʾry is here attested for the first time in published Manichaean texts, thus marking a Buddhist context. šmny occurs also in the list of the slanderers 30 of the religion and is used also in Parthian 31 to define a monk, not necessarily Buddhist. /I/V/8/ For the so far unattested rtcʾnkw instead of rty cʾnkw cf. rty ptsʾr ~ rtptsʾr. Hardly to be read [w]tcnʾk(w) ‘old’. /I/V/9/ The tentative restoration [βrxʾ](r)ʾyk xʾnʾyty tyst ‘he enters the vihāra houses’ is based on SCE § 484: rty ʾky ZKw βrxʾr wnʾnt ʾt βrxʾr xʾnʾkh ‘he who makes a vihāra or a vihāra house’, 32 although an -īk adjective from βrxʾr is not attested elsewhere. Alternatively, one could restore [βγʾ](n)ʾyk xʾnʾyty. Such an expression to define a place of worship is however not yet attested either. SCE § 190 describes the different attitudes of those who may enter the monastery (saṃghārāma) with good or evil thoughts. 30 So 18248/R/30/, cf. HENNING 1944, 138, tr. 141. 31 E.g. in M572 passim, cf. SUNDERMANN 1973, 91-93. Cf. also ASMUSSEN 1965, 166 and the Bactrian fragment (M1224/R/17) quoted above. 32 MACKENZIE 1970, 29. 13 /I/V/10/ It is hard to restore the words in the lacuna, perhaps [w](βy)[w mʾ](y)δ ZY ‘and so that’? For the expression (ʾ)wγʾm βyr- cf. P6.161 prw wʾtδʾrt ʾwγʾm Lʾ βyrʾnt ‘ne causent pas des tourments aux êtres’. 33 Hardly zʾr… ʾwγʾm ‘one thousand… torments’, since the number does not precede directly the noun to which it refers. /I/V/11/ Cf. the same expression in P21.1. l.8 cnn šyrʾkrtyh ptʾyn k(w)[nty]. 34 /I/V/14/ For wyʾswγ-tʾk, clearly legible but otherwise not attested, cf. Chr. Sogd. pr(swγ)t, which N. Sims-Williams 35 proposes to derive from *parisuxta- ‘burnt up’. He tentatively translates it as a noun meaning ‘soot’ or ‘charcoal’. Here we have wyʾswγ-tʾk <*ṷi-ā-suxta-ka- with different preverb and suffix -ka-. It could be therefore translated as ‘half-burnt (log)’, although it could simply mean any piece of material which underwent a process of combustion. We are grateful to N. Sims-Williams for helping us to understand the last part of the sentence. /I/V/14-15/ An interesting parallel to this passage may be found in the Sogdian Āzand Nāmē 85ff., 36 where the commandment-breaking men (ʾnxwstcxšʾpδmynct mrtxmyt) are expelled (pšʾy-) from the religion: /83/ ZY xw RBkw smʾwtry pncmykw ZKw βrʾyšty δynh /84/ pw ʾʾmʾykw ʾwsʾγty ZY ʾz-pʾrt psʾwγty [xcy rty] /85/ xw ʾʾy-wštyt mntʾnδykt ZY ʾnxwstcxšʾpδ(m)[ynct] /86/ mrtxmy-t ky-ZY ZKn mwrty tnpʾry mynʾnt (Z)[Y] /87/ ZKn βʾrpy ZY ZKn ʾnyw ʾnyw ʾʾmyk myn(ʾ)[ntʾk] /88/ xnt rtšn MN cnʾγty cpδʾ Lʾ nmty (c)[ntr] /89/ sʾr zγty ‖ pʾrZ-Y-šy xyδ ywnyδ cʾwn xypδ ʾskʾwʾ(k) /90/ cʾδr-sʾr pšʾyt ZY-šn βyksʾr pškrty Fünftens: Die Religion des Apostels [ist] ohne Befleckung, lauter und rein, heilig, [und] die verwirrten, *sittenlosen und schmutzige Geset[ze habenden] Menschen, die dem Leichnam ähneln (und) den Exkrementen und den verschiedenen Befleckungen ähn[lich] sind, sie weigert sich sogleich durchaus, diese [in sich(?)] zu behalten, denn sogleich wirft sie sie von ihrer *Oberflä[che] hinab und treibt sie hinaus. 33 BENVENISTE 1940, 90 and note on p. 206 34 BENVENISTE 1940, 153. 35 SIMS-WILLIAMS 2015, 23. The word appears in E26/2/V18. 36 SUNDERMANN 1985, 25. 14 Plate I /I/R/ and /II/V/ Montage. Photo: Collection of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, St. Petersburg. So10650(32): Depositum der Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in der Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Orientabteilung. 15 Plate II /II/R/ and /I/V/ Montage. Photo: Collection of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, St. Petersburg. So10650(32): Depositum der Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in der Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Orientabteilung. 16 Second folio: Salemann.Sogd./II/ (Pl. II) /II/R/H/ tnpʾ(r)[......] /II/R/1/ kβnw MN (γ)rβʾkyʾyh ptynw /II/R/2/ (w)βʾy ○ rtxw ctβʾrmykw wprs /II/R/3/ mʾyδ (ʾ)pr(s)ʾm ʾYKZY mrtxmʾkw /II/R/4/ cʾ(nkw) ʾkrtw kwnty kʾm mʾyδ /II/R/5/ (ZY) MN ctβʾr prw(rty) nyz-tʾ /II/R/6/ (wβʾ)y ○ rtms ZKh wn(ʾh) δʾwn /II/R/7/ (βrʾ)k rtxw mr(γ)[ δʾ](wn) /II/R/8/ (c)wz-(ʾ)kky rtxw (.)[...](w/t)mʾʾ/nt /II/R/9/ ctβʾr ky xwy-(..)[...](.y)h /II/R/10/ pʾrZY Lʾ MN w(nyʾ) (ny)škyrʾn /II/R/11/ (β)rʾk ʾʾz-ʾyt βwt Lʾ ZY /II/R/12/ ms MN pw βrʾk ZK wn(h) /II/R/13/ rwδt rtms ZKwyh mrγy /II/R/14/ wʾxš y-wz-nnkʾ xcy ○○ /II/R/15/ pncmyk wprs mʾyδ ʾprs[ʾm] /II/R/16/ ZKh mrtxmʾyt cʾnkw ʾʾz-y[nt] /II/R/17/ rtxw rwʾnh ʿM tnpʾry ʾpr[yw] /II/R/18/ sγtmʾnw wynʾncykt wβʾn(t) /II/R/19/ rtxw ʾyw(γr)ʾywʾyt xnt /II/R/20/ (ktʾr) ʾPZY Lʾ rtptsʾr MN /II/R/21/ knʾc pyδʾr myrʾnt rt[y] /II/R/22/ cʾnkw myrʾnt rty ZK /II/R/23/ (r)wʾnh pyrnmstr wy(t)[rty] /II/R/H/ Body [...] /II/R/1/ would be [little by ]little separate from knowledge. And the fourth question thus I ask: How is a man able /5/ to die 4 times? Also, the tree with fruit and the hen [wi](th) the chick and the […] every (?) four...(?) [...] /10/ because a fruit cannot be born but from a tree, nor does the tree grow from a fruitless one, and also the matter of the hen is similar to this. /15/ The fifth question, thus I ask: when men are born, are the soul (rwʾnh) and the body 17 manifest together? Are they one single Self (ʾyw-(γr)ʾywʾyt) /20/ or not? Moreover, for what reason do they die and how do they die? Does the soul (rwʾnh) first depart /II/R/3-4/ ʾYKZY mrtxmʾkw cʾ(nkw) ʾkrtw kwnty kʾm mʾyδ (ZY) MN ctβʾr prw(rty) nyz-tʾ (wβʾ)y cf. Chr. Sogd. qt’wn ‘to be able’ + subordinate clause (here with a redundant second potentialis in the subordinate clause) [NS-W]. /II/R/5ff./ The translation is based on the assumption that the verb nyz- is here used with the meaning ‘to die’, that prw(rty) means ‘time (French fois)’, as is often the case when it follows a numeral, and that the latter is used in an adverbial phrase 37 introduced by MN meaning ‘four times’. Alternatively, if the verb nyz- had here its original meaning ‘to go out’, the preposition MN would be perfectly explained as the usual preposition governed by nyz-, ‘to go out from’. But in this case the meaning ‘time’ for prwrty would not fit the context. The meanings ‘Fravashi’ which is highly unlikely to be met here, 38 and ‘corpse’, which could theoretically fit, but it is attested only in Chr. Sogd., 39 both seem not to belong here. The easier solution would be again the -aka- substantive derived from the verb prwrt- ‘to turn, change, travel’, this time not meaning ‘fois’ but perhaps simply ‘turn’. 40 If the passage bears really on the saṃsāra, then a translation ‘he shall be able to go out (i.e. to escape, be delivered) from the ‘four turns (cycles, circling-ons)’ would be not out of place, interpreting the number ‘four’ as a generic number meaning several times. The exemplum of the tree with its fruit to explain the saṃsāra doctrine is known from Buddhist literature. A passage from the Milindapañha 41 curiously shows some interesting similarities with our text and will be quoted here in full: (ix) The King said: “Reverend Nāgasena, as to that which you mentioned: ‘circling-on’ [saṃsāra] what is this circling-on?” 37 No parallels of that have been found, unfortunately. However, cf. with an ordinal numeral the Chr. Sogd. adverbial phrase cn (d)btyq prwrtw in Tit3.5 E6/5r ‘for the second time, again’ (S UNDERMANN 1981, 177, and SIMS-WILLIAMS 2016, 142 top). 38 For its only occurrence in Sogd. in the Sermon of the Soul, cf. SUNDERMANN 1997, 138 etc. 39 Cf. SIMS-WILLIAMS 2016, 78. 40 With this meaning, prwrty is to be found elsewhere in conjunction with zwrt, cf. also below /II/V/21/. 41 Milindapañha 3.3.9, transl. in HORNER 1963-64, vol. 1, 105-106. 18 “Sire, what is born here dies here; having died here it uprises elsewhere; being born there, there it dies; having died there it uprises elsewhere. Such, sire, circling-on”. “Make a simile”. “Suppose, sire, some man, having eaten a ripe mango, should plant the stone and a large mango tree should grow from it and yield fruit; and that the man, having eaten a ripe mango from it too, should plant the stone and a large mango tree should grow from it too and yield fruit. In this way no end to those trees can be seen. Even so, sire, what is born here dies here; having died here it uprises elsewhere; being born there, there it dies; having died there, it uprises elsewhere. Such, sire, is circling-on”. “You are dexterous, reverend Nāgasena”. /II/R/7-8/ If Sogd. cwzʾkk is the chick, i.e. the ‘baby of a hen’, 42 then Sogd. mrγ- could be here translated as ‘hen’, parallel to the exemplum of the fruit of a tree and the tree itself on which the simile is based on. Cf. also P2.331 xwnxw ZKZY cwzʾkk ZK mrγy znty ‘That which the chicken-bird brings forth’. 43 /II/R/8/ The word could be perhaps restored as wmʾʾt ‘was’, wmʾnt ‘boundary’, or [sγ](t)mʾnt (pl.) ‘all together’, but the sense of this line is unclear. /II/R/9/ ky in ctβʾr ky could be a relative pronoun, or, alternatively, the distributive suffix -ky 44 thus meaning here ‘every four’. /II/R/10/ (ny)škyrʾn is construed with MN (lit. ‘apart from’) as in Āzand Nāmē 57ff. 45 It is usually written nyškrʾn. /II/R/11-13/ Lʾ ZY ms MN pw βrʾk ZK wn(h) rwδt: alternatively, N. Sims- Williams proposes translating ‘nor does the tree grow except from a fruit’, interpreting MN pw as a mistake for pw MN for which cf. Chr. Sogd. pw cn ‘except for’. /II/R/19/ rtxw ʾyw(γr)ʾywʾyt xnt. An adjectival compoundʾyw(γr)ʾywʾk (< OIr. *ai ̯ ṷa-grīṷa-ka-, meaning perhaps ‘having one γrʾyw, having one single self’) is found here for the first time. /II/R/20/ For ktʾr ʾPZY Lʾ at the end of a sentence in questions (with a disjunctive sense) cf. VJ 1398-1399 and Y OSHIDA 2009, 317. 42 Cf. NP ğuğe, defined in the Borhān-e qāṭeʿ as ‘bačče-ye mākiyān’. 43 So HENNING 1946, 719, correcting BENVENISTE 1940, 18 ‘le poussin dans l’œuf’. But Henning’s translation is also problematic, given that the paragraph in question prohibits the eating of the meat of any creature killed with violence (prāṇātipāta). Perhaps a better translation would be ‘that, i.e. the chick, which the hen brings forth’ (=‘egg’?). 44 See GERSHEVITCH 1949, 63-64 and DMTIII.2, 55a s.v. βrʾtky. 45 SUNDERMANN 1985, 23. 19 (Pl. I) /II/V/H/ [15-16 ]k /II/V/1/ rtxw tn(pʾr)[..](ʾ)[.] prʾxsty /II/V/2/ rty γyrtr cʾnk(w) (ZK) tnpʾr /II/V/3/ βrkyrty rtxw w(δ)yh (tn)p(ʾr) /II/V/4/ kw ʾʾyʾm kβnʾkk (y)x(n)[ pr]m /II/V/5/ prʾxsty rtptsʾr ZKh /II/V/6/ (pʾrʾy)[k](w) γrʾyw kw šwt ZY /II/V/7/ ky β(y)rt mʾy-δ (ywʾr Lʾ) /II/V/8/ (w)yt βwt ○○ rtm(s Lʾ) /II/V/9/ [...] rty wyδ xwrm /II/V/10/ (δβty)w δywʾyδ cxʾrʾkkyh /II/V/11/ p(t)šprn rtptsʾr xyδh (ZK) /II/V/12/ [c]xʾrʾkh pwrny Lʾ βwt /II/V/13/ [Z](Y) pʾrʾykw xwrm kw šwt /II/V/14/ (k)y ʾPZY cywʾyδ kyš ○○ ○○ /II/V/15/ rtnwkr kδ ʾskwʾt ZK /II/V/16/ wʾγwnʾkw γrβʾkw ZY ZK /II/V/17/ ʾsprγky ʾrtʾw ʾPZY ZK /II/V/18/ šyrʾnkʾrʾk βrʾδ βrʾk /II/V/19/ (m)rtxmʾk ky ZY ZKw γ(r)ʾ(y)w /II/V/20/ MN ʾβcʾnpδcykw ʾβn(t)[y] /II/V/21/ [ʾ]PZY MN ʾz-wʾrt prwrt[y] /II/V/22/ [pʾ]tβrʾs ʾPZY MN tmʾyk /II/V/23/ [ʾβz](ʾ)[w](x)tyʾh ZKw xypδ /II/V/H/ [...] /II/V/1/ and the body is left [orphaned]? And later, when the body is unresponsive, and the body there (?) is left till (its) end as a meagre remnant, /5/ then, where does the other Self (γrʾyw) go and who obtains (it), although it cannot be seen? Likewise, it [can] not […]. Moreover, this dust /10/ (is still in the) permanence of the wheel (of rebirths). Then that wheel is not completed. And the other dust, where does it go? What was diminished thereby? /15/ Now, if there should exist a wise man, a clever righteous man and a virtuous profitable man, who [might save] the soul (γrʾyw) /20/ from earthly concerns, from the punishment of going to and fro, from hellish distress, his own... 20 /II/V/1/ rtxw tn(pʾr)[..](ʾ)[.] prʾxsty: of the third word one sees only the aleph. As one would expect the word to mean something like ‘alone’, read perhaps [sr]ʾ[k], cf. SCE § 27: rtyms ʾsty ZKZY xwδkʾr ʾt ʾyw stʾʾγ srʾk βwt ‘there is he who is alone and solitary, childless and orphaned’. 46 N. Sims- Williams suggests reading [βt]ʾ[r] matching Chr. ft’r *prxs-‚ ‘to be left over’, see S IMS-WILLIAMS 2016, 81. /II/V/3/ βrkyrty 3sg. pres. ind. < βrkyr-, here apparently taken as a light stem. The meaning ‘insensitive’, ‘unresponsive’, ‘numb’ is here referred to the body in a physical sense, while in BBB 605 47 , and in AN 189 48 seems to be used rather in a moral sense. This form could also be a 3sg. pres. middle with passive sense ‘is neglected’ [NS-W]. /II/V/4-5/ For the restoration cf. TaleA, 56: 49 possibly containing the same expression: kw ʾnyw myδ sʾr yxnyy pʾrxs ‘left for another day’. A compound kβnyxn (‘meagre remnant’) is attested in the fragment of Rustam. 50 /II/V/6/ The restoration of the adjective (pʾrʾy)[k](w) is suggested by the parallel question in /II/V/13/ pʾrʾykw xwrm kw šwt ‘Where does the other dust go?’, but it is not clear what ‘the other self’ could mean. /II/V/7/ Or (δʾ)rt, instead of (βy)rt, but a verb in this position is problematic, although the syntax remains unclear. /II/V/10/ If read with -x-, cxʾrʾkkh may be from OIr. *caxra-ka- (> Pahl. caxrag) with a svarabhakti vowel simplifying the internal cluster -xr-, resulting in /čaxǝrak/, as not infrequent in Sogdian (cf. the examples given in GMS § 482). The Iranian loanwords in Armenian čaxr “Drehung” vs. čaxarak “Rolle” might also be compared. 51 Pahl. čaxrag occurs with an ambiguous orthography (could be either chʾlk or cʾhlk) in two passages of the astronomical chapter of the Iranian Bundahišn: 52 2.8 [TD1 fol.11v]: u-š spihr ī awēšān axtarān čaxrag-ēwēnag nihād kū andar gumēzišn ō rawišn estēnd “he settled the sphere of these stars in the manner of a wheel, so that they could start revolving during the mixture.” 46 MACKENZIE 1970, 3. 47 Cf. HENNING 1937, 74. 48 Cf. SUNDERMANN 1985, 32. 49 HENNING 1945, 467. 50 Cf. the discussion of the compound in SIMS-WILLIAMS 1977, 59. 51 HÜBSCHMANN 1897, 186. 52 Number of the chapter according to ANKLESARIA 1956 = PĀKZĀD 2005 2.10-2.18. For the translation see HENNING 1942, 232 and 233-234. 21 2.16 [TD1 fol.12v]: az awēšān stārān ān ī meh čand sang-ēw ī kadagmasā ān ī mayān čand čaxrag < >(?) ān ī keh čand sar ī gāw ī kadagīg “Among these stars the large ones are like a piece of rock the size of a room, the medium-sized ones are like a revolving (?) wheel, the small ones like the head of the domestic ox.” The expected form cxr without suffix is to be found often in Sogdian, Parthian and Middle Persian Manichaean texts with reference to the rolling wheel of the saṃsāra and the rebirth cycle. Cf. e.g. the unpublished Parthian text: M5860/II/R/i/13-19/ ṭwnd wrtyd cwʾhs zwnws cy cxr / zʾdmwrd cy jmʾn / ʾw jmʾn ny pʾyd ○ / yd bwd ʾwd frdʾd / ʿym dʾm ny / bwd ʾhʾz “Impatiently turns, since such a long time, the zone of the wheel of rebirths, which time after time never waits; as long as it was and progressed (?), this creation had not been […].” In Buddhist Sogdian snksʾʾr cxrw occurs for the same concept, e.g. in L93.17. 53 If this interpretation is correct, then the dust (xwrm) could stand metaphorically for the soul’s filth, which has to be washed away in order to escape saṃsāra. Yusef Saadat, Freie Universität Berlin, during a talk delivered by us at the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften in May 2016, suggested a possible connection, if the word is read with -γ-, with NP čaγāra ‘deposit for food, underground granary’, attested in the ancient lexicographical work Tāǰu-l-ʾAsāmī (7th c. H. [13th c. A.D.]). 54 Upon this interpretation N. Sims-Williams comments: “If this is a variant of Sogd. tγʾrʾ ‘khum’ (of which cognates are cited by L IVSHITS 2015, 276), it could refer to the kind of storage jars sunk in the earth and used for keeping grain or wine. In that case the passage might have a parallel in a Parthian text discussed by S UNDERMANN 2005, 97, where the separation of the draff from wine seems to be a simile for the separation of the soul from the body. Here xwrm ‘dust’ might refer to the draff, more technically defined as ptšprn ‘sediment’. I would then suggest: ‘And again, (as for) that dust (which is) in the *sediment of the *wine-jar, and yet that *wine-jar does not become full, [and] the other dust-where does it go? What was diminished thereby?’ ” 53 RAGOZA 1980, 64-65. 54 EBRĀHIMI 1365, 567, glossed as Ar. maṭmūrat. 22 /II/V/11/ ptšprn ‘permanence’ appears to be a verbal noun from the verbal root ptšpr-, Chr. pcpr- ‘to settle, alight, rest’. 55 /II/V/14/ kyš is an otherwise unattested 3sg. impf. of the verb kyš ‘to decrease’. 56 /II/V/15/ ʾskwʾt 3sg. subjunctive, hardly past infinitive. /II/V/15-19/ The succession of γrβʾkw - ʾrtʾw - (m)rtxmʾk could perhaps allude to the hierarchy of the Manichaean Church (Bishops, Elects and Hearers). /II/V/16-17/ For γrβʾk-ʾsprγky in Buddhist Sogdian cf. the discussion in Kudara and S UNDERMANN 1998, 118 N. 15. /II/V/18/ βrʾδ βrʾk is a not yet attested compound meaning literally ‘bringer of profit’. For βrʾδ ‘increase, improvement’ cf. Man. frʾδ, DMTIII.2, 79. /II/V/20/ ʾβn(t) ‘concern’ cf. Chr. ʾbnt/ʾbynt. 57 /II/V/23/ For [ʾβz](ʾ)[w](x)tyʾh cf. Man. βjʾxwtyʾ ‘distress’, DMTIII.2, 53. 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B OYCE, Mary. 1960: A Catalogue of the Iranian Manuscript in Manichean Script in the German Turfan Collection. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. DMTIII.2 = S IMS-WILLIAMS, Nicholas and DURKIN-MEISTERERNST, Desmond 2012: Dictionary of Manichaean Sogdian and Bactrian. Turnhout: Brepols. 55 SIMS-WILLIAMS 2016, 132. 56 Another possible occurrence is in a Sogdian document from Khotan, cf. SIMS-WILLIAMS and BI 2015, 262, No. 5, Line 25. 57 Cf. SIMS-WILLIAMS 2016, 21. 23 DURKIN-MEISTERERNST, Desmond 2006: The Hymns of the Living Soul: Middle Persian and Parthian Texts in the Turfan Collection. Turnhout: Brepols (Berliner Turfantexte 24). D URKIN-MEISTERERNST, Desmond 2014: Miscellaneous Hymns. Middle Persian and Parthian Hymns in the Turfan Collection. Turnhout: Brepols (Berliner Turfantexte 31) E BRĀHĪMĪ, ʿAlī Awsaṭ (ed.) 1365: Tāǰu-l-ʾAsāmī (Tahḏhību-l-ʾAsmāʾ), be kušeš-e A.A. Ebrāhīmī. Tehrān: Markaz-e Našr Dānešgāhi. G ERSHEVITCH, Ilya 1946: “Sogdian compounds”. Transactions of the Philological Society 1945, 137-149 [= G ERSHEVITCH 1985, 6-18]. GERSHEVITCH, Ilya 1949: “Iranian Notes”. Transactions of the Philological Society 1948, 61- 68 [= G ERSHEVITCH 1985, 25-32]. G ERSHEVITCH, Ilya 1985: Philologia Iranica. Ed. by N. Sims-Williams. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag (Beiträge zur Iranistik, Bd. 12). GMS = G ERSHEVITCH, Ilya 1954: A Grammar of Manichean Sogdian. Oxford: Blackwell [repr. 1961]. H ENNING, Walter Bruno 1937: “Ein Manichäisches Bet- und Beichtbuch”. Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 1936, 10, Berlin [= Henning, Selected Papers I, 417-558]. H ENNING, Walter Bruno 1940: Sogdica. London [= Henning, Selected Papers II, 1-68]. H ENNING, Walter Bruno 1942: “An Astronomical Chapter of the Bundahishn”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 229-248 [= Henning, Selected Papers II, 95-114]. H ENNING, Walter Bruno 1944: “The Murder of the Magi”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 133-144 [= Henning, Selected Papers II, 139-150]. H ENNING, Walter Bruno 1945: “Sogdian Tales”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 11/3, 465-487 [= Henning, Selected Papers II, 169-192]. H ENNING, Walter Bruno 1946: “The Sogdian texts of Paris”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 11/4, 713-740 [= Henning, Selected Papers II, 231-258]. H ENNING, Walter Bruno 1965: “A Grain of Mustard”. Annali dell'Istituto Orientale di Napoli, Sez. linguistica, 6, 29-47 [= Henning, Selected Papers II, 597-616]. H ENNING, Walter Bruno 1977: Selected Papers I-II. Acta Iranica 15. 2ème série, Hommages et Opera Minora. Téhéran-Liège. H ORNER, Isaline Blew 1963-64: Milinda’s Questions. 2 vols. London: Oxford, London: Luzac; Oxford: Pali Text Society (Sacred Books of the Buddhists 22). H ÜBSCHMANN, Heinrich 1897: Armenische Grammatik I. Teil. Armenische Etymologie. Leipzig: de Gruyter (Indogermanische Forschungen, vol. 8) K UDARA, Kogi and SUNDERMANN, Werner 1998: “A Second Text of the Sogdian Viśeṣacintibrahma-paripṛcchā-sūtra”. Studies on the Inner Asian Languages 13, 111-28. L IVSHITS, Vladimir A. 2008: “Manichaica v Asiatskom muzee (Manichaica in the Asiatic Museum)”. In: Rossiiskie ekspeditsii v Central’nuiu Aziiu v kontse XIX - nachale XX veka. Pod red. I.F. Popovoi. [“Russian Expeditions to Central Asia at the Turn of the 20th Century” (ed. by I.F. Popova)]. St. Petersburg: Slavia, 82-87. L IVSHITS, Vladimir A. 2015: Sogdian epigraphy of Central Asia and Semirech’e. Ed. by N. Sims-Williams. London: School of Oriental and African Studies (Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum, Part II: Inscriptions of the Seleucid and Parthian Periods and of Eastern Iran and Central Asia, vol. III: Sogdian). M ACKENZIE, David N. 1970: The ‘Sūtra of the Causes and Effects of Actions’ in Sogdian. London: Oxford University Press (London Oriental Series 22). 24 MACKENZIE, David N. 1976: The Buddhist Sogdian Text of the British Library. Acta Iranica 3 (10). Leiden: Brill. P ĀKZĀD, Fazlollah 2005: Bundahišn, Zoroastrische Kosmogonie und Kosmologie. Band I, Kritische Edition. Tehrān: Centre for the Great Islamic Encyclopaedia. R ADLOFF, Friedrich W. 1909: Chuastuanit, das Bussgebet der Manichäer. St. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. R AGOZA, Asiia N. 1972: K istorii slozheniia kollektsii rukopisei na sredneiranskikh iazykakh iz Vostochnogo Turkestana, khraniashchikhsia v rukopisnom otdele LO IVAN USSR [In addition to the history of the collection of Manuscripts in the Middle Iranian languages of East Turkestan preserved in the Manuscript department of the Leningrad Branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR]. (Pis’mennye pamiatniki Vostoka. Istoriko-filologicheskie issledovaniia [Written monuments of Orient. Historical and philological studies]) 1969. Moscow: Nauka; Glavnaiia redaktsiia vostochnoi literatury, 244-261. R AGOZA, Asiia N. 1980: Sogdiiskie fragmenty central’noaziatskogo sobraniia Instituta vostokovedeniia [Sogdian fragments of the Central Asian fund of the Institute of Oriental Studies collection]. Moscow: Nauka; Glavnaiia redaktsiia vostochnoi literatury. R ECK, Christiane 2006: Mitteliranische Handschriften. Teil 1: Berliner Turfanfragmente manichäischen Inhalts in soghdischer Schrift (VOHD 18). Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. R OSENBERG, Frédéric 1918: “Deux fragments sogdien bouddhiques du Ts′ien-fo-tong du Touen-houang (Mission S. Oldenburg, 1914-1915). I. Fragment d’un conte”. Izvestiia Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk [Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences] 12, 817- 842. R OSENBERG, Frédéric 1920: “Deux fragments sogdien-bouddhiques du Ts′ien-fo-tong du Touen-houang (Mission S. d’Oldenburg 1914-1915). II. Fragment d’un Sūtra”. Izvestiia Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk [Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences] 14, 399- 429; 455-474. R OSENBERG, Frédéric 1927: “Un fragment sogdien bouddhique du Musée Asiatique (Kr. IV Soghd. 4)”. Izvestiia Akademii Nauk SSSR [Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR] 21, 1375-1398. S ALEMANN, Carl H. 1912: “Manichaica III”. Izvestiia Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk [Proceedings of the Imperial Academy of Sciences] 6, 1-32. SCE = M ACKENZIE 1970 S IMS-WILLIAMS, Nicholas 1977: “The Sogdian fragments of the British Library”. Indo- Iranian Journal 18/1-2, 1976, 43-82. S IMS-WILLIAMS, Nicholas 1992: “The Sogdian Fragments of Leningrad II: Mani at the Court of the Shahanshah”. In: Honor of Richard Nelson Frye. Aspects of Iranian Culture. Bulletin of the Asia Institute 4. 1990, 281-8. S IMS-WILLIAMS, Nicholas 2009: “The Bactrian fragment in Manichaean script (M1224)”. In: Literarische Stoffe und ihre Gestaltung in mitteliranischer Zeit. Kolloquium anlässlich des 70. Geburtstags von Prof. Dr. W. Sundermann. Ed. by D. Durkin-Meisterernst et al. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 245-268. S IMS-WILLIAMS, Nicholas (ed.) 2015: The Life of Serapion and other Christian Sogdian Texts from the Manuscript E25 and E26. Turnhout: Brepols (Berliner Turfantexte 35). S IMS-WILLIAMS, Nicholas 2016: A Dictionary: Christian Sogdian, Syriac and English. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag. 25 SIMS-WILLIAMS, Nicholas and BI BO 2015: “Sogdian Documents from Khotan, II: Letters and Miscellaneous Fragments”. Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 135, no. 2, 261-282. S UNDERMANN, Werner 1973: Mittelpersische und parthische kosmogonische und Parabeltexte der Manichäer. Berlin: Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR (Berliner Turfantexte 4). S UNDERMANN, Werner 1981: “Nachlese zu F.W.K. Müllers ‘Soghdischen Texten I’, 3. Teil”. Altorientalische Forschungen 8, 169-225. S UNDERMANN, Werner 1985: Ein manichäisch-soghdisches Parabelbuch mit einem Anhang von Friedmar Geissler über Erzählmotive in der Geschichte von den zwei Schlangen. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag (Berliner Turfantexte 15). S UNDERMANN, Werner 1990: The Manichaean Hymn cycles Huyadagmān and Angad Rōšnān in Parthian and Sogdian. London (Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum Supplementary Series, vol. II). S UNDERMANN, Werner 1997: Der Sermon von der Seele. Eine Lehrschrift des östlichen Manichäismus. Edition der parthischen und soghdischen Version mit einem Anhang von Peter Zieme. Die türkischen Fragmente des „Sermons von der Seele“. Turnhout: Brepols (Berliner Turfantexte 19) S UNDERMANN, Werner 2005: “On the Identity and the Unity of the Parthian Language, and on its Unknown Words”. In Middle Iranian Lexicography. Ed. by C.G. Cereti and M. Maggi). Roma, 85-100 (Serie Orientale Roma XCVIII: Orientalia Romana 8). S UNDERMANN, Werner 2012: Die Rede der Lebendigen Seele. Ein Manichäischer Hymnenzyklus in mittelpersischer und soghdischer Sprache. Unter Mitarbeit von Desmond Durkin Meisterernst. Turnhout: Brepols (Berliner Turfantexte 30). TD1 = The Bondahesh. Being a Facsimile Edition of the Manuscript TD1, Iranian Culture Foundation 88. Teheran 1970. VJ = B ENVENISTE 1946. YOSHIDA Yutaka 1996: “The Sogdian Dhūta Text and Its Chinese Original”. Bulletin of the Asia Institute, vol. 10, 167-173. Y OSHIDA Yutaka 2001: “On the Sogdian fragments of the St. Petersburg collection”. Contributions to the Studies of Eurasian Languages Series 3. Issues in Eurasian Languages (1). Kyoto University, 105-17. Y OSHIDA Yutaka 2009: “Sogdian”. In: The Iranian Languages (ed. G.L. Windfuhr). London and New York: Routledge (Routledge Language Family Series).

About the authors

Olga Chunakova

Institute of Oriental Manuscripts RAS

Author for correspondence.
Email: ochunakova@inbox.ru
SPIN-code: 5146-7100

Russian Federation

Federico Dragoni

Freie Universität Berlin

Email: dragoni.federico@virgilia.it

Germany

Enrico Morano

International Association of Manichaean Studies

Email: ec.morano@gmail.com

References

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  2. ANKLESARIA, Behramgore Tehmuras 1956: Zand ākāsīh. Iranian or Greater Bundahišn. Transliteration and Translation in English. Bombay
  3. ASMUSSEN, Jes Peter 1965: Xuāstvānīft. Studies in Manichaeism. Copenhagen: Munksgaard (Acta Theologica Danica 7)
  4. AN (Āzand Nāmē) = SUNDERMANN 1985
  5. BBB = HENNING 1937
  6. BENVENISTE, Émile 1940: Textes Sogdiens. Paris: Geuthner (Mission Pelliot en Asie centrale: Série in quarto, 3)
  7. BENVENISTE, Émile 1946: Vessantara Jātaka, texte sogdien édité, traduit et commenté. Paris: Geuthner (Mission Pelliot en Asie centrale: Série in quarto, 4)
  8. BOYCE, Mary. 1952: “Some Parthian abecedarian hymns”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 14, 435-450
  9. BOYCE, Mary. 1960: A Catalogue of the Iranian Manuscript in Manichean Script in the German Turfan Collection. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag
  10. DMTIII.2 = SIMS-WILLIAMS, Nicholas and DURKIN-MEISTERERNST, Desmond 2012: Dictionary of Manichaean Sogdian and Bactrian. Turnhout: Brepols
  11. DURKIN-MEISTERERNST, Desmond 2006: The Hymns of the Living Soul: Middle Persian and Parthian Texts in the Turfan Collection. Turnhout: Brepols (Berliner Turfantexte 24)
  12. DURKIN-MEISTERERNST, Desmond 2014: Miscellaneous Hymns. Middle Persian and Parthian Hymns in the Turfan Collection. Turnhout: Brepols (Berliner Turfantexte 31)
  13. EBRĀHĪMĪ, ʿAlī Awsaṭ (ed.) 1365: Tāǰu-l-ʾAsāmī (Tahḏhību-l-ʾAsmāʾ), be kušeš-e A.A. Ebrāhīmī. Tehrān: Markaz-e Našr Dānešgāhi
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  20. HENNING, Walter Bruno 1942: “An Astronomical Chapter of the Bundahishn”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 229-248 [= Henning, Selected Papers II, 95-114]
  21. HENNING, Walter Bruno 1944: “The Murder of the Magi”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 133-144 [= Henning, Selected Papers II, 139-150]
  22. HENNING, Walter Bruno 1945: “Sogdian Tales”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 11/3, 465-487 [= Henning, Selected Papers II, 169-192]
  23. HENNING, Walter Bruno 1946: “The Sogdian texts of Paris”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 11/4, 713-740 [= Henning, Selected Papers II, 231-258]
  24. HENNING, Walter Bruno 1965: “A Grain of Mustard”. Annali dell'Istituto Orientale di Napoli, Sez. linguistica, 6, 29-47 [= Henning, Selected Papers II, 597-616]
  25. HENNING, Walter Bruno 1977: Selected Papers I-II. Acta Iranica 15. 2ème série, Hommages et Opera Minora. Téhéran-Liège
  26. HORNER, Isaline Blew 1963-64: Milinda’s Questions. 2 vols. London: Oxford, London: Luzac; Oxford: Pali Text Society (Sacred Books of the Buddhists 22)
  27. HÜBSCHMANN, Heinrich 1897: Armenische Grammatik I. Teil. Armenische Etymologie. Leipzig: de Gruyter (Indogermanische Forschungen, vol. 8)
  28. KUDARA, Kogi and SUNDERMANN, Werner 1998: “A Second Text of the Sogdian Viśeṣacintibrahma-paripṛcchā-sūtra”. Studies on the Inner Asian Languages 13, 111-28
  29. LIVSHITS, Vladimir A. 2008: “Manichaica v Asiatskom muzee (Manichaica in the Asiatic Museum)”. In: Rossiiskie ekspeditsii v Central’nuiu Aziiu v kontse XIX - nachale XX veka. Pod red. I.F. Popovoi. [“Russian Expeditions to Central Asia at the Turn of the 20th Century” (ed. by I.F. Popova)]. St. Petersburg: Slavia, 82-87
  30. LIVSHITS, Vladimir A. 2015: Sogdian epigraphy of Central Asia and Semirech’e. Ed. by N. Sims-Williams. London: School of Oriental and African Studies (Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum, Part II: Inscriptions of the Seleucid and Parthian Periods and of Eastern Iran and Central Asia, vol. III: Sogdian)
  31. MACKENZIE, David N. 1970: The ‘Sūtra of the Causes and Effects of Actions’ in Sogdian. London: Oxford University Press (London Oriental Series 22)
  32. MACKENZIE, David N. 1976: The Buddhist Sogdian Text of the British Library. Acta Iranica 3 (10). Leiden: Brill
  33. PĀKZĀD, Fazlollah 2005: Bundahišn, Zoroastrische Kosmogonie und Kosmologie. Band I, Kritische Edition. Tehrān: Centre for the Great Islamic Encyclopaedia
  34. RADLOFF, Friedrich W. 1909: Chuastuanit, das Bussgebet der Manichäer. St. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften
  35. RAGOZA, Asiia N. 1972: K istorii slozheniia kollektsii rukopisei na sredneiranskikh iazykakh iz Vostochnogo Turkestana, khraniashchikhsia v rukopisnom otdele LO IVAN USSR [In addition to the history of the collection of Manuscripts in the Middle Iranian languages of East Turkestan preserved in the Manuscript department of the Leningrad Branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR]. (Pis’mennye pamiatniki Vostoka. Istoriko-filologicheskie issledovaniia [Written monuments of Orient. Historical and philological studies]) 1969. Moscow: Nauka; Glavnaiia redaktsiia vostochnoi literatury, 244-261
  36. RAGOZA, Asiia N. 1980: Sogdiiskie fragmenty central’noaziatskogo sobraniia Instituta vostokovedeniia [Sogdian fragments of the Central Asian fund of the Institute of Oriental Studies collection]. Moscow: Nauka; Glavnaiia redaktsiia vostochnoi literatury
  37. RECK, Christiane 2006: Mitteliranische Handschriften. Teil 1: Berliner Turfanfragmente manichäischen Inhalts in soghdischer Schrift (VOHD 18). Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag
  38. ROSENBERG, Frédéric 1918: “Deux fragments sogdien bouddhiques du Ts′ien-fo-tong du Touen-houang (Mission S. Oldenburg, 1914-1915). I. Fragment d’un conte”. Izvestiia Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk [Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences] 12, 817- 842
  39. ROSENBERG, Frédéric 1920: “Deux fragments sogdien-bouddhiques du Ts′ien-fo-tong du Touen-houang (Mission S. d’Oldenburg 1914-1915). II. Fragment d’un Sūtra”. Izvestiia Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk [Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences] 14, 399- 429; 455-474
  40. ROSENBERG, Frédéric 1927: “Un fragment sogdien bouddhique du Musée Asiatique (Kr. IV Soghd. 4)”. Izvestiia Akademii Nauk SSSR [Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR] 21, 1375-1398
  41. SALEMANN, Carl H. 1912: “Manichaica III”. Izvestiia Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk [Proceedings of the Imperial Academy of Sciences] 6, 1-32
  42. SCE = MACKENZIE 1970
  43. SIMS-WILLIAMS, Nicholas 1977: “The Sogdian fragments of the British Library”. IndoIranian Journal 18/1-2, 1976, 43-82
  44. SIMS-WILLIAMS, Nicholas 1992: “The Sogdian Fragments of Leningrad II: Mani at the Court of the Shahanshah”. In: Honor of Richard Nelson Frye. Aspects of Iranian Culture. Bulletin of the Asia Institute 4. 1990, 281-8
  45. SIMS-WILLIAMS, Nicholas 2009: “The Bactrian fragment in Manichaean script (M1224)”. In: Literarische Stoffe und ihre Gestaltung in mitteliranischer Zeit. Kolloquium anlässlich des 70. Geburtstags von Prof. Dr. W. Sundermann. Ed. by D. Durkin-Meisterernst et al. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 245-268
  46. SIMS-WILLIAMS, Nicholas (ed.) 2015: The Life of Serapion and other Christian Sogdian Texts from the Manuscript E25 and E26. Turnhout: Brepols (Berliner Turfantexte 35)
  47. SIMS-WILLIAMS, Nicholas 2016: A Dictionary: Christian Sogdian, Syriac and English. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag
  48. SIMS-WILLIAMS, Nicholas and BI BO 2015: “Sogdian Documents from Khotan, II: Letters and Miscellaneous Fragments”. Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 135, no. 2, 261-282
  49. SUNDERMANN, Werner 1973: Mittelpersische und parthische kosmogonische und Parabeltexte der Manichäer. Berlin: Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR (Berliner Turfantexte 4)
  50. SUNDERMANN, Werner 1981: “Nachlese zu F.W.K. Müllers ‘Soghdischen Texten I’, 3. Teil”. Altorientalische Forschungen 8, 169-225
  51. SUNDERMANN, Werner 1985: Ein manichäisch-soghdisches Parabelbuch mit einem Anhang von Friedmar Geissler über Erzählmotive in der Geschichte von den zwei Schlangen. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag (Berliner Turfantexte 15)
  52. SUNDERMANN, Werner 1990: The Manichaean Hymn cycles Huyadagmān and Angad Rōšnān in Parthian and Sogdian. London (Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum Supplementary Series, vol. II)
  53. SUNDERMANN, Werner 1997: Der Sermon von der Seele. Eine Lehrschrift des östlichen Manichäismus. Edition der parthischen und soghdischen Version mit einem Anhang von Peter Zieme. Die türkischen Fragmente des „Sermons von der Seele“. Turnhout: Brepols (Berliner Turfantexte 19)
  54. SUNDERMANN, Werner 2005: “On the Identity and the Unity of the Parthian Language, and on its Unknown Words”. In Middle Iranian Lexicography. Ed. by C.G. Cereti and M. Maggi). Roma, 85-100 (Serie Orientale Roma XCVIII: Orientalia Romana 8)
  55. SUNDERMANN, Werner 2012: Die Rede der Lebendigen Seele. Ein Manichäischer Hymnenzyklus in mittelpersischer und soghdischer Sprache. Unter Mitarbeit von Desmond Durkin Meisterernst. Turnhout: Brepols (Berliner Turfantexte 30)
  56. TD1 = The Bondahesh. Being a Facsimile Edition of the Manuscript TD1, Iranian Culture Foundation 88. Teheran 1970
  57. VJ = BENVENISTE 1946
  58. YOSHIDA Yutaka 1996: “The Sogdian Dhūta Text and Its Chinese Original”. Bulletin of the Asia Institute, vol. 10, 167-173
  59. YOSHIDA Yutaka 2001: “On the Sogdian fragments of the St. Petersburg collection”. Contributions to the Studies of Eurasian Languages Series 3. Issues in Eurasian Languages (1). Kyoto University, 105-17
  60. YOSHIDA Yutaka 2009: “Sogdian”. In: The Iranian Languages (ed. G.L. Windfuhr). London and New York: Routledge (Routledge Language Family Series)

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