Fragments of Tibetan Texts Refound at the Dunhuang Collection Kept at the IOM, RAS: Eleven Identified Fragments of Buddhist Canonical Texts

Abstract


The paper presents texts of eighteen identified Tibetan fragments kept at the IOM, RAS Dunhuang Collection. These are fragments of five canonical Buddhist texts: Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa stong phrag brgya pa pa (7 fragments), ’Phags pa ’jigs pa chen po brgyad las sgrol ba zhes bya ba’i gzungs (1 fragment), ’Phags pa chos thams cad kyi yum zhes bya ba’i gzungs (an almost complete text), ’Phags pa tshe dang ye shes dpag tu med pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo (1 fragment), De bzhin gshegs pa bdun gyi sngon sman lam gyi khyad par rgyas pa zhes bya ba mdo sde bklag cing de bzhin gshegs pa bdun mchod de| smon lam gdab pa’i cho ga mdo sde las btus te rim par bklag pa (1 fragment). The first four texts can be found in Bka’ ’gyur, the latter one in Bstan ’gyur. The Derge edition of Bka’ ’gyur and Bstan ’gyur was used to fill the lacunae in the fragments.


Full Text

Alexander Zorin Fragments of Tibetan Texts Refound at the Dunhuang Collection Kept af the IOM, RAS: Eleven Identified Fragments of Buddhist Canonical Texts Abstract: the paper presents texts of eighteen identified Tibetan fragments kept at the IOM, RAS Dunhuang Collection. These are fragments of five canonical Buddhist texts: Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa stong phrag brgya pa pa (7 fragments), ’Phags pa ’jigs pa chen po brgyad las sgrol ba zhes bya ba’i gzungs (1 fragment), ’Phags pa chos thams cad kyi yum zhes bya ba’i gzungs (an almost complete text), ’Phags pa tshe dang ye shes dpag tu med pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo (1 fragment), De bzhin gshegs pa bdun gyi sngon sman lam gyi khyad par rgyas pa zhes bya ba mdo sde bklag cing de bzhin gshegs pa bdun mchod de| smon lam gdab pa’i cho ga mdo sde las btus te rim par bklag pa (1 fragment). The first four texts can be found in Bka’ ’gyur, the latter one in Bstan ’gyur. The Derge edition of Bka’ ’gyur and Bstan ’gyur was used to fill the lacunae in the fragments. Key words: Tibetan manuscripts from Dunhuang, Tibetan Buddhist texts Tibetan texts from Dunhuang preserved at the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, RAS are mainly kept as a separate collection which is set apart from the main IOM Dunhuang Collection and well-known thanks to the catalogue edited by L.S. Savitskii. 1 Meanwhile, the main IOM Dunhuang Collection also contains a number of short texts in Tibetan, some of them being written on the verso sides of Chinese scrolls, some others being tiny fragments of independent Tibetan manuscripts. In 1995, a brief account of them was first presented by M.I. Vorobiova-Desiatovskaia who mentioned © Alexander Valerievich Zorin, Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences 1 SAVITSKII 1991. This collection was later slightly changed and enlarged, in 2007 and 2011, see Z ORIN 2012, and in 2015 (two concertina books that contain some Buddhist ritual texts were added). It is necessary to add that the IOM collection of Tibetan texts from Khara- Khoto also contains several texts from Dunhuang that were added there by mistake. They should be analyzed in a separate study. One of them will be edited in I WAO (forthcoming). 50 specially one of them, Ф-325, that contained the Tibetan transcription of the Chinese text of “Avalokiteśvarasūtra”(?) on the back side of the Chinese scroll. 2 The plan to study and edit these texts was not realized at that time. Several years later, one text was identified by K. Iwao as a fragment of the old Tibetan Royal Annals and it was edited, analyzed and translated by him. 3 It was an important discovery since the first historical chronicles of Tibet found among the Dunhuang texts, being a precious source on the initial stages of Tibetan history, society and culture, 4 remain incomplete in many respects. It turned necessary then to check all other Tibetan fragments that could be found at the IOM Dunhuang Collection so attempt was made to compile their catalogue. 51 items with Tibetan inscriptions 5 were found and divided tentatively into several groups. 1. Canonical Buddhist texts, including Ф-325 6 (12) 2. Fragments of documents, including the fragment of old Tibetan chronicles identified by K. Iwao (13) 3. Fragments that are probably too short to be juxtaposed with any particular text unless the neighboring parts of the manuscripts they belonged to can be found in other depositories of Dunhuang texts 7 (18) 4. Separate letters, mantras, scribbles, etc. (8) The results of this preliminary study do not seem much promising for the scholars of the old chronicles - even if there are some fragments of them they are very short and can hardly add much to the study of the Tibetan Royal Annals. At the same time, several fragments of the canonical Buddhist texts were identified, thanks to the useful search tools available at the web sites of the Tibetan Buddhist Research Center (TBRC) and the Resources for Kanjur and Tanjur Studies (RKTS). 2 VOROBIOVA-DESIATOVSKAIA 1995, 47. 3 IWAO 2011. 4 More on this see in DOTSON 2009. 5 It can be the preliminary number since I have only checked the texts reproduced in the facsimile edition DMRS 1992-2001. Further work with the collection can lead to discovering some more Tibetan fragments. 6 The text is being studied now by T. Takata. 7 It is especially promising in case of text Дх-11731 that is a long narrow fragment of a folio (5.7/27.2×0.3/4.5 cm) with a picture of a horse in the upper part and some Tibetan text below. 51 These texts are presented below. Hopefully, some other parts of the same manuscripts will be eventually discovered by colleagues working with other Dunhuang Collections. Exact identification of our fragments with certain places in a later canonical edition, namely the Derge edition (D 8 ) which is both authoritative and widely available, can prove to be helpful. D is also used to fill the lacunae found in the fragments although the original texts must have had certain differences. In text 2, a repeating part was luckily reconstructed and used in this original form, instead of that of D, to partly fill the lacunae. Significant variations between the available texts of the fragments and those of D are marked, too. The texts of the fragments are given in bold type, the lacunae put in the brackets. Syllables written above or below the main text are marked with italics and their positions are specified in the footnotes, the crossed syllables are put in angle brackets, illegible signs are rendered with question marks. Special Tibetan signs used for rendering of Sanskrit words and syllables are transliterated with use of diacritics - ā, ī, ü, þ, etc. The reverse gi gu sign is marked with a capital I. The empty space renders the tsheg sign. In Dunhuang manuscripts it is often found before the shad sign (rendered with |); in case it is not found there, the +| combination is used. Note that I use the plus sign to render some Tibetan transcriptions of Sanskrit words in a different way it is often used. I understand this sign as the one rendering omitted tsheg signs, hence I prefer to write ta+dya instead of tad+ya or ka+lpe instead of kal+pe, etc. Intervals between words and shad signs are rendered with underscores. 1. Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa stong phrag brgya pa pa / Śatasāhasrikāprajñāpāramitā (D8: bka’ ’gyur,’bum, ka, 1b1-a, 395a6) i-ii. Дх-11729 & Дх-11725 Two fragments of the left part of a folio (4.2/7.1×8.1/14.8 and 0.3/7.4× 1.4/11.1 cm). D: ga, 182a4-182b1. 9 8 TŌHOKU 1934. 9 An identical fragment is also found in Nyi khri, Ka, 236b3-237a2 but it has an internal colophon (shes rab kyi pha rol du phyin pa stong phrag nyi shu lnga pa| bam po bcu bdun pa|) for which our fragment has no place. 52 i. 1. gyI chags se[ms dang yid mi bde ba rnam par bstsal cing rnam] 2. [pa]r spyod do+|_|[rab ’byor gzhan yang byang chub sems dpa’ sems] 3. dpa’ |chen po shes[ rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa la spyod pa’i tshe|_nam dur khrod] 4. kyI rus pa keng rus gzu[ngs myed 10 pa gyes pa dung gi mdog ltar gyur] 5. pa <?>sal 11 rnam par ’thor[ ba mthong ba de’i tshe|_de lus ’di nyid kyi tshul] 6. yang de dang gnye bar sbyo[r te|_lus ’di yang ’di lta bu’i chos can] 10 Interestingly enough, D preserves this element of old Tibetan orthography (myed instead of med, myi instead of mi, etc.) in this text. 11 D: sa la. 53 7. ’dI lta bu’I rang bzhIn ca[n te|_’di lta bu’i chos nyid las ma ’das] 8. pa’o zhes bya bar nye bar rto[g go|_|rab ’byor de ltar na byang chub sems] 9. dpa’ sems dpa’ chen[ po|_shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa la spyod] 10. [pa’i tshe phyi lus la d]e[ myi dmyigs pa’i tshul gyis lus kyi rjes su lta zhing] ii. 9. [d]pa’ [sems dpa’ chen po|_shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa la spyod] 10. pa’I tshe |_phyI’I lus la d[e myi dmyigs pa’i tshul gyis lus kyi rjes] 11. su lta zhIng |_brtson ’g[ru]s[ can shes bzhin dang ldan pa dran pa dang] 12. ldan bas ’ji[g rten gyi chags sems dang yid mi bde ba rnam par] 13. bstsald cIng[ rnam par spyod do|_|rab ’byor gzhan yang byang] 14. chub sems[ dpa’ sems dpa’ chen po|_shes rab kyi pha rol tu] 15. phyi[n pa la spyod pa’i tshe|_nam dur khrod kyi rus pa keng rus sha] 16. dang[ khrag myed pa|_rgyus pa’i gzungs myed pa dung gi mdog…] 54 iii. Дх-19086 The right upper side of the obviously last folio of a scroll, with a fragment of the empty section to the right (1.2/16.5×5.6/17.7 cm). Its verso side has an application with two short fragments of the text that contains some names of years. 12 D: ga, 234b3-234b6. 13 1. […’gag pa myed pa]’i ngo bo nyid ’gag pa myed pa’I 2. [ngo bo nyid kyis stong pa’i phyir ro|_|kun nas nyon mo]ngs +pa myed 14 pa’I ngo bo nyid kun nas 3. [nyon mongs pa med pa’i ngo bo nyid kyis stong pa]’i phyir ro+|_|rnam par byang 4. [ba myed pa’i ngo bo nyid rnam par byang ba myed pa’i ngo bo ny]id gyis stong ba’I phyir ro+|_| 5. [rab ’byor ’di lta ste dper na|_mngon par ’du bya ba m]y[e]d+|pa ni gnas pa yang ma 12 1. |:| stIg lo’i… (the beginning of a text written at the uppermost side of the application); 2. [|]:| yos+ba’i(?) (perhaps, a continuation of the same text at the very bottom of the application, there is a long empty space between the two inscriptions). 13 An almost identical fragment: nyi khri, ka, 272b4-272b8. 14 Sign + is written above, pa myed below. 55 6. [yin myi gnas pa yang ma yin no|_|ra]b ’byor de bzhin du theg pa chen po de yang 15 7. [gnas pa yang ma yin myi gnas pa yang ma] yin no+|_|de cI’i phyir zhe na rab ’byor 8. [mngon par ’du bya ba myed pa’i ngo bo nyid la] nI gnas pa’aṃ myi gnas pa myed do 8sub. <ma yin ? gnas pa ’ang ma(?) yin no> 9. [de ci’i phyir zhe na|_rab ’byor de ni ’di ltar mng]o[n par ’du bya ba my]e[d pa]’i [ngo bo nyid mngon par ’du bya ba myed pa’i ngo bo nyid kyis stong pa’i phyir ro||] iv. Дх-11753 A small fragment of rectangular form, maybe from the bottom of a folio (2.9/5.5×5.7/10.7 cm). D: tha, 276b1-276b4. 1. […rnam pa thams cad mkhyen pa nyid ]du slob pa yin nam 16 | 2. [dngos po myed pa’i ngo bo nyid stong pa nyid bas par bgyi ba’i slad du slob na|_]rnam pa thams cad m[khy]e[n] 3. [pa nyid du slob pa lags sam|_dngos po myed pa’i ngo bo nyid] stong pa nyId ’dod chag[s] 4. [dang bral bar bgyi ba’i slad du slob na|_rnam pa thams cad m]khyend pa nyId du slob pa 15 Letter nga is subscribed. 16 D: slob pa lags sam. 56 5. [lags sam|_dngos po myed pa’i ngo bo nyid stong pa nyid ’ga]g par bya 17 ba’I phyir 18 [sl]o[b na|_] 6. [rnam pa thams cad mkhyen pa nyid du slob pa lags sam|_dngo]s po myed pa’i [ngo bo] 7. [nyid stong pa nyid mi skye bar bgyi ba’i slad du slob na]+|_| v. Дх-11730 A fragment containing parts of two columns written on the same folio of a scroll (7.5/14.5×4.2/18.0 cm). The bottom of the left column (around a quarter of the remaining length) is wider than the upper part. 17 D: bgyi. 18 D: slad du. 57 Left column D: da, 226a5-226b4. 1. […ma byung ba dang|_yongs su ma rdzogs pa dang|_mngon par ma grub par she]s te+|_| 2. [byang chub kyi phyogs kyi chos de dag la spyod cing|_nyan thos kyi sa las yongs su ’da’|_rang sang]s rgyas kyi 3. [sa las yongs su ’da’ ste|_rab ’byor ’di ni byang chub sems dpa’ sems dpa’ chen po’i myi skye ]ba’i chos la 4. [bzod pa’o|_|rab ’byor gzhan yang byang chub sems dpa’ sems dpa’ chen po shes rab ky]i pha rol tu phyin 5. [pa la spyod pa’i tshe|_rnam par thar pa brgyad la snyoms par ’jug kyang|_rgyun tu zhugs pa’i ’]b[r]as bu thob 6. [par mi byed|_lan cig phyir ’ong ba’i ’bras bu thob par mi byed|_phyir myi ’ong ba’i ’bras bu tho]b par myi bye 19 7. [dgra bcom pa nyid thob par mi byed|_rang byang chub thob par mi byed do|_|de ci’i phyir zhe na|_’di ]pa’ 20 de ni 8. [chos thams cad rang gi mtshan nyid kyis stong par shes so|_|chos thams cad myed pa dang|_ma ]byung bar 9. [shes so|_|chos thams cad yongs su ma rdzogs par shes so|_|chos thams cad mngon par ]ma grub par 10. [shes so|_|rab ’byor gzhan yang byang chub sems dpa’ sem]s dpa’ ch[e]n p[o] sh[e]s rab kyi pha 11. [rol tu phyin pa la spyod pa’i tshe|_mthar kyis gnas pa’i snyoms] par ’jug pa dgu la snyoms 12. [par ’jug kyang|_rgyun tu zhugs pa’i ’bras bu thob par myi byed]|lan cig phyir <myi> ’ong ba’i 13. [’bras bu thob par myi byed|_phyir mi ’ong ba’i ’bras bu thob par] myI byed |dgra [bc]o[m pa ny]i[d] 14. [thob par myi byed|_rang byang chub thob par mi byed do|_|de ci’i phyir zh]e [na|_’d]i [ltar de ni] 21 19 D: byed. 20 D: ltar; it is not quite clear what is written in the manuscript, my reading is hypothetical. 21 The last two or three lines that are missing must have had the following text - chos thams cad rang gi mtshan nyid kyis stong par shes so|_|chos thams cad myed pa dang ma byung bar shes so|_|chos thams cad yongs su ma rdzogs par shes so|_|chos thams cad mngon par ma grub par shes so|_|rab ’byor gzhan yang byang chub sems dpa’ sems dpa’ chen po|_de bzhin gshegs pa’i stobs bcu la yongs su ’dris par byed|_myi ’jigs pa bzhi la (D: da, 226b4- 226b5). 58 Right column D: da, 226b5-227a3. 1. yongs+u ’dris pa[r byed|_so so yang dag par rig pa bzhi la yongs su ’dris par byed|_sangs] 2. rgyas kyI chos+|ma ’[dr]e[s pa bcwo brgyad la yongs su ’dris par byed|_byams pa chen po la] 3. yongs+u drIs par [byed|_snying rje chen po la yongs su ’dris par byed|_nam sangs] 4. rgyas gyI zhing yong[s su dag par ma gyur pa dang|_sems can rnams yongs su smyin par] 5. ma gyur kyI bar du rnam [pa thams cad mkhyen pa nyid thob par myi byed do|_|rab ’byor de ltar] 6. byang cub sems dpa’ [sems dpa’ chen pos|_shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa la spyod par bya’o|_|gsol pa|_] 7. bcom ldan ’das byang[ chub sems dpa’ sems dpa’ chen po de lta bu’i chos zab mo dag la spyod kyang|_] 8. rnam par smyIn pa yong[s su myi ’dzin pa ni blo dam pa dang ldan pa lags so|_|bcom ldan] 9. ’das kyIs bka’ stsa[l pa|_rab ’byor de de bzhin no|_|de de bzhin te|_byang chub sems] 10. dpa’ sems dpa’ [chen po gang de lta bu’i chos zab mo dag la spyod cing|_rnam par] 11. smyin pa’ |_yongs+u myI [’dzin pa ni|_blo dam pa dang ldan pa’o|_|de ci’i phyir zhe na|_rab] 12. ’byor de ni byang cub sem[s dpa’ sems dpa’ chen po ngo bo nyid las mi g.yo’o|_| 13. [gs]o[l ba|_bc]o[m ldan ’das|_ngo bo nyid gang las myi g.yo ba lags|…] 59 vi. Дх-11728 A rectangular fragment of a folio (9.6/10.0×14.3/15.6 cm). The text of the lacunae is given on separate lines because it is impossible to decide which parts should be located to the left and which to the right of the text of the fragment. D: da, 258a7-258b5. 60 […myi gdung ba’i lha rnams kyi lam shes par] 1. bya’o+|_|rgyu shes par bya’o |’bras bu shes par bya’o+|_| [shin tu mthong ba’i lha rnams kyi lam shes par bya’o|_|rgyu shes par bya’o|_|] 2.’bras bu shes par bya’o+|_|gya nom snang ba’i lha rnam [s kyi lam shes par bya’o|_|rgyu shes par bya’o|_|’bras bu shes par bya] 3. ’o+|_|’og myin gyi lha rnams gyi lam shes par bya[’]o [|_|rgyu shes par bya’o|_|’bras bu shes par bya’o|_|nam mkha’ mtha’ ya] 4. s skye mched gyi lha rnams gyi lam shes par bya’o [|_|rgyu shes par bya’o|_|’bras bu shes par bya’o|_|rnam shes mtha’ ] 5. yas skye mched gyi lha rnams gyi lam shes par bya’o [|_|rgyu shes par bya’o|_|’bras bu shes par bya’o|_|chung zad myed pa’i skye mche] 6. d gyi lha rnams gyi lam shes par bya’o+|_|rgyu shes [ par bya’o|_|’bras bu shes par bya’o|_|’du shes myed ’du shes myed my] 7. in skye mched gyi lha rnams gyi lam shes par bya’o [|_|rgyu shes par bya’o|_|’bras bu shes par bya’o|_|dran pa nye bar gzha] 8. g pa bzhi shes par bya’o+|_|yang dag par spong ba [bzhi shes par bya’o|_|rdzu ’phrul gyi rkang pa bzhi shes par b] 9. ya’o+|_|dbang po lnga shes par bya’o+|stobs lnga [sh]e [s par bya’o|_|byang chub kyi yan lag bdun shes par bya’o|_|’phags] 10. pa’i lam yan lag brgyad pa shes+[pa]r 22 bya’o|_|rnam pa [r thar pa’i sgo gsum shes par bya’o|_|bsam gtan bzhi shes par bya’] 11. o[|_|tshad myed pa bzh]i [shes par bya’]o[|_|] 22 Sign + is written above, syllable par below but only the letter ra can be seen on the folio due to the lack of its lower part. 61 vii. Addenda: Дх-11744 7.0/32.1×3.0/24.1 cm. One line from ’Bum in the upper part of a folio that is almost empty, although the same side of the folio has several insignificant inscriptions, 23 the other side is empty. The folio could hardly be a part of a scroll; perhaps, it was a draft of the manuscript. D: ca, 349b3-349b4. …[bcom] ldan ’das gzhan yang shar phyogs gyI de bzhIn gshegs pa dgra bcom ba yang dag par rdzogs pa’I sangs rgyas dang|_|lho phyogs gyI de bzhIn <pa>+g[shegs pa]… 2. ’Phags pa ’jigs pa chen po brgyad las sgrol ba zhes bya ba’i gzungs / Ārya-aùñamahābhayatāraõī-nāma-dhāraõī (D541: bka’ ’gyur, rgyud, na, 84b3-85a3, Dbl.-D931: bka’ ’gyur, gzugs, e, 279b7-280b2) 23 1) bdag+ngan+pa ya; 2) bdag ?yang; man; 3) 新卅一袟 “new 31st bundle”, reading by V.P. Zaytsev. All the inscriptions are located in different places below the line with the text from ’Bum. 62 Дх-2302B A very uneven fragment torn out of a folio with the Dhāraõī which is rather short so it was most probably written on one leaf (1.2/9.5× 0.7/16.5 cm). 24 The text of the lacunae is given on separate lines because it is impossible to decide which parts should be located to the left and which to the right of the text of the fragment. [rgya gar skad du|_ā+rya a+ùña ma hā bha ya tā rā ni nā ma+dhā ra õī|_bod skad du|_’phags pa ’jigs pa chen po brgyad las sgrol ba zhes bya ba’i gzungs|_sangs rgyas dang byang chub sems dpa’ thams cad la phyag ’] 1. tsh[a]l+[o] | [de bzhin gshegs pa yon tan ’byung gnas la phyag ’tshal lo|_|de bzhin gshegs pa kun nas spos] 2. rI 25 la phyag ’tshal+o+|_|de b [zhin gshegs pa gzhan gyis mi thub pa’i rtsal dang ldan pa la phyag ’tshal lo|_|de bzhin gshegs pa] 24 There is also a tiny fragment that has …ng |. 25 D: dri. 63 3. ’a sgrib pa thams cad [rnam par sel ba la phyag ’tshal lo|_|de bzhin gshegs pa zla ba mchog la phyag ’tshal lo|_|de bzhin gshegs pa zhi ba’i rgyal po la phyag ’tshal lo|_|de bzhin] 4. gsh[e]gs pa’I zla ba bla ma la phyag ’ [tshal lo|_|byang chub sems dpa’ sems dpa’ chen po snying rje chen po dang ldan pa ’jigs pa med par byed pa la phyag ’a] 5. tshal+o |_|ñad ya thā |óha re dha rā 26 óh[ā] re [dhā ra õī|_ra na ko te a bha yā ka+lpe|_ka+lpe ni ga õi|_a na+nta ka+lpe|_a mrI ta ka+lpe|] 6. hu dā sha re |a nan ta mu khe |a naõ |tsag [?] shu [sa mutga te|_oü bha swā hā|_rigs kyi bu gzungs kyi gsang sngags ’di da] 7. g nI sems can ngan song du ’g[r]o ba rnam [s kyi don gyi phyir|_sangs rgyas bcom ldan ’das gang gā’i klung gi bye ma snyed dag gis] 8. gs[u]ngs pa dang byIn gyis brla [bs pa dang|_rjes su yi rang ba yin no|_|rigs kyi bu byang chub sems dpa’ gang la la gzungs ’di ’dz] 9. in par byed pa de 27 |’jigs pa 28 brgyad [po sems can dmyal ba’i ’jigs pa mtha’ yas pa dang|_dud ’gro’i skye gnas kyi ’jigs pa] 10. ’a mtha’ yas 29 dang | [gshin rje’i ’jig rten gyi ’jigs pa mtha’ yas pa dang|_yi dags kyi ’jigs pa mtha’ yas pa dang] 11. |bgrod dka [’a ba’i ’jigs pa mtha’ yas pa dang|_skye ba’i ’jigs pa mtha’ yas pa dang|_nad kyi ’jigs pa mtha’ yas pa dang|_’chi ba’i ’jigs pa mtha’ yas pa dag las yang dag par ’da’ bar ’gyur ro|_|phyogs bcu’i sangs rgyas bcom ldan ’das rnams kyis dgongs par ’gyur ro|_|sems rnam par g.yeng ba med par ’chi ba’i dus byed cing|_sangs rgyas rnams kyi spyan sngar skye bar ’gyur|_zad mi shes pa’i lus thob par ’gyur|_sprul pa’i lus kyang thob par ’gyur ro|_|na+maþ+sa+rba bi+dyā|_sid dhyan tu me man tra pā da swā hā|_’phags pa ’jigs pa chen po brgyad las sgrol ba zhes bya ba’i gzungs rdzogs so|_|] 26 D: dha re dha re. 27 This syllable is written below. 28 This syllable is written below. 29 D: mtha’ yas pa. 64 3. ’Phags pa chos thams cad kyi yum zhes bya ba’i gzungs / Āryasarvadharmamātçkā-nāma-dhāraõī (D573: bka’ ’gyur, rgyud, pha 200a2- 200a7; Dbl. - D996: bka’ ’gyur, gzungs, wam, 149b6-150a4) Дх-10384 This short text was written originally on one folio of which there are found three pieces bearing the same access number supplied with additional Roman numbers, Дх-10384 I (8.9/11.2×12.1/13.7 cm), Дх-10384 II (4.1/8.9× 8.2/13.0 cm), and Дх-10384 III (7.6/12.1×10.6/13.6 cm). Put in the right order, viz. Дх-10384 II, Дх-10384 I, and Дх-10384 III, they comprise almost entirely the right half of the folio. The text was continued on the verso side but the final part cannot be read because of damage of paper. Recto side Дх-10384-II: fragment 1 1. [rgya gar skad d]u|_|ā+rya sa rba dha rma | 2. [mā trī kā nā ma dhā ra õi]|_|bod skad du chos 30 thams+| 30 D: ’phags ma chos. 65 3. [cad kyi yum zhes bya] ba’i gzungs |_|sang 31 rgyas 4. [dang|_byang chub sems dpa’] thams cad la phyag | 5. [’tshal lo|_’di skad] bda+gis thos pa 32 dus+| 6. [gcig na|_bcom ldan ’das mnyan ]yod na bzhugs 33 7. ] gyis |_[tsh]e [ Дх-10384-I: fragment 2 7. [te|_de nas bcom l]dan ’da[s] dang | 8. [ldan pa kun ]dga’ bo la bka’ stsal pa | 9. [kun dga’ bo|_khyo]d gyis chos thams cad gyi yuṃ 34 10. [zhes bya ba’I phyag rgya’i g]zungs |_|nad thams cad rab sdu 35 | 11. [zhi bar byed pa de] bzhIn gshegs pa tham 36 cad+| 12. [kyis gsungs pa ste|_]nga yang da ltar ’chad pa zung+| 13. [shig|_ta+dya] tha |a ba rte+|a ba rte |bi ba rte |_bI ba 31 D: sangs. 32 D: thos pa’i. 33 The letter sa is subscribed. 34 The last syllable is dimmed so my reading is rather based on the certainty that it must be found there. 35 D: rab tu. 36 D: thams. 66 Дх-10384-IIIR: fragment 3 14. [rte|_bha ga ma sh]ud dhe |pra bha sa re |ta ra ne | 15. [ug ka le ]mug kha l[e]+|sa rba dha rma <da> ba sha ba rti+| 16. [ni swā hā 37 |_de na]s gnas gnas gtsang ma’i+| 17. [lha rnams kyis ]bcom ldan ’das la ’di | 18. [skad ces gso]l to|_|bcom ldan ’das |_| 19. [bdag cag ]gIs kyang 38 |_|gzungs ’di ’i |_| 20. [snying po b]rjod par bgyi ’o+|_|tad ya tha |a tshe+| 37 The entire text of the mantra acc. to D: ta+dya thā|_a ba+rte a ba+rte| bi ba_rte bi ba+rte| bha ga ma shu+ddhe| pra bhā swa re tā ra ṇe| ug kha le| mug kha le| sa+rba dha+rmā pā shi ba ta ṇi swā hā. 38 D: kyang is missing. 67 Verso side Дх-10384-IIIV 39 1. [a na le|_e ]lu le |a lu phe+|ma rta a nu | 2. [ga te sa+rba ]dha rma a ti pa te ya pra [pte dzyo sna ka ra] 40 | 3-. ? 41 39 Above the first line there are two inscriptions - 1) the final sign of some inscription at the left edge of the folio, and 2) three signs written closer to the right edge; both are too pale to be identified but it is clear that they cannot belong to the text of this Dhāraṇī since line 1 of the verso side continues the text written on the recto side without any gaps. 40 This part is dimmed and illegible. 41 The bottom of the piece is deformed and the text is almost totally rubbed away so it is not possible to reconstruct the end of the manuscript. According to D, the final part of the text (including the mantra) is as follows: ta+dya thā|_a+tstshe| a na le| e lu le| a lu phe| mū+rta a nu ga te sa+rba dha+rma a dhi pa ta ye| prā+pte dzyo+sna ka ra| a dhi ga ta dznyā ne bi shu+ddhe pa ti swā hā bcom ldan ’das kyis de skad ces bka’ stsal nas| tshe dang ldan pa kun dga’ bo dang| thams cad dang ldan pa’i ’khor de dag yi rangs te| bcom ldan ’das kyis gsungs pa la mngon par bstod do||_||chos thams can kyi yum zhes bya ba’i gzungs rdzogs so||. 68 4. ’Phags pa tshe dang ye shes dpag tu med pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo / Ārya-aparimitāyurjñāna-nāma-mahāyāna-sūtra (D674: bka’ ’gyur, rgyud, ba, 211b2-216a7, Dbl. - D849: bka’ ’gyur, gzungs, e 57b1-62a6) Дх-11732 The left part of the last(?) folio of a standard Dunhuang scroll with this Sūtra; a little wider at the bottom, about a quarter of the length (5,9/11,4×6,9/25,9 cm). D674: 215a3-215b7. 69 42 1. dha |dhar ma te ma ha na ya pa rI [bā re swā hā | 43 gang la la zhig chos kyi rnam grangs ’di la mchod pa byed par] 2. ’gyur ba |_des dam pa’i chos[ mtha’ dag mchod par ’gyur ro|_|oṃ na mo bha ga ba te|_ a pa ri mi ta] 3. a yu gnya na su bI ni sh[ts]i[ ta te dzo ra dzā ya ta tha ga ta ya|_oṃ sa rba sang ska ra pa rI shud dha dha rma te ma ha na ya pa ri ba] 4. re sba hā |_|’dI lta ste 44 de b[zhin gshegs pa rnam par gzigs dang|_gtsug tor can dang|_thams cad skyob dang |] 5. log par dad stsel 45 dang |gser th[ub dang|_’od srung dang|_shā+kya thub pa la sogs pa la rin po che sna bdun] 6. kyis mchod pa’ |rnams kyis |m[ch]o[d pa byas pa’i bsod nams kyi phung po’i tshad ni bgrang bar nus kyi |] 46 7. tshe dpag tu myed pa’i mdo ’di’i 47 b[sod nams kyi phung po’i tshad ni|_bgrang bar mi nus so|_|oü na mo bha ga ba te|_a] 8. pa rI mi ta+|a yu gnya na su bI ni shtsi [ta te dzo ra dzā ya ta tha ga ta ya|_oṃ sa rba sang ska ra pa rI shud dha dha rma te ma ha na] 42 The previous segment of the scroll contained the beginning of the mantra - oü sa+rba saṃ skā ra pa ri shud (D). 43 This mantra is repeated several times in the fragment. According to D, it runs as follows - oṃ na mo bha ga ba te|_a pa ri mi ta ā yur dznyā na su bi ni shtsi ta te dzo rā dzā ya|_ta thā ga tā ya|_a+rha te| saṃ mya+ksaṃ bud dhā ya|_ta+dya thā|_oṃ pu ṇye pu ṇye ma hā pu ṇye a pa ri mi ta ā yur pu ṇye dznyā na saṃ bhā ro pa tsi te|_oṃ sa+rba saṃ skā ra pa ri shu+ddha dha+rmma te ga ga na su mu+dga te swā bhā ba bi shu+ddhe ma hā na ya pa ri bā re swā hā| (the other canonical editions has minor differences in orthography). Дх-11732 uses a different, abridged form that can luckily be reconstructed on the base of this small fragment of the scroll - oṃ na mo bā ga ba te|_a pa ri mi ta a yu gnya na su bi ni shtsi ta te dzo ra dzā ya ta tha ga ta ya|_oṃ sa rba sang ska ra pa rI shud dha dha rma te ma ha na ya pa ri ba re sba hā|. The respective parts of this form of the mantra are put in the brackets to fill the lacunae while the other text is given according to D. Both long and abridged forms of the mantra can be found in numerous copies of this Sūtra from Dunhuang (I specially checked several scrolls kept at the IOM, RAS for this matter). 44 D: ’di lta ste| dper na. 45 D: sel. 46 There is a long passage omitted - tshe dpag tu med pa’i mdo sde ’di’i bsod nams kyi phung po tshad ni|_bgrang bar mi nus so|_|oṃ na mo bha ga ba te|_a pa ri mi ta ā yurdznyā na su bi ni shtsi ta te dzo rā dzā ya|_ta thā ga tā ya|_arha te samyaksaṃ buddhā ya|_tadya thā|_oṃ pu ṇye pu ṇye ma hā pu ṇye a pa ri ta pu ṇye a pa ri mi ta pu ṇya dznyā na saṃ bhā ro pa tsi te|_oṃ sarbba saṃ skā ra pa ri shuddha dharmma te ga ga na sa mud ga te swa bhā ba bi shuddhe ma hā na ya pa ri wā re swā hā|_’di lta lta ste| dper na|_rin po che’i phung po ri rab tsam spungs te sbyin pa byin pa de’i bsod nams kyi phung po’i tshad ni|_bgrang bar nus kyi|. 47 D: tshe dang ye shes dpag tu med pa’i mdo sde ’di’i. 70 9. ya pa rI ba re sba hā |_|’dI lt[a ste|_dper na rin po che’i phung po ri rab tsam spungs te sbyin pa byin pa de’i bsod nams kyi phung po’i tshad ni bgrang] 10. bar nus kyi |_|tshe dpag tu myed 48 [ pa’i mdo sde ’di’i bsod nams kyi phung po’i tshad ni|_bgrang bar mi nus so|_|oṃ] 11. na mo bā ga ba te a pa rI mi ta |a [y]u [gnya na su bi ni shtsi ta te dzo ra dzā ya ta tha ga ta ya|_oṃ sa rba sang ska ra pa rI shud] 12. dha+|dhar ma te ma ha na ya pa rI ba re sba hā |_|gang zhi[g tshe dang ye shes dpag tu med pa'i mdo sde ’di yi ger ’dri’am yi ger ’drir ’jug gam|_bsti stang du byas te mchod] 13. pa byed par ’gyur ba des |phyogs bcu’i sangs rgyas[ kyi zhing thams cad du de bzhin gshegs pa thams cad] 14. la phyag byas pa dang+|mchod pa byas pa yin no |_[oṃ na mo bha ga ba te a pa ri mi ta ā yur dznyā na su bi ni shtsi ta te dzo] 15. ra dzā ya ta tha ga ta ya | 49 om sa rba sang ska ra pa rI shud[ dha dha rma te ma ha na ya pa ri ba re sba hā|_sbyin pa’i] 16. stobs kyi 50 sangs rgyas yang dag ’phags+|myI’i seng ’[g]e[ sbyin pa'i stobs rtogs te|_|snying rje can gyi grong khyer] 17. ’jug pa na+|sb[y]in ba’i stobs[ kyi ]sg[ra] ni g[ra]gs 51 par ’[gyur|_|…] 5. De bzhin gshegs pa bdun gyi sngon sman lam gyi khyad par rgyas pa zhes bya ba mdo sde bklag cing de bzhin gshegs pa bdun mchod de| smon lam gdab pa’i cho ga mdo sde las btus te rim par bklag pa / [Saptatathāgatapūrvapraṇidhānaviśeṣavistāra-nāmasūtrāntavacanasaptatathāgatapūjāpraṇidhānābhinirhāravidhisūtre vicitāntavacana] (D3134: bstan ’gyur, rgyud, pu, 295b7-301b7) Дх-7230 A folio from a pothi book, with a hole in the middle for assembling of the ff. (15.5/21.1×2.4/6.0 cm). D: 298b5-298b7. 48 D: tshe dang ye shes dpag tu med. 49 There is a passage omitted - a+rha te saṃ mya+ksaṃ bud dhā ya| ta+dya thā| oṃ pu ṇye pu ṇye ma hā pu ṇye a pa ri mi ta pu ṇye ā yur pu ṇya dznyā na saṃ bhā ro pa tsi te|. 50 D: stobs kyis. 51 D: grag. 71 Recto side margin: b[?] 1. @|:|_pa’i sang[s rgyas] bdun gyis 52 thabs mkhas pa dang |sngon 53 gyi smon lam gyi khyad bar 54 [ rgyas pa rlabs] 2. po che ji ltar bta[b cing ]byin gyis_ 55 brlabs pa dang |don de nyid da ltar bdag[ cag gi ston pa] 3. bcom ldan ’das dpal shag kya 56 _thub pas ji ltar bka’ stsal <zh>ing [by]i[n gyis brlabs pa dang] 4. [’phags] pa ’jaü+dpal dang |phyag na rdo rje dang+|bskyab 57 grol la[ sogs pa] Verso side 1. [byang chub se]ms dpa’ chen po rnams gyis+|_|bchom 58 ldan ’das[ de dag gi bka’ lung yang dag] 52 D: gyi. 53 D: smon. 54 D: khyad par. 55 This sign renders an empty space in the middle of the folio, on both sides, where the hole is made. 56 D: shā+kya. 57 D: skyabs. 58 D: bcom. 72 2. par bsgrub 59 pa dang+|_|so <s>o’i_ dgongs spyod rgya chen po rdzogs par [bskang ba’i slad du|] 3. mdo sde’i don [sgrub] pa’i phrin_las mdzad par ’phags pa’i bka’a 60 btags[ pas] 4. zhal gyis bzhes[ shing]|ji ltar byin gyis brlabs pa dang+|lha’i dba[ng] po brgya byin dang+[|]rgya[l po …] References DMRS 1992-2001: Dunhuang Manuscripts in Russian Collections. Shanghai, Shanghai Guji Chubanshe. D OTSON, Brandon 2009: The Old Tibetan Annals. An Annotated Translation of Tibet’s First History. With an Annotated Cartographical Documentation by G. Hazod. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akaddemie der Wissenschaften. (Phil.-Hist. Kl., Denkschriften, 381. Band. Veröffentlichungen zur Sozialanthropologie. Nr. 12.) IWAO Kazushi (forthcoming): Tribute tax (dpya’) of the Old Tibetan Empire: XT 80 and Pelliot tibétain 1128. IWAO Kazushi 2011: “A Newly Identified Fragment of the Tibetan Royal Annals in St. Petersburg”. New Studies of the Old Tibetan Documents: Philology, History and Religion: Old Tibetan Documents Online Monograph Series vol. 3. Ed. by Imaeda Yoshiro, Matthew T. Kapstein and Takeuchi Tsuguhito. Tokyo: Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, 245-255. SAVITSKII L.S. 1991: Opisanie tibetskikh svitkov iz Dunhuana v sobranii Instituta vostokovedeniia AN SSSR [The Description of the Tibetan Scrolls from Dunhuang Kept at the Institute of Oriental Studies, the USSR Academy of Sciences]. Moscow: Nauka GRVL. TŌHOKU 1934: A complete catalogue of the Tibetan Buddhist canons (Bkah-hgyur and Bstanhgyur). Ed. by Hakuju Ui, Munetada Suzuki, Yensho Kanakura, Tokan Tada. Sendai: Tōhoku Imperial University. VOROBIOVA-DESIATOVSKAIA M.I. 1995: “Tibetan Manuscripts of the 8-11th centuries A.D. in the Manuscript Collection of the St. Petersburg Branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies”. Manuscripta Orientalia, vol. 1, No. 1, 46-48. Z ORIN A.V. 2012: “The Collection of Dunhuang Tibetan Texts Kept at the IOM, RAS”. Dunhuang Studies: Prospects and Problems for the Coming Second Century of Research. St. Petersburg: Slavia Publishers, 365-367. Electronic resources RKTS: The “Resources for Kanjur&Tanjur Studies” site; https://www.istb.univie.ac.at/kanjur/ xml3/sub/project.php TBRC: Tibetan Buddhist Research Center; http://tbrc.org 59 D: sgrub. 60 The letter ’a is subscribed.

About the authors

Alexander V. Zorin

Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences

Author for correspondence.
Email: kawi@yandex.ru
SPIN-code: 3573-8876

Russian Federation

References

  1. DMRS 1992-2001: Dunhuang Manuscripts in Russian Collections. Shanghai, Shanghai Guji Chubanshe
  2. DOTSON, Brandon 2009: The Old Tibetan Annals. An Annotated Translation of Tibet’s First History. With an Annotated Cartographical Documentation by G. Hazod. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akaddemie der Wissenschaften. (Phil.-Hist. Kl., Denkschriften, 381. Band. Veröffentlichungen zur Sozialanthropologie. Nr. 12.)
  3. IWAO Kazushi (forthcoming): Tribute tax (dpya’) of the Old Tibetan Empire: XT 80 and Pelliot tibétain 1128
  4. IWAO Kazushi 2011: “A Newly Identified Fragment of the Tibetan Royal Annals in St. Petersburg”. New Studies of the Old Tibetan Documents: Philology, History and Religion: Old Tibetan Documents Online Monograph Series vol. 3. Ed. by Imaeda Yoshiro, Matthew T. Kapstein and Takeuchi Tsuguhito. Tokyo: Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, 245-255
  5. SAVITSKII L.S. 1991: Opisanie tibetskikh svitkov iz Dunhuana v sobranii Instituta vostokovedeniia AN SSSR [The Description of the Tibetan Scrolls from Dunhuang Kept at the Institute of Oriental Studies, the USSR Academy of Sciences]. Moscow: Nauka GRVL
  6. TŌHOKU 1934: A complete catalogue of the Tibetan Buddhist canons (Bkah-hgyur and Bstanhgyur). Ed. by Hakuju Ui, Munetada Suzuki, Yensho Kanakura, Tokan Tada. Sendai: Tōhoku Imperial University
  7. VOROBIOVA-DESIATOVSKAIA M.I. 1995: “Tibetan Manuscripts of the 8-11th centuries A.D. in the Manuscript Collection of the St. Petersburg Branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies”. Manuscripta Orientalia, vol. 1, No. 1, 46-48
  8. ZORIN A.V. 2012: “The Collection of Dunhuang Tibetan Texts Kept at the IOM, RAS”. Dunhuang Studies: Prospects and Problems for the Coming Second Century of Research. St. Petersburg: Slavia Publishers, 365-367

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