A Newly Identified Kuchean Fragment of the Hariścandrāvadāna Housed in the Russian Collection

Abstract


This paper introduces one Kuchean (i.e. Tocharian B) fragment housed in the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences. The fragment has been identified as part of the Hariścandrāvadāna. This narrative is in the sixth chapter of the Daśakarmapathāvadānamālā in Old Uyghur. The colophon of this compilation in Old Uyghur states that it was translated from the Tocharian A translation, which itself had been translated from the Tocharian B original. The comparison between this newly identified Kuchean fragment of the Hariścandrāvadāna and the Old Uyghur version reveals that in both, discrepancies and parallel parts are observable. Thus, whether this Kuchean fragment belongs to the Kuchean version of the Daśakarmapathāvadānamālā or is part of the compilation of Buddhist legends in Kuchean remains uncertain.


Full Text

Introduction Research on Tocharian manuscript remains transported to museums and libraries in Europe was begun with publication of two folios in Kuchean (i.e. Tocharian B) in the Petrovsky collection, now housed in the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences (IOM, RAS) in St. Pe- 1 tersburg (inventory numbers: SI 1903 and SI 1904 (= SI P/1 and SI P/2). © Ogihara Hirotoshi, Associate Professor, The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University (diyuanyumin@gmail.com) * This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17K02724. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Prof. Irina Popova and the staff of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences, who kindly permitted the present author to consult the original fragment treated in this paper and publish my research on it. Here my special thanks should be dedicated to Prof. Georges-Jean Pinault (EPHE, Paris) who generously made available his transliteration of the fragment treated here during my preparation of my doctoral thesis in 2009. Of course, the author should take responsibility for all this paper’s failings. [This paper was submitted in June 2017. Thus, the researches concerning DKPAM which were published afterwards are not consulted here.] 1 These two folios afterward identified as part of the Buddhastotra have been reedited recently by PINAULT 2008: 293-311, PINAULT (2016a) and PINAULT (2016b). Since then, some paper fragments and wooden tablets have been published 2 with philological notes and translations. However, much Tocharian material in this collection still remains to be researched. This paper introduces a Kuchean fragment, SI 2943-4, housed in the IOM, RAS, identified as part of the Hariścandrāvadāna, a Buddhist legend narrated in the sixth chapter of the Daśakarmapathāvadānamālā (abbreviated below as DKPAM), on account of its parallel text in Old Uyghur. Tocharian Buddhism’s influence on Old Uyghur Buddhism has been recognised since the very beginning of Tocharian philology. As a matter of fact, Tocharian was assigned to two Indo-European languages once spoken on the Tarim basin’s northern rim, on the basis of some Old Uyghur manuscripts’ 3 colophons. Owing to recent studies, the interrelationship between them has 4 become clearer. As is well known, many important results have been proposed through comparative research between the Maitreyasamitināṭaka in 5 Tocharian A and the Maitrisimit in Old Uyghur. On the other hand, not until recently were some Tocharian fragments identified as parallel to narratives in 6 the DKPAM, although the DKPAM in Old Uyghur also mentions Tocharian 7 as its original text in the colophon. According to the colophon in Old Uyghur, this work was translated from the Tocharian A text, which itself had been translated from the Tocharian B original. The outline of the Hariścandrāvadāna is as follows: After his father’s death, Prince Hariścandra decides not to ascend the throne, but to become an ascetic. Then another scene is introduced in which God Indra is afraid to be reborn as a donkey. God Maṇibhadra advises him to seek a Bodhisattva and help him accomplish his noble deed so that his bad karma will disappear. Therefore, in the form of a Brahmin, God Indra goes to meet Hariścandra. 2 Concerning previous studies on the Tocharian manuscript remains in the Russian collection published up to 2007, see MALZAHN, 2007a: 91-93. 3 See MÜLLER 1907 and SIEG and SIEGLING 1908. Concerning the possibility that Tocharian A would be a spoken language in ancient Shorchuk, see OGIHARA 2014. 4 The Tocharian captions written under the Old Uyghur rule, which were deciphered recently by the present author, also confirm the interrelationship between Tocharian Buddhism and Old Uyghur Buddhism, see OGIHARA 2016. 5 As representatives of the recent comparative research between them, see those contri-butions published in KASAI, YAKUP and DURKIN-MEISTERERNST 2013. 6 See PEYROT 2013; PEYROT and WILKENS 2014; WILKENS, PINAULT and PEYROT 2014 and WILKENS 2016: 10-13. In addition to Tocharian fragments, two stories told in the DKPAM are also known in Sogdian and in Tumshuqese; see SUNDERMANN (2006) and MAUE (2015), respectively. Among them, the Sogdian version can be identified as part of the DKPAM. 7 Concerning the composition of this compilation of Buddhist legends in Old Uyghur, see WILKENS 2010: 15-30. Persuaded by God Indra to ascend the throne, Hariścandra begins to give alms. God Indra transforms himself into many Brahmins who seek alms. Having finished offering all his belongings, Hariścandra offers his wife and son. At last, he makes the Brahmins bind him with rope and take him to his enemy King Lohitaketu, so that they can obtain even more money. Having been handed Hariścandra, King Lohitaketu gives the Brahmins much money and begins to torture Hariścandra. This newly identified Kuchean fragment narrates Hariścandra’s meeting with King Lohitaketu and his being tortured. 2. Kuchean fragment SI 2943-4 housed in the IOM, RAS In this section, the Kuchean fragment newly identified as part of the Hariścandrāvadāna and kept in the Berezovsky collection in the IOM, RAS 8 (inventory number SI 2943-4 [= SI B/16-12]), is introduced. Its discovery location is uncertain. Of this fragment, only the folio’s left side from the left margin to a string hole’s right side is preserved (see Pl. 1 and 2). The folio number <49> can be seen on the verso side’s left margin. The size is ca. w. 9.0 cm×h. 8.8 cm. Six lines are written on each side. Its Brāhmī script does 9 not show archaic features. According to the classification proposed by Sander, this fragment can be classified to North Turkestan Brāhmī, Type a (see SANDER 1968: 181-183; Tafel 29-40; SANDER 2005). However, some linguistic features of archaic Tocharian B are also observable despite this 10 fragment being classified into the classical stage of Tocharian B, cf. akalko (a1) < akālko, hāriścandre (a3, a6) < hariścandre, weṣṣäṃnneśc (b2) < weṣṣaṃnneśc and tāruṇadivākarne (b2) < taruṇadivākarne, all not demonstrating accent rules I and II proposed by PEYROT 2008: 33-41. These facts lead us to suppose that this fragment can be dated to the latter half of the 6th 11 century and the first half of the 7th century. 8 VOROB’IOVA-DESIATOVSKAIA 2006: 63-64 surveys the Berezovsky collection, including materials written in other languages. Concerning the activity of Berezovsky’s expedition in Kucha, see VOROB’YOVA-DESYATOVSKAYA 2008 and POPOVA 2015. 9 The archaic type of the Brāhmī script used to write Tocharian manuscripts was analysed by MALZAHN 2007b and TAMAI 2011. 10 On the other hand, features of late stage of Tocharian B are also observable in this fragment; see infra. 11 If the interrelationship between the palaeographic features and the linguistic features of this fragment described here is correct, this fragment would have very probably been unearthed in Kucha; cf. PEYROT 2008: 193-195. In fact, the fragments in Brāhmī script brought back by Berezovsky were found in Buddhist ruins around Kucha; cf. VOROB’IOVA-DESIATOVSKAIA 2008: 72. Pl. 1. SI 2943-4, Recto By courtesy of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences Pl. 2. SI 2943-4, Verso By courtesy of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences 12 This fragment’s transliteration and transcription are provided below. The English translation is merely tentative because the parallel text in Old Uyghur does not permit us to solve all the problems in this fragment. Transliteration a 1 ñ akalko ♦♦ se ñke a (·)w· rpo - /// 2 lohitāketu walo we[ṣ̠ ṣ̠ a̠ ] - /// 3 || hāriścandre wa- O [lo] /// 4 tu[m]eṃ ñiś\\ ḻa̠ kle- O [n](·)· /// 5 to āyormeṃ lohitake - /// 6 [r]·e || tumeṃ caṇḍāli hā[r]i[ś](·)· /// b 1 {-} - [ś]candre walo mā cek wa[r]ñ[ai] pa̠ - /// 2 mane weṣ̠ ṣ̠ a̠ ṃnneś̠ c\\ || tāruṇa ·(·)[i] /// 3 ñä tsa[k]ts[i] ♦♦ karu- O - /// 4 dhāñä āsta cu- O (·)[ṇ r]· /// 5 klyoṣ̠ \\ wroccu wlo ♦♦ tmanenma /// 6 ti cey rano po te p·ārsa [m](·)· /// Textual notes a2 and 3: Two heroes of the Hariścandrāvadāna are Hariścandra and Lohitaketu; their corresponding forms in Kuchean should be hariścandre and lohitaketu. The former has been attested in two Kuchean fragments thus far identified as this story in which it appears as hariścandre; see PEYROT and WILKENS (2014). However, we have hāriścandre (a3 and a6) and lohitāketu (a2), respectively, in this fragment although the latter also appears as lohitaketu (a5). b1: The remaining part of the last akṣara appearing in this line may be read as <sa>. 12 Here the following signs are used: /// : lacuna of unknown length; - : trace of one illegible single akṣara ( ) : restored part of akṣara(s); · : illegible part of an akṣara [ ] : damaged part of akṣara(s); { }: broken part of the fragment ♦♦ : punctuation used in the fragment b2: The name of the tune attested here can be restored as tāruṇadivākarne, which appears twice as taruṇadivākarne in other fragments (see infra). b4: Two akṣaras at the beginning of this line can be read as <dhā> and <ñä>. However, the diacritic vowel sign of <ā> added above <dha> differs somewhat from other attestations in this fragment, in that the former akṣara <dha> is connected with the next akṣara <ñä> by this vowel diacritic sign. This fact suggests that this vowel diacritic sign may be a scribal error of the virāma sign. If this is accepted, these two akṣaras would be read as ṯa̠ ñä\\. b4: The damaged akṣara at the string hole’s right side seems to be read as <ṇra> in comparison with <ṇa> attested in the name of the tune in b2. b5: The first akṣara can be clearly read as <klyo>. Transcription a 1 ñ akalko ♦♦ se ñke a(r)w(e)r po - /// 2 lohitāketu walo we[ṣṣä](ṃ) - /// 3 || hāriścandre wa- O [lo] /// 4 tu[m]eṃ ñiś läkle- O [n](ta) /// 5 to āyormeṃ lohitake(tu) /// 6 [r](n)e || tumeṃ caṇḍāli hā[r]i[ś](candreṃ) /// b 1 (hāri)[ś]candre walo mā cek wa[r]ñ[ai] pä - /// 2 mane weṣṣäṃnneśc || tāruṇa(d)[i](vākarne) /// 3 ñä tsa[k]ts[i] ♦♦ karu- O - /// 4 dhāñä āsta cu- O (r)[ṇ r](amt) /// 5 klyoṣ wroccu wlo ♦♦ tmanenma /// 6 ti cey rano po te p(k)ārsa [m](·)· /// Notes In the following notes, the parallels in Old Uyghur (abbreviated below as OU) are quoted from the critical edition by WILKENS 2016: 544-547. a1: The punctuation suggests that this line is written in verse, but the metre cannot be decided. 13 a1: The word at the beginning of this line may be tañ, sg.gen. of twe ‘you’. If this is correct, this line can be interpreted as Lohitaketu’s speech to Hariścandra. Thus, the Kuchean demonstrative pronoun se in the next pāda indicates Hariścandra in contrast to the Old Uyghur text in which Hariścandra speaks to Lohitaketu, cf. OU 06147-06150 ol tıltagın ’/[ ] MYN köŋül eyin kılguka nät[ä]g ämgäk ämgätsär ol ämgäk ämgängäli anuk turur m(ä)n ‘Aus diesem Grunde, um mein […] nach Belieben tun zu können, was man (mir) auch immer für Qualen zufügen mag, ich stehe bereit, jenes Leid zu erleiden.’ a2: Cf. OU 06150-06152 bo savıg äšidip lohitaketu elig bägniŋ ärtiŋü övkäsi kälip sözl[ä]di ‘Nachdem er diese Worte vernommen hatte, geriet der König2 Lohitaketu sehr in Zorn und sprach.’ a3: Cf. OU 06157 haričanḍre [e]lig sözlädi ‘[K]önig Hariścandra sagte.’ a4: Cf. OU 06159-06161 anta basa nätäg tapı ärs[är] antag ämgäk [äm]gätzün ‘Und danach, was immer sein Wunsch ist, solches Leid soll er (sc. Lohitaketu) (mir) [zu]fügen!.’ a5: In view of the parallel text in OU 06161-06165 ötrü lohita[ket]u elig bäg sansız üküš altun yükmäklär urup bramanka satıgın berip anta ok čanḍallarıg okıp sözlädi ‘Da häufte König2 Lohita[ket]u unermesslich viele Ladungen Gold auf, gab dem Brahmanen seinen Lohn und rief dann sofort die Henker und sprach’, one can restore pito ‘cost, price’ at the beginning of this line. a6: Unless -rne to be restored at the beginning of this line is the locative form 14 of a noun as an indication of the name of a tune, one may suppose that -r would be the ending of 3pl.pret. of a verb still impossible to restore with certainty and -ne, 3sg. of the enclitic pronoun that denotes Hariścandra. Concerning the following part of this line, see OU 06166-06170 bo savıg äšidip t(ä)rkin tavrak ol čanḍallar har<i>čanḍre eligig kızartmıš örtlüg yalınl[ıg] sač üzä itip agturdilar ‘Als sie diese Worte vernommen hatten, stießen jene Henker rasch2 den König Hariścandra auf eine erhitzte und glühende2 Eisenplatte.’ b1: One cannot decide with certainty the corresponding part in Old Uyghur. It may be possible to consult the lines OU 06179-06180 [külčirä yü]zin 13 In comparison with the Old Uyghur text, the ideal solution is to restore ñi, sg.gen. of ñäś ‘I’ which indicates Hariścandra here. However, the result of the sandhi between -i at word final and a- at word initial is not -a- but -i- (if -i at word final does not change into -y), cf. TEB I: 73. 14 The Kuchean adverb tumeṃ ‘then’ usually stands at the beginning of a sentence in prose, cf. THOMAS 1976[1978]. ol elig bäg [tapa tet]rü kördi ‘mit [lächelndem Ge]sicht blickte er [unver]wandt [auf] jenen König2.’ If this is accepted, the last word of this part may be pärskau, m.sg.nom. of pret.part. of pärsk- ‘to fear’. b2-6: Lines b2-3 are written in verse, the tune of which is called taruṇadivākar*. This tune thus far attested shows two different types of verse, that is, 20/22/10/15 (cf. TochSprR(B) II: 23, fn. 5) and 19/19/10/19 (cf. op. cit.: 36, fn. 16). It is not possible to decide with certainty which type this is. As a matter of fact, the punctuation in b5 suggests that b5 is also written in verse, but the metre cannot be decided. According to the Kuchean text in b2, someone speaks to someone and his (or her) direct speech comes in the following verses. The parallel in Old Uyghur narrates that having seen Lohitaketu’s torture of Hariścandra, his wife begins to weep and asks Lohitaketu to stop the torture (see infra). However, these verses do not seem to correspond to the description in the Old Uyghur text. In fact, one can find a similar description in the preceding part in the Old Uyghur text in which Hariścandra tells Lohitaketu his resolution of compassion (= Skt. karuṇā-) and Buddhahood. If this equation is accepted, lines b2-5 are most probably given in the same metre and they could belong to Hariścandra’s speech to Lohitaketu, who tortures him. On the other hand, whether line b6 also belongs to the preceding verses remains unclear. However, this line’s syntactic peculiarity, in which the 2sg.act. of the imperative is preceded by the pl.nom. of the demonstrative pronoun, suggests that this line is also written in verse. If this is true, this line could also belong to part of the preceding verses. b2: It would be possible to restore smimane, pres.part. of smi- ‘to smile’, cf. OU 06126-06128 [öt]rü h[ar]ičanḍre [el]ig bäg külčirä [yü]zin korkınčsız köŋ[ü]lin lohitaketu [e]ligkä sö[z]lädi ‘Ohne Furcht und mit lächelndem [Ge]sicht sagte der König2 Hariścandra zum [K]önig Lohitaketu.’ b3: In view of OU 06128-06135 birök tözünüma meni köyürgü ü[č]ün aviš tamudakı ört yalınıg kälürsär s(ä)n : ’äŋ mintin bir kšan üdtä ymä köŋülümdäki yüräkimdäki y(a)rlıkančuči biligimin ketärip kup kurug turgurga[lı] uguluk ärmäz s(ä)n ‘Wenn du, mein Edler, um mich zu verbrennen, die Flammen2 in der avīci-Hölle herbeibrächtest, so würdest du es nicht vermögen, auch nur für einen Moment2 mein Mitleid (Skt. karuṇā) in meinem Herzen2 zu entfernen und es (so) ganz leer erscheinen zu lassen’, it is possible to restore kektseñä, sg.obl. of kektseñe ‘body’ at the beginning of this line. On the other hand, it would be possible to restore karuṇīke ‘sympathetic, compassionate’ at the end of the remaining part of this line. b4: The akṣara at the right side of a string hole, which seems to be <ṇra>, 15 enables us to restore curṇ ramt, sg.nom./obl. of cūrṇ ‘powder’ borrowed from Skt. cūrṇa- and the conjunction ramt ‘like’ in view of the parallel in Old Uyghur 06135-06140 süŋök[imi]n čurni sokmıš täg yinčgä uvšak sokup tan tapa savırsar s(ä)n ymä köŋülümdäki y(a)rlınkančuči sakınčımın ketärgäli umagay s(ä)n ‘Selbst wenn du [mein]e Knochen wie zermahlenes Pulver fein2 zerstoßen und es in (alle) Winde zerstreuen würdest, so würdest du (dennoch) nicht in der Lage sein, mein Mitleid (Skt. karuṇā) in meinem Herzen zu entfernen.’ As mentioned in textual notes above, the beginning of this line dhāñä could be read as täñ with the virāma sign. If we have täñ here, it can be interpreted as the verbal ending of 2sg.act.pres./subj./opt. and -ñ, 1sg. of the enclitic pronoun that denotes Hariścandra himself. Thus, this passage could mean ‘even if you crush my bones like powder’, which matches the Old Uyghur passage quoted above, although the verb cannot be restored with certainty. b5: If klyoṣ, attested at the beginning of this line, is not a scribal error of klyauṣ, the vocative form wroccu wlo that follows it suggests that päklyoṣ, 16 2sg.imper.act. of klyaus- ‘to hear’ is restored. It is noteworthy that the vowel of this imperative form shows the monophthongisation of -au- to -o- of the stem vowel. This sound change is recognised as a feature of late stage 17 of Tocharian B (cf. PEYROT 2008: 53-54). The following part could be related to the parallel in Old Uyghur 06140-06144 tümän [ar]tok seni täg alp katıg küčlüg [kü]sünlüg eliglär bäglär bolsarlar näŋ mäniŋ küčümin küsünümin tıḍa tutgalı umaz[la]r ‘Auch wenn es [me]hr als zehntausend Könige2 geben sollte, die wie du tapfer2 und mächtig2 sind, können sie (dennoch) keineswegs meine Kraft2 hemmen oder zurückhalten.’ b6: Although the context of this line is not clear, epreti, pl.nom. of eprete ‘resolute, steadfast’ may be restored at the beginning of this line. Translation a 1 […] your(?) wish […] Now he is ready to […] all […] 2 King Lohitaketu says […] 3 || King Hariścandra […] 15 It is also possible to restore the conjunction ra ‘like’ or ram no ‘like, as’. 16 The form usually attested as 2sg.imper.act. of this root is päklyauṣ. 17 The 1sg. pronoun ñiś in a4 which appears as ñäś in the classical Tocharian B texts also reflects a feature of late stage of Tocharian B, cf. PEYROT 2008: 55-57. 4 Thereupon […] me […] sufferings […] 5 Having given the cost (to the Brahmins), Lohitaketu […] 6 […] ?-ed him(?) […] (or In the tune […]) || Then the outcasts […] Hariścandra […] b 1 King Hariścandra did not fear(?) at all […] 2 […] (Hariścandra) says to him (= Lohitaketu) with smile. || In the tune Taruṇadivākara || […] 3 […] to burn the body […] compassionate(?) […] 4 […] (even if you crushes?) my bones like powder […] 5 Hear, great king! Ten thousands […] 6 […] they are also resolute(?) […] You should know it completely […] 3. Comparison with the parallel text of the Hariścandrāvadāna in Old Uyghur As indicated in the preceding section, the Kuchean fragment SI 2943-4, kept in the IOM, RAS, can be identified as part of the Hariścandrāvadāna, of 18 which parallel text is available in DKPAM’s sixth chapter in Old Uyghur. Many manuscript fragments of this work in Old Uyghur have been identified 19 and published with translation and textual notes in previous studies. Recently, Wilkens has published the whole work’s reconstructed text on the basis of manuscript fragments thus far known to him. Below, the parallel text to this Kuchean fragment is quoted with his German translation (see WILKENS 2016: 542-549). In addition to the Old Uyghur text corresponding to SI 2943-4, the following part is also quoted, so the reader can understand this fragment’s context. Those parts corresponding to the Kuchean text are noted in bold in the Old Uyghur text and in the German translation below. Old Uyghur text Kr II 1/34a + Mainz 814 + U 1575 + U 1465 + Kr II 1.24 Recto 06108 08 ötrü lohita-( P )-ketu elig- 06109 09 niŋ ordosınta karšisınta yinčgä 18 For parallel texts of this narrative in other languages, see WILKENS 2016: 87-88. 19 Concerning previous works on the DKPAM in Old Uyghur, see WILKENS 2016: 29-32. 06110 10 töröčä kurlı<g> baglıg haričanḍre 06111 11 eligin ičgärü kigürdilär : an[ı] 06112 12 körüp lohitaketu elig bäg y(a)vlak 06113 13 erig [yavga]n savın haričanḍre 06114 14 elig bägig sarsıp inčä tep 06115 15 ted[i :] s(ä)n uṭun yavız tınl(ı)g uzatı 06116 16 s(ä)n [säni]ŋ küsünüŋin tutup 06117 17 ärtiŋü bädükläntiŋ : amtı mäniŋ 06118 18 elgimtä tägyük s(ä)n : artokrak 06119 19 katıglangıl <:> y(a)rlıkančučı köŋülüŋin 06120 20 yüräkiŋdin birtäm ketärip akruš 06121 21 s[äri]nmäkiŋin köräyin : bütün 06122 22 [ätözüŋtäki yüz] yüzägüŋin öŋi 06223 23 [öŋi kılıp] bir yalın bolmiš sač 06224 24 [üzä tur]gurup iki adakıŋın turum 06125 25 [ara s]öglüntür[äyin te]p tedi :: 06126 26 [öt]rü h[ar]ičanḍre [el]ig bäg külčirä 06127 27 [yü]zin korkınčsız köŋ[ü]lin lohitaketu 06128 28 [e]ligkä sö[z]lädi : birök tözünüm- 06129 29 a meni köyürgü ü[č]ün aviš tamu- 06130 30 dakı ört yalınıg kälürsär 06131 31 s(ä)n : ’äŋ mintin bir kšan Verso Pagination: altınč säkiz otuz 06132 01 üdtä ymä köŋülümdäki yüräkim- 06133 02 däki y(a)rlıkančuči biligimin ketärip 06134 03 kup kurug turgurga[lı] uguluk 06135 04 ärmäz s(ä)n : süŋök[imi]n čurni 06136 05 sokmıš täg yinčgä uvšak sokup 06137 06 tan tapa ( P ) savırsar s(ä)n 06138 07 ymä köŋül-( P )-ümdäki 06139 08 y(a)rlınkančuči ( P ) sakınčımın 06140 09 ketärgäli umagay s(ä)n : tümän 06141 10 [ar]tok seni täg alp katıg küčlüg 06142 11 [kü]sünlüg eliglär bäglär bolsar- 06143 12 lar näŋ mäniŋ küčümin küsünüm- 06144 13 in tıḍa tutgalı umaz[la]r : kayu 06145 14 m(ä)n imrärigmä tınl(ı)glarka ädgü 06146 15 sakınčın burhan kutın [t]i[läyü]r 06147 16 m(ä)n : ol tıltagın ’/[ ] MYN 06148 17 köŋül eyin kılguka nät[ä]g ämgäk 06149 18 ämgätsär ol ämgäk ämgängäli anuk 06150 19 turur m(ä)n tep tedi : bo savıg äšidip 06151 20 lohitaketu elig bägniŋ ärtiŋü 06152 21 övkäsi kälip sözl[ä]di : ay [ ]Q[ ] 06153 22 nägülük turur sizlär [: aviš] 06154 23 tamudakı täg ačıg ä[mgäk ] 06155 24 L’R nätägin yänä mäniŋ [ ] 06156 25 turup utr[u söz]l[ä]yür tep [tedi :] 06157 26 haričanḍre [e]lig sözlädi : ul[ug] 06158 27 elig-a bramanka mäniŋ sat[ıg]- 06159 28 ımın bergäli ayzun <:> anta basa 06160 29 nätäg tapı ärs[är] antag ämgäk 06161 30 [äm]gätzün tep tedi : ötrü lohita- 06162 31 [ket]u elig bäg sansız üküš altun Kr II 1/27 + U 1207 + U 1203 + Kr II 1/29 + U 1011 Recto 06163 01 yükmäklär urup bramanka satıg- 06164 02 ın berip anta ok čanḍallarıg okıp 06165 03 sözlädi : ay čanḍallar takı nägü 06166 04 küdär sizlär tep : bo savıg äšidip 06167 05 t(ä)rkin tavrak ol čanḍallar har<i>čanḍre 06168 06 eligig kız-( P )-artmıš ört- 06169 07 lüg yalınl[ıg] ( P ) sač üzä 06170 08 itip agturdi-( P )-lar : anı 06171 09 körüp lohitaketu eligniŋ 06172 10 buyrukları bir ünin sıgtašdı- 06173 11 lar : anıŋ arasınta haričanḍre 06174 12 elig bägniŋ iki adakınıŋ 06175 13 ulı süŋökiŋätägi turgınča ara 06176 14 örtäntilär : kök ražav(a)rt öŋ- 06177 15 lüg [kö]zin ačılmıš yipün lenhw- 06178 16 a tä[g öŋl]üg mäŋizlig körkin 06179 17 [külčirä yü]zin ol elig bäg 06180 18 [tapa tet]rü kördi : ötrü hari- 06181 19 [čanḍre el]ig bäg öz ätözin 06182 20 [ : a]nta lohitaketu elig 06183 21 [bäg ]/ küsüši kanmıšın 06184 22 [haričanḍr]eniŋ ämgäkin 06185 23 [ ]//WM [ ] ärtiŋü sävinti : 06186 24 ötrü lohita[ketu] elig bägniŋ 06187 25 kunčuyı hari[čanḍr]e eligniŋ 06188 26 ol antag ačıg äm[gä]kig körüp 06189 27 yıglayu sıgtayu bägk[ä lo]hitaketu 06190 28 [eli]gkä sö[z]lädi : am[ra]k bägim- 06191 29 a t(ä)ŋri täg tözün yavaš 06192 30 [kutlug] tınl(ı)gıg munı täg ämgäk 06193 31 [ämgät]g[ä]li tägimlig ärmäz ärti t[ep] Verso Pagination: altınč ülüš tokuz otuz 06194 01 anta ötrü lohitaketu eligniŋ 06195 02 buyrukları yašlıg közin yıglayu 06196 03 haričanḍre elig tapa körüp bir 06197 04 ikintiškä inčä tep tedilär :: 06198 05 kamešvare t(ä)ŋri ((t(ä)g)) ogla{’}gu ätözin 06199 06 bo kutlug ( P ) tınl(ı)g tamudakı 06200 07 täg ačıg ( P ) [ä]mgäk ämgänür <:> 06201 08 ört yalın ( P ) täg kızartmıš 06202 09 sač üzä täpränčsizin turup 06203 10 öŋi kırtıšı säviglig körki 06204 11 mäŋizi ančak(ı)ya ymä tägšilmädin 06205 12 artamadın turmaz mu : körüŋlär 06206 13 anıŋ ačıg ämgäkin <:> iki adakınta 06207 14 yagı sızılu akıp süŋökiŋä- 06208 15 tägi äti yini söglünüp tö[r]tdin 06209 16 sıŋardın üzüksüz [käŋırsi]g 06210 17 yıd yıdıp ešičtäki [täg buusı] 06211 18 ünä közünür : t(ä)ŋridäm [yaŋa]- 06212 19 niŋ tumšıkıŋa ogšat[ı top] 06213 20 tolgu säviglig kö[rtlä iki kol]- 06214 21 ın b(ä)k tutunup yol [yorımıš ämgäk]- 06215 22 iŋä karını ärtiŋ[ü ačıp : anča]- 06216 23 k(ı)ya ymä bulganmad[ın täl]g[än]mä[din] 06217 24 yazok yüzin [kör]mäz mü tep 06218 25 ötrü buyruk[lar] ayaların 06219 26 kavšuru yıglayu sıgtayu lohita- 06220 27 ketu el[ig bäg]kä <inčä tep tedilär :> ulug elig-a 06221 28 amtı haričanḍre eligkä y(a)rlık[anču]- 06222 29 či köŋül öritü y(a)rlıkazun [: aniŋ] 06223 30 ä[m]gäkiŋä toḍup kanıp köyü[rgäli] 06224 31 [ör]tägäli ıdu y(a)rlıkamazun [: ] German translation (06108-06111) Darauf brachten (die Diener) nach der verfeinerten Etikette im Palast2 des Lohitaketu den König Hariścandra mit Gurten und Fesseln (gebunden) herein. (06111-0615) Als er das sah, verfluchte der König2 Lohitaketu mit üblen und groben[2] Worten (Skt. pāruṣyavāda) den König2 Hariścandra und sprach folgendermaßen: (06115-06116) ,Du bist immer ein schamloses und übles Wesen (gewesen)! (06116-06117) Was deine Stärke anbetrifft, so bist du (zwar) äußerst mächtig geworden. (06117-06118) (Aber) jetzt bist du in meine Hand geraten. (06118-06119) Strenge dich sehr an! (06119-06121) Indem ich vollständig dein Mitleid (Skt. karuṇā) aus deinem Herzen entferne, will ich (nun) deine Ruhe und G[ed]uld (Skt. kṣānti) sehen. (06121-06125) Deine Glieder [an deinem] ganzen [Körper will ich] zerstü[ckeln], dich auf eine Eisenplatte setzen, die zu einer einzigen Flamme geworden ist, und deine Füße sogl[eich] rösten lassen,‘ sagte er. (06126-06128) Ohne Furcht und mit lächelndem [Ge]sicht sagte der König2 Hariścandra zum [K]önig Lohitaketu: (06128-06135) ,Wenn du, mein Edler, um mich zu verbrennen, die Flammen2 in der avīci-Hölle herbeibrächtest, so würdest du es nicht vermögen, auch nur für einen Moment2 mein Mitleid (Skt. karuṇā) in meinem Herzen2 zu entfernen und es (so) ganz leer erscheinen zu lassen. (06135-06140) Selbst wenn du [mein]e Knochen wie zermahlenes Pulver fein2 zerstoßen und es in (alle) Winde zerstreuen würdest, so würdest du (dennoch) nicht in der Lage sein, mein Mitleid (Skt. karuṇā) in meinem Herzen zu entfernen. (06140-06144) Auch wenn es [me]hr als zehntausend Könige2 geben sollte, die wie du tapfer2 und mächtig2 sind, können sie (dennoch) keineswegs meine Kraft2 hemmen oder zurückhalten. (06144-06147) Ich [e]r[streb]e die Buddhaschaft mit Wohlwollen (Skt. maitrī) für jegliche Lebewesen, die mich umgeben. (06147-06150) Aus diesem Grunde, um mein […] nach Belieben tun zu können, was man (mir) auch immer für Qualen zufügen mag, ich stehe bereit, jenes Leid zu erleiden,‘ sagte er. (06150-06152) Nachdem er diese Worte vernommen hatte, geriet der König2 Lohitaketu sehr in Zorn und sprach: (06152-06153) ,He [Diener], weshalb steht ihr herum? (06153-06155) […] bitteres L[eid] wie in der [avīci]-Hölle [fügt] ihm zu]! (06155-06156) Wie nun (erdreistet er sich,) sich [gegen] mein […] zu erheben und zu widersprechen?‘ sagte er. (06157) [K]önig Hariścandra sagte: (06157- 06159) ,Gro[ßer] König, er möge befehlen, dem Brahmanen den Lo[hn] für mich (sc. für meine Ergreifung) zu geben. (06159-06161) Und danach, was immer sein Wunsch ist, solches Leid soll er (sc. Lohitaketu) (mir) [zu]fügen!‘, sagte er. (06161-06165) Da häufte König2 Lohita[ket]u unermesslich viele Ladungen Gold auf, gab dem Brahmanen seinen Lohn und rief dann sofort die Henker und sprach: (06165-06166) ,He, Henker, was wartet ihr noch?‘ (06166-06170) Als sie diese Worte vernommen hatten, stießen jene Henker rasch2 den König Hariścandra auf eine erhitzte und glühende2 Eisenplatte. (06170-06173) Als sie das sahen, seufzten die Minister des Königs Lohitaketu (wie) mit einer Stimme gemeinsam. (06173-06176) Sogleich fingen die Sohlen der Füße des Königs Hariścandra bald bis zu den Knochen Feuer. (06176-06180) Mit seinen blauen [Au]gen, die die Farbe von Lapislazuli hatten, mit seiner schönen2 Gestalt, die ein erblühter rosiger Lotus war, und mit [lächelndem Ge]sicht blickte er [unver]wandt [auf] jenen König2. (06180-06182) Da [hatte] König2 Hariś[candra] seinen eigenen Körper […]. (06182-06185) [Da]nn freute sich König[2] Lohitaketu sehr darüber, dass […] sein Wunsch in Erfüllung gegangen war und […] über das Leiden von [Hariścandra]. (06186-06190) Als da (aber) die Frau des König2 Lohita[ketu] jenes derartig bittere Leid[en] des Königs Hariś[candra] sah, weinte und seufzte sie und sagte zu (ihrem) Ehemann, dem [Kön]ig [Lo]hitaketu: (06190-06193) ,Mein gel[ieb]ter Mann, es ist nicht recht gewesen, dieses gottgleich edle, milde und [charismatische] Wesen solches Leid [erdul]den zu lassen.‘ (06194-06197) Während daraufhin die Minister des Königs Lohitaketu mit tränenerfüllten Augen aufseufzten und auf den König Hariścandra blickten, sagten sie zueinander: (06198-06200) ,Mit seinem Körper, der so zart ist wie der des Gottes Kāmeśvara, erleidet dieses charismatische Wesen Qualen, die so bitter sind wie die in der Hölle. (06201-06205) Er verharrt ohne zu schwanken auf der flammen2gleich erhitzten Eisenplatte, und indem seine Gesichtsfarbe, seine Haut und seine lieblich Gestalt2 sich überhaupt nicht verändern oder ruiniert werden, bleibt er nicht (sogar einfach) stehen? (06205-06206) Schaut nur sein bitteres Leid! (06206-06211) An seinen Füßen fließt sein Fett schmelzend heraus, sein Fleisch und seine Haut werden bis zu seinen Knochen hin geröstet, in den vier Himmelsrichtungen steigt ständig ein [verbrannt]er Gestank auf, [seine Lebenskraft] scheint [wie] in einem Kessel aufzusteigen. (06211-06217) Mit seinen lieblichen und sch[önen Armen], die [ganz] gerundet sind gleich dem Rüssel einens himmlischen [Elefanten], hält er sich fest, und durch [die Strapazen] des Weges, [den er (von seiner Heimat) zurückgelegt hat, ist] er (wörtl. sein Magen) sehr [hungrig], aber ohne auch nur [ein bissc]hen erregt2 zu sein, [bli]ckt er nicht (sogar) mit entspanntem Gesicht?‘ (06218-06220) Daraufhin legten die Minister ihre Handflächen zusammen und klagend und aufseufzend <sagten sie> zu König2 Lohitaketu: (06220-06222) ,O großer König, möget Ihr jetzt Mitleid erwecken in Bezug auf den König Hariścandra. (06222-06224) Möget Ihr genug haben2 an [seinem] L[e]iden und seid (so) gnädig, nicht zuzulassen, dass er verbrennt2. […]‘ Comparison with the Old Uyghur text quoted above shows that the Kuchean fragment SI 2943-4 is identified as part of the Hariścandrāvadāna. However, discrepancies are also observable between these two versions; cf. SI 2943-4a1 and b2-6. Among others, Hariścandra’s direct speech to Lohitaketu narrated in SI 2943-4b2-6 is in verse during his torture, despite his speech being narrated before his torture in the Old Uyghur version. Thus, it is not possible to decide with certainty whether the Kuchean fragment treated here belongs to the DKPAM’s Kuchean version or is part of the 20 compilation of Buddhist legends in Kuchean. On the other hand, this fact suggests that the Old Uyghur version thus far known to us would not be a literal translation of this Kuchean text through the Tocharian A translation. In fact, as observed by recent studies, the fragments in Tocharian A and in Kuchean thus far identified as parallel to Buddhist legends in the DKPAM 21 in Old Uyghur also show discrepancies of this kind. 20 In spite of the fact that the composition of the manuscript of the Kuchean version of the DKPAM is still unknown, this fragment’s <49> pagination might suggest that it belongs to the DKPAM’s Kuchean version in case the manuscript of the Kuchean DKPAM was divided into each chapter. As an illustration of the compilation of Buddhist legends in Kuchean, see OGIHARA (2012). 21 See PEYROT (2013), PEYROT and WILKENS (2014) and WILKENS, PINAULT and PEYROT (2014). Among others, two Kuchean fragments were identified as part of the Hariścandrāvadāna by PEYROT and WILKENS (2014). However, their texts do not overlap with that of SI 2943-4 treated here. On the other hand, in the introduction to his critical edition, Wilkens emphasizes that the DKPAM in Old Uyghur should have been translated from the Tocharian original text, cf. WILKENS 2016: 10-13. 4. Concluding remarks In this paper, the newly identified Kuchean fragment of the Hariścandrāvadāna was interpreted in comparison with parallel text in the DKPAM in Old Uyghur. Although this fragment preserves only the folio’s left side, it can be safely identified as part of this narrative, thanks to the Old Uyghur text, although whether it belongs to the Kuchean version of the DKPAM is uncertain. Among the Kuchean manuscript remains thus far extant in the scholarly world, some fragments housed in the Paris, London and Berlin collections have been identified as parallel to narratives in the DKPAM. The Kuchean fragment SI 2943-4 introduced in this paper is the first specimen housed in the Russian collection that can be related to this compilation. Although parallelism is observable among the three Kuchean fragments thus far identified as parallel narratives in the DKPAM and the Old Uyghur version, the discrepancies are also remarkable. If the interpretation presented in this paper is correct, the discrepancies can also be observed between SI 2943-4 and the Old Uyghur version, as well as these fragments. Especially, the Kuchean version narrates Hariścandra’s speech to Lohitaketu in verse during his torture, despite his speech being narrated before his torture in the Old Uyghur version. This fact suggests that the Old Uyghur version known to us would not be this Kuchean version’s literal translation through the Tocharian A translation. On the other hand, two more fragments have also been identified as part of the Hariścandrāvadāna. Although whether these two fragments belong to one and the same manuscript is unclear, the Russian fragment introduced here is this narrative’s third fragment. This Russian fragment’s format demonstrates that it belongs to a manuscript different from those to which the former two fragments belong. This fact confirms the popularity enjoyed by the Hariścandrāvadāna in Kuchean Buddhism, which is also reflected by mural paintings depicted in the Kizil grottoes; cf. WILKENS 2016: 88. Furthermore, the text of SI 2943-4, which does not overlap with that of the two fragments thus far identified as part of the Hariścandrāvadāna, can contribute to reconstruction of this narrative’s Kuchean version, and this will lead to better understanding of how Buddhist legends were accepted in ancient Kucha. Glossary In this glossary, only those forms attested in the fragment or securely restored are listed. The latter forms are noted by the asterisk after the place of attestation in the fragment. Entry words employed in Adams (2013) are also used here. akālk ‘wish’ sg.nom./obl.: akalko SI 2943-4a1 ārwer ‘ready, eager’ arwer SI 2943-4a1* āyo ‘bone’ pl.nom./obl.: āsta SI 2943-4b4 ai- ‘to give’ Absol.: āyormeṃ SI 2943-4a5 orotstse ‘great, big, large’ sg.voc.: wroccu SI 2943-4b5 kärs- ‘to know’ 2sg.imper.: pkārsa SI 2943-4b6 kektseñe ‘body’ sg.obl.: kektseñä SI 2943-4b3* klyaus- ‘to hear’ 2sg.imper.: päklyoṣ SI 2943-4b5* caṇḍāle ‘outcast’ pl.nom.: caṇḍāli SI 2943-4a6 cūrṇ* ‘powder’ sg.nom./obl.: curṇ SI 2943-4b4* cek warñai ‘somehow’ cek warñai SI 2943-4b1* ñake ‘now’ ñke SI 2943-4a1 ñäś ‘I’ sg.nom./obl.: ñiś SI 2943-4a4 taruṇadivākar* ‘name of a tune’ loc.: tāruṇadivākarne SI 2943-4b2* t(u)māne ‘ten thousand’ pl.nom./obl.: tmanenma SI 2943-4b5 tumeṃ ‘thereupon’ tumeṃ SI 2943-4a4, 6 pito ‘price, cost’ sg.obl.: pito SI 2943-4a5* po ‘all’ po SI 2943-4a1, b6 mā ‘not’ mā SI 2943-4b1 rano ‘also’ rano SI 2943-4b6 ramt ‘like, as if’ ramt SI 2943-4b4* lakle ‘pain, suffering’ pl.nom./obl.: läklenta SI 2943-4a4* lohitaketu ‘Lohitaketu (PN)’ nom.: lohitāketu SI 2943-4a2 nom.: lohitaketu SI 2943-4a5 walo ‘king’ sg.nom.: walo SI 2943-4a2, 3*, b1 sg.voc.: wlo SI 2943-4b5 we- ‘to speak, say’ 3sg.pres.act.: weṣṣäṃ SI 2943-4a2* 3sg.pres.act.: weṣṣäṃnneśc SI 2943-4b2 se ‘dem.pron.’ m.sg.nom.: se SI 2943-4a1 m.pl.nom.: cey SI 2943-4b6 n.sg.obl.: te SI 2943-4b6 hariścandre ‘Hariścandra (PN)’ nom.: hāriścandre SI 2943-4a3, b1 obl.: hāriścandreṃ SI 2943-4a6* tsäk- ‘to burn up’ inf.: tsaktsi SI 2943-4b3

About the authors

Hirotoshi Ogihara

Kyoto University

Author for correspondence.
Email: diyuanyumin@gmail.com
Scopus Author ID: 36675491700

Japan

References

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  27. WILKENS, Jens 2016: Buddhistische Erzählungen aus dem alten Zentralasien: Edition der altuigurischen Daśakarmapathāvadānamālā. Turnhout: Brepols
  28. WILKENS, Jens-PINAULT, G.-J. and Michael PEYROT 2014: “A Tocharian B Parallel to the Legend of Kalmāṣapāda and Sutasoma of the Old Uyghur Daśakarmapathāvadānamālā”. Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 67-1 (2014), 1-18

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