Microbiomorph studies on the cultural layers of Jankent (AD X-XIII), Southern Kazakhstan

Cover Page

Abstract


Microbiomorphs, presented by minerogenic (phytoliths, diatoms, sponges) and organic (pollen, fern spores, fungal spores, chitin) remains of biological nature, provide a good opportunity for environmental reconstructions in the past. Here we present the results of microbiomorph studies of the cultural layers of Jankent (9th - beginning 13th cent. AD). The archaeological site Jankent is located in the southern Kazakhstan on river Syrdarya and is represented by so-called “tell” (“tobe”, “tupe”). Tell is a hill formation, deposited due to arid climate and high anthropogenic sedimentation rate. In the north-western part of the site, a citadel was constructed. The city was surrounded by a rampart. In 2014, an excavation of the square 5 opened few houses and a street between them. In order to reconstruct environment during the settlement phase, samples were taken from the house walls, inside and outside of the building. Pollen spectra from the archaeological horizons of the main settlement phase reveal dominance of the desert vegetation, presented by dominated Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia and Poaceae. Such vegetation implies arid climate conditions during the settlement phase. The landscapes of oasis were presented by agricultural fields, indicated by Cerealia-type and ruderal herbs, and open water places, suggested from presence of Sparganium-type in the spectra. Presence of coprophilous fungal spores such as Sporormiella, Sordaria, Arnium, Chaetomium suggest presence of animals and pasture. Sample taken from the street is characterized by high amount of Sparganium-type, coprophilous spores and variable phytoliths, indicating using of this space as a pit for organic (plant remains, dung) and charcoal deposition. Presence of phytoliths of Triticum spp. suggests wheat cultivation. At the beginning of the 11th - beginning of 13th centuries AD climate fluctuations possibly led to the establishment of more continental and arid conditions.

D A Gavrilov

ФГБУН Институт почвоведения и агрохимии СО РАН

Author for correspondence.
Email: denis_gavrilov@list.ru

L S Shumilovskikh

Национальный исследовательский Томский государственный университет; Georg-August-University Göttingen

Email: shumilovskikh@gmail.com

E Sh Amirov

Казахский национальный университет им. аль-Фараби

Email: e.amirov82@gmail.com
г. Алматы

I R Kamaldinov

Казахский национальный университет им. аль-Фараби

Email: denis_gavrilov@list.ru
г. Алматы

  1. Бабенко А.Н., Киселева Н.К., Плахт И., Розен С., Савинецкий А.Б., Хасанов Б.Ф. 2007. Реконструкция растительного покрова центральной части пустыни негев (Израиль) в голоцене по данным пыльцевого анализа зоогенного отложения Ацмаут // Экология. № 6. С. 417-426.
  2. Воякин Д.А., Камалдинов И.Р., Билалов С.У. 2014. Археологическое исследование на городище Жанкент // Известия НАН РК. Серия общественных наук. № 5. С. 187-194.
  3. Гольева А.А. 2001. Фитолиты и их информационная роль в изучении природных и археологических объектов. Москва, Сыктывкар, Элиста. 140 с.
  4. Гольева А.А. 2008 Микробиоморфные комплексы природных и антропогенных ландшафтов: генезис, география, информационная роль. М.: УРСС. 256 с.
  5. Гольева А.А. 2012. Фитолиты - источник информации о природе хозяйственной деятельности народов в прошлом // Палеопочвы, природная среда и методы их диагностики / Добровольский Г.В., Дергачева М.И. (под ред.). Новосибирск: ЗАО «ОФСЕТ». С. 75-92.
  6. Демкин В.А. 1997. Палеопочвоведение и археология: интеграция в изучении истории природы и общества. Пущино: ОНТИ ПНЦ РАН. 213 с.
  7. Дергачева М.И., Васильева Д.И. 2006. Палеопочвы, культурные горизонты и природные условия их формирования в эпоху бронзы в степной зоне Самарского Заволжья // Вопросы археологии Поволжья. Вып. 4. С. 464-476.
  8. Долгих А.В. 2011. Антропогенное накопление химических элементов в педолитоседиментах современных городов Европейской России // Научные ведомости. Серия естественные науки. № 5. Вып. 16. С. 135-144.
  9. Каздым А.А. 2008. Техногенные отложения и техногенное минералообразование. М.: Изд. «ИП Скороходов». 132 с.
  10. Сычева С.А. 1994. Почвенно-геоморфологические аспекты формирования культурного слоя древних поселений // Почвоведение. № 3. С. 28-33.
  11. Сычева С.А., Леонова Н.Б., Пустовойтов К.Е., Седов С.Н., Чичагова О.А. 2008. Культурные слой как память об антропогенном почвообразовании и седиментогенезе // Память почв: почва как память биосферно-геосферно-антропосферных взаимодействий / Таргульян В.О., Горячки С.В. (под ред.). М.: Изд-во ЛКИ. С. 651-674.
  12. Сычева С.А., Леонова Н.Б., Узянов А.А., Александровский А.Л., Пустовойтов К.Е. 2000. Эволюция культурных слоев эпохи голоцена // Известия РАН. Серия географическая. № 4. С. 29-37.
  13. Ackermann O., Greenbaum N., Ayalon A., Bar-Matthews M., Boaretto E., Bruins H.J., Cabanes D., Horwitzi L.K., Neumann F.H., Porat N., Weiss E., Maeir A.M. 2014. Using palaeo-environmental proxies to reconstruct natural and anthropogenic controls on sedimentation rates, Tell es-Safi/Gath, eastern Mediterranean // Anthropocene. V. 8. P. 70-82. doi: 10.1016/j.ancene.2015.03.004.
  14. Albert R.M., Shahack-Gross R., Cabanes D., Gilbo A., Lev-Yadun S., Portillo M., Sharon I., Boaretto E., Weiner S. 2008. Phytolith-rich layers from the Late Bronze and Iron Ages at Tel Dor (Israel): mode of formation and archaeological significance // Journal of Archaeological Science. V. 35. P. 57-75.
  15. Ball T., Gardner J.S., Brotherson J.D. 1996. Identifying phytoliths produced by the inflorescence bracts of three species of wheat (Triticum monococcum L., T. dicoccon Schrank., and T. aestivum L.) using computer-assisted image and statistical analyses // Journal of Archaeological Science. V. 23. P. 619-632.
  16. Bebermeier W., Schlütz F., Goren A. 2012. Ancient and modern landscape along the Qaracay and Masavera valleys - first results // Ancient Kura 2010-2011: The first two seasons of joint field work in the Southern Caucasus. P. 145-154.
  17. Beug H.-J. 2004. Leitfaden der Pollenbestimmung. München: Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil. 544 p.
  18. Boyd M. 2004. Identification anthropogenic burning in the paleoecological record of the northern prairies: a new approach // Annals of Association of American Geographers. V. 92 (3). P. 471-487.
  19. Bremond L., Alexandre A., Vèl E., Guiot J. 2004. Advantages and disadvantages of phytolith analysis for the reconstruction of Mediterranean vegetation: an assessment based on modern phytolith, pollen and botanical data (Luberon, France) // Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. V. 129. P. 213-228.
  20. Cabanes D., Burjachs F., Expósito I., Rodrıguez A., Alluè E., Euba I., Vergès J.M. 2009. Formation processes through archaeobotanical remains: The case of the Bronze Age levels in El Mirador cave, Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain // Quaternary International. V. 193. P. 160-173.
  21. Cabanes D., Mallol C., Exposito I., Baena J. 2010. Phytolith evidence for hearths and beds in the late Mousterian occupations of Esquilleu cave (Cantabria, Spain) // Journal of Archaeological Science. V. 37. P. 2947-2957.
  22. Coil J., Korstanaje M.A., Archer S., Hastorf K. 2003. Laboratory goals and consideration for multiple microfossil extraction in archeology // Journal of Archaeological Science. V. 30. P. 991-1008.
  23. Daura J., Sanz M., Garcia N., Allue E., Vaquero M., Fierro E., Carrion J.S., Lopez-Garcia J.M., Blain H.A., Sanchez-Marco A., Valls C., Albert R.M., Fornos J.J., Julia R., Fullola J.M., Zilhao J. 2013. Terrasses de la Riera dels Canyars (Gava, Barcelona): the landscape of Heinrich Stadial 4 north of the “Ebro frontier” and implications for modern human dispersal into Iberia // Quaternary Science Reviews. V. 60. P. 26-48.
  24. El-Moslimany A.P. 1990. Ecological significance of common nonarboreal pollen: examples from drylands of the Middle East // Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. V. 64. P. 343-350.
  25. Erdtmann, G. 1960. The acetolysis method // Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift. V. 54. P. 561-564.
  26. Fearn M. 1998. Phytoliths as indicators of grass pollen source // Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. V. 103. P. 75-81.
  27. Gorhom L.D., Bryant V.M. 2001. Pollen, phytoliths, and other microscopic plant remains in underwater archeology // The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. V. 30. №. 2. P. 282-298. doi: 10.1006/ijna.2001.0352.
  28. Herzschuh U. 2007. Reliability of pollen ratios for environmental reconstructions of the Tibetan Plateau // Journal of Biogeography. V. 34. P. 1265-1273.
  29. Horrocks M., Irwing G.J., McGlone M.S., Nichol S.L., Williams L.J. 2003. Pollen, phytoliths and diatoms in prehistoric coprolites from Kohika, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand // Journal of Archaeological Science. V. 30. P. 13-20. doi: 10.1006/jasc.2001.0714.
  30. Horrocks M., Campbell M., Gumbley W. 2007. A short note on starch and xylem of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) in archaeological deposits from northern New Zealand // Journal of Archaeological Science. V. 34. P. 1441-1448.
  31. Horrocks M., Lawlor I. 2006. Plant microfossil analysis of soils from Polynesian stonefields in South Auckland, New Zealand // Journal of Archaeological Science. V. 33. P. 200-217.
  32. Horrocks M., Wozniak J.A. 2008. Plant microfossil analysis reveals disturbed forest and a mixed-crop, dryland production system at Te Niu, Easter Island // Journal of Archaeological Science. V. 35. P. 126-142.
  33. Kosintsev P.A., Lapteva E.G., Korona O.M., Zanina O.G. 2012. Living environments and diet of the Mongochen mammoth, Gydan Peninsula, Russia // Quaternary International. V. 276-277. P. 253-268.
  34. Madella M., Alexandre A. and Ball T. 2005. International Code for Phytolith Nomenclature 1.0 // Annals of Botany. V. 96. P. 253-260. doi: 10.1093/aob/mci172.
  35. Portillo M., Albert R.M. 2011. Husbandry practices and livestock dung at the Numidian site of Althiburos (el Medeina, Kef Governorate, northern Tunisia): the phytolith and spherulite evidence // Journal of Archaeological Science. V. 38. P. 3224-3233.
  36. Portillo M., Albert R.M., Henry D.O. 2009. Domestic activities and spatial distribution in Ain Abū Nukhayla (Wadi Rum, Southern Jordan): The use o fphytolith sand spherulites studies // Quaternary International. V. 193. P. 174-183.
  37. Portillo M., Albert R.M., Kadowaki S. and Nishiaki Y. 2010. Domestic activities at Early Neolithic Tell Seker al-Aheimar (Upper Khabur, Northeastern Syria) through phytoliths and spherulites studies Des hommes et des plantes.Exploitation du milieu et gestion des ressources vegetales de la prehistoire a nos jours. XXXe rencontres nternationals d’archeologie et d’histoire d’Antibes Sous la direction de C. Delhon, I. Thery-Parisot, S. Thiebault Editions APDCA, Antibes. P. 19-30.
  38. Premathilake R. 2006. Relationship of environmental changes in central Sri Lanka to possible prehistoric land-use and climate changes // Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology V. 240. P. 468-496.
  39. Stefan G.T, Louis S., Lloyd R, Sharon M. 2005. Holocene palaeoenvironments inferred from a sedimentary sequence in the Tsoaing River Basin, western Lesotho // Catena. V. 61. P.49-62.
  40. Stockmarr J. 1971. Tablets with spores used in absolute pollen analysis // Pollen et Spores. V. 13. P. 615-621.
  41. Van Geel B. 1986. Application of fungal and algal remains and other microfossils in palynological analyses // Handbook of Holocene Palaeoecology and Palaehydrology. P. 497-504.
  42. Yi-Feng Y., Xiao L., Hong-En J., David K.F., Francis H., Ruby G., Subir B., Cheng-Sen L. 2012. Pollen and phytoliths from fired ancient potsherds as potential indicators for deciphering past vegetation and climate in Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China // PLOS. V. 7. №. 6. P. e39780. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039780.

Views

Abstract - 217

PDF (Russian) - 166

PlumX


Copyright (c) 2016 Gavrilov D.A., Shumilovskikh L.S., Amirov E.S., Kamaldinov I.R.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.