Epidemiological features of acute and chronic hepatitis B in the Kyrgyz Republic over the 20-year period (1997-2017)

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Abstract


Aim. To determine epidemiological features of acute and chronic viral hepatitis B in the Kyrgyz Republic over the period 1997-2017. Меthоds. Analysis was performed on data bases of the National accounting forms on treated cases of acute and chronic hepatitis B cumulated by the Medical Information Centre of the Ministry of Health of Kyrgyz Republic for the period of 1997 to 2017 as well as 384 medical records of patients with chronic hepatitis B treated in the Hepatologic Centre “Tsadmir”.

Results. In the Kyrgyz Republic among all acute cases of acute viral hepatitides, hepatitis A comprises 60.5 %, hepatitis B - 16.9 %, the ratio of unverified non-A non-C viral hepatitis - 15.2%. With the introduction of HBV vaccination of children (2000) and improvement of infectious control in healthcare settings, a decline of acute HBV incidence is observed - from 26.7 0/0000 to 5.3 0/0000 due to the decrease of acute hepatitis B among children and adolescents to isolated cases, adults from risk groups. The highest incidence of acute hepatitis B is recorded in Osh and Bishkek, in Jalal-Abad and Chuy Regions. This can be explained by that in the southern and northern capitals of the Kyrgyz Republic and in the near lying areas with high population density, access to laboratory and instrumental methods of diagnosis of viral hepatitides is better, along with the higher awareness of its inhabitants regarding the prevention compared to other regions. At the same time an increase of chronic hepatitis B incidence is observed. Predominant modes of transmission are medical-parenteral exposure and household contact (60.9 %), with frequent formation of family clusters (23.8 %). Imperfections were found in the early detection, reporting and accounting of cases of chronic viral hepatitides as well as in examination of hepatitis B virus carriers.

Conclusion. The performed analysis of the incidence and prevalence of acute and chronic hepatitis B in the Kyrgyz Republic allowed assessing the dynamics of the epidemiologic situation in the country regarding this disease, revealed shortcomings in the detection and examination of viral hepatitis B carriers, contributed to development of a new guide for epidemiological surveillance of viral hepatitides.


S T Tobokalova

Kyrgyz State Medical Institute for Advanced Training and Retraining

Author for correspondence.
Email: stobokalova@mail.ru
Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic

D S Bekenova

Kyrgyz State Medical Institute for Advanced Training and Retraining

Email: stobokalova@mail.ru
Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic

G M Zairova

Kyrgyz State Medical Institute for Advanced Training and Retraining

Email: stobokalova@mail.ru
Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic

Z Sh Nurmatov

Scientific Production Association “Preventive Medicine”

Email: stobokalova@mail.ru
Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic

Zh N Nazarbaeva

Kyrgyz State Medical Institute for Advanced Training and Retraining

Email: stobokalova@mail.ru
Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic

Zh T Aytieva

Osh State University

Email: stobokalova@mail.ru
Osh, Kyrgyz Republic

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© 2018 Tobokalova S.T., Bekenova D.S., Zairova G.M., Nurmatov Z.S., Nazarbaeva Z.N., Aytieva Z.T.

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