Vol 89, No 5 (2017)

Articles
Multidisciplinary problems of rheumatology and pulmonology
Ananyeva L.P.
Abstract
Damage to the respiratory system worsens prognosis and increases mortality in all systemic immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (SIRDs). Leading pulmonary manifestations in each disease are different, so the typical picture of each nosological entity is very peculiar. In all SIRDs, the disease starts with lung involvement in 10—20% of cases, preceding the expanded clinical presentation of a systemic disease. At a certain stage, lung damage may be the only manifestation of the disease or predominate in its clinical picture, determining the severity of a condition. Among the patients referred to consultation with a pulmonologist for interstitial lung disease, about 15% have manifestations of SIRDs that is confirmed by a special survey. The paper discusses the diagnostic features of SIRDs with lung involvement, as well as indications for consultation with a rheumatologist. The key clinical symptoms indicating a possible rheumatic disease in patients with lung involvement are considered. Evidence for the main circulating autoantibodies identifiable in high titers in patients with SIRDs in a serological test is given and its positivity is interpreted. The issues associated with the term «undifferentiated connective tissue diseases-associated interstitial lung disease» are discussed; the expediency of using the term «interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune signs (AIS)» is emphasized. The clinical characteristics of and classification criteria for AIS are presented. The prognosis and outcomes of interstitial pneumonias of varying etiologies, as well as the importance of the multidisciplinary approach to managing patients with SIRDs and lung involvement, which improves the quality of diagnosis, adequacy of treatment, and quality of life, are dealt with.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):4-9
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Independent risk factors for severe cardiovascular events in male patients with gout: Results of a 7-year prospective study
Eliseev M.S., Denisov I.S., Markelova E.I., Glukhova S.I., Nasonov E.L.
Abstract
Aim. To determine risk factors for severe cardiovascular (CV) events (CVEs) in male patients with crystal-verified gout. Subjects and methods. 251 male patients with crystal-verified gout were prospectively followed up in 2003 to 2013. The mean follow-up period was 6.9±2.0 years. New severe CVE cases and deaths were recorded. Logistic regression was used to analyze the impact of traditional and other risk factors and allopurinol use on the risk for severe CVEs. Results. 32 patients died during the follow-up period. Severe CVEs were recorded in 58 (23.1%) patients; CVE deaths were notified in 22 (8.8%) patients. The risk of all severe CVEs was high for hypertension, increased serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level (>5 mg/l), ≥ stage III chronic kidney disease (CKD) (glomerular filtration rate, <60 ml/min/1.73 m2), alcohol intake (>20 g/day), coronary heart disease (CHD), and a family history of premature CHD. The risk of fatal CVEs was highest for elevated serum hs-CRP level, ≥stage III CKD, a family history of premature CHD, hypercholesterolemia, upper quartile of serum uric acid levels (>552 µmol/l), and regular intake of allopurinol. Conclusion. In addition to the traditional risk factors of CV catastrophes, the presence of chronic inflammation and the impact of high serum uric acid levels may explain the high frequency of CV catastrophes.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):10-19
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The influence of STAT4 rs7574865 (G/T) polymorphism on the risk of clinical and immunological phenotypes of systemic sclerosis in a Russian patient population: Results of a pilot study
Krylov M.Y., Ananyeva L.P., Koneva О.А., Starovoytova M.N., Desinova O.V., Ovsyannikova O.B., Aleksandrova E.N., Novikov A.A., Guseva I.A., Konovalova N.V., Varlamov D.A.
Abstract
Aim. To examine the association of signal transducer and activator transcription 4 (STAT4) rs7574865 G/T polymorphism with a predisposition to systemic sclerosis (SSC) and associated clinical and autoimmune phenotypes in a Russian population. Subjects and methods. A total of 102 patients with SSC and 103 healthy individuals as controls were examined. STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. The carriers of the T allele showed a statistically significant association with SSC, a diffuse form (DF), the presence of interstitial lung disease (ILD), cardiac injury (CI), and seropositivity for anti-topoisomerase I antibodies (ATA). Conclusion. The findings results confirm the important role of STAT4 gene in the predisposition to SSC and its phenotypes, such as DF, ILD, CI, and ATA in the Russian population.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):20-25
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Chronic stress and mental disorders in patients with systemic scleroderma: Results of an interdisciplinary study
Seravina O.F., Lisitsyna T.A., Starovoytova M.N., Desinova O.V., Kovalevskaya O.B., Veltishchev D.Y.
Abstract
Aim. To analyze of the prevalence of stressful factors and mental disorders (MDs), as well as their clinical psychopathological and clinical psychological characteristics to improve the comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of systemic scleroderma (SSD). Subjects and methods. Examinations were performed in 110 patients (predominantly women (n=97 (88.2%); mean age, 49.9±2.47 years) with a documented diagnosis of SSD (its mean duration, 7.25±0.42 years). 62 (56.4%) patients had limited SSD, 36 (32.7%) had diffuse SSD, and 12 (10.9%) had overlap syndrome. The disease was rapidly and slowly progressive in 33 (30%) and 77 (70%) patients, respectively. Oral glucocorticosteroids were used in 99 (90%) patients included in the study, cytotoxic drugs in 66 (60%), plaquenil in 33 (30%); 8 (7%) patients were treated with the biological agent rituximab. All the patients were examined by a psychologist and a psychiatrist. The psychopathological diagnosis of MD was made during a semistructured interview in accordance with the ICD-10 criteria. The Montgomery-Asberg depression and Hamilton anxiety rating scales were used to evaluate the severity of depression and anxiety, respectively. All patients underwent a clinical and psychological examination, including tests assessing memory, attention, and logical thinking, as well as projective techniques. Results. MDs were detected in 91 (83%) patients with SSD. There was a preponderance of depressive disorders in 74 (67.3%) patients: chronic (dysthymia in 33 (30%) patients)) and recurrent (recurrent depressive disorder in 34 (31%)) depressions. Cognitive impairment (CI) of varying severities was diagnosed in 100% of the patients. Schizotypal personality disorder was stated in 44 (40%) patients. 90% of patients were found to have chronic psychic traumas mainly as parental deprivation in childhood (in children less than 11 years of age). 76.7% of the SSD cases developed recurrent episodes of depression in the presence of long-term MD or had a history of the episodes. There was no relationship of MD to gender, age, duration of SSD and its individual clinical manifestations. The nature of SSD treatment did not affect the frequency and spectrum of MD. Conclusion. MDs, predominantly chronic and recurrent depression, and CI are characteristic of most SSD patients. Multiple chronic stressful factors, both previous SSD and those over time, have commonly an impact on the mental health of patients with SSD
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):26-32
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Ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: Two stages of disease?
Rumyantseva D.G., Dubinina T.V., Demina A.B., Rumyantseva O.A., Agafonova E.M., Smirnov A.V., Erdes S.F.
Abstract
Aim. To compare the clinical manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nrAxSpA). Subjects and methods. A Moscow early spondyloarthritis cohort has now included 132 patients with axial spondyloarthritis, of whom 69 patients who have been followed up at least 12 months are to be involved in a preliminary analysis. The mean age at the time of inclusion in the study was 28.1±5.5 years; the mean disease duration was 24.7±15.8 months; 63 (91.3%) patients were HLA-B27 positive; 41 and 28 included patients were diagnosed with AS and nrAxSpA, respectively. Results. Men were significantly more in the AS group than in the nrAxSpA group (58.5 and 32.1%, respectively; p=0.05). The patients of the two groups did not differ in main clinical parameters (the presence of arthritis and enthesitis), disease activity (BASDAI, ASDAS-CRP) and functional status (BASFI). All indicators of inflammatory activity decreased nearly 2-fold in both groups after 12 months of follow up. In 7 (25%) patients with nrAxSpA, radiologically detectable sacroiliitis (SI) developed over 12 months and the diagnosis of AS was verified. Among them, 2 (28.5%) patients had initially active SI detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); 4 (57.1%) had chronic SI, and 1 (14.4%) had no pathological MRI changes. Conclusion. Due to the fact that the clinical manifestations of AS and nrAxSpA are comparable, it can be assumed that the latter is an early stage of AS.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):33-37
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Changes in the serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and vascular endothelial growth factor in active ankylosing spondylitis patients taking amtolmetin guacil: Results of a 56-week prospective ореn-label controlled observational study
Gaydukova I.Z., Khondkaryan E.V., Aparkina A.V., Rebrov A.P.
Abstract
Aim. To estimate changes in the concentrations of adhesion molecules and vascular endothelial growth factor A after 30-day additional use of amtolmetin guacil (AMG) in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS) who were unresponsive to previous one-year treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Subjects and methods. 20 patients with active AS who had not reached a BASDAI score <4.0 at week 52 of NSAID therapy and 10 healthy individuals matched for cardiovascular risk factors were examined. After 52 weeks of NSAID therapy, AMG was administered orally at 1200 mg/day to patients with AS for 30 days. The concentrations of adhesion molecules (sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1) and VEGF-A were measured. BASDAI and ASDAS scores and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined in AS patients. The concentrations of adhesion molecules and VEGF-A were investigated in patients with AS at baseline, at 52 weeks after NSAID treatment start, and at 30 days following AMH initiation (at week 56) and in healthy individuals at baseline and at 30 days. Results. The concentration of sICAM-1 in patients with AS was 987.0±217.39, 938.98±293.31, and 364.25±363.3 ng/ml at weeks 0, 52, and 56, respectively; that in healthy individuals was 769.25±189.32 and 740.05±225.76 ng/ml at baseline and at 30 days, respectively. The differences from the baseline concentration were significant in patients with AS (p<0.05) and insignificant in healthy subjects (p≥0.05); the differences between the concentrations in patients with AS and the controls were significant at baseline and at 52 weeks (p<0.05). The concentration of sVCAM-1 in patients with AS was 364.25±160.49, 325.34±245.1, and 319.1±248.73 ng/ml at weeks 0, 52 and 56, respectively; that in healthy individuals was 245.13±40.4 and 248.73±34.42 ng/ml, respectively (p<0.05 vs baseline values and values in healthy subjects). The level of VEGF-A in AS patients was not different from that in healthy individuals, but decreased during treatment. Correlations were found between the concentration of adhesion molecules and the level of CRP (p<0.01). Conclusion. Elevated concentrations of adhesion molecules have been found in AS patients compared with healthy individuals. The study has demonstrated that AMG treatment is efficient in treating patients with AS. NSAID/AMG treatment is associated with lower concentrations of adhesion molecules. Decreased CRP levels serve as predictors for reduced concentration of adhesion molecules. The level of VEGF-A at baseline did not differ from that in healthy subjects, but was decreased during treatment with NSAIDs.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):38-45
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Hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis: A 20-year experience with treatment
Ignatova T.M., Kozlovskaya L.V., Gordovskaya N.B., Chernova O.A., Milovanova S.Y., Novikov P.I., Nekrasova T.P., Beketova T.V., Mukhin N.A.
Abstract
Aim. To summarize the experience of a multidisciplinary therapy hospital in treating patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV). Subjects and methods. Seventy-two patients (mean age, 49.4±10.3 years) with HCV-associated CV were examined and followed up for an average period of 2.8±3.6 years. The efficiency of traditional (corticosteroids ± cyclophosphamide) and selective (rituximab) immunosuppressive therapy (IST) was estimated in 31 and 15 observations, respectively, and that of antiviral therapy (AVT) in 25. Vasculitis activity was assessed using the Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS). The patients’ survival was studied; multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out. Results. 24 (33.4%) of the 72 patients had a stage of liver cirrhosis (LC). The pretreatment mean BVAS was 11.9±7.2 (range 2 to 36). Severe CV (BVAS ≥15) was present in 30.6% of the patients. AVT was accompanied by achievement of sustained virologic response in 48% of the patients, clinical remission in 68% and had an advantage over IST in relation to long-term treatment results. Rituximab was significantly more effective than traditional immunosuppressants (remission rates of 73 and 13%, respectively). Combined therapy (rituximab and AVT) was most effective in patients with severe forms of vasculitis. Sixteen patients died from complications of vasculitis (37.5%), infection (37.5%), and LC (25%). The factors adversely affecting prognosis were age >55 years (odds ratio (OR), 4.49), the presence of LC (OR, 3.68), renal failure (OR, 4.66) and the use of glucocorticosteroids (OR, 3.91). Conclusion. HCV-associated CV can determine the prognosis of chronic HСV infection. AVT is the treatment of choice in all patients with HСV-associated CV. AVT must be combined with rituximab therapy in patients with severe forms of vasculitis.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):46-52
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Lower extremity venous diseases in primary knee osteoarthritis
Lesnyak O.M., Zubareva E.V., Goncharova M.G., Maksimov D.M.
Abstract
Aim. To establish a possible association between knee osteoarthritis (OA) and lower extremity venous diseases ((LEVDs) on the basis of thorough clinical and instrumental studies. Subjects and methods. A case-control study recruiting 40-60-year-old women was conducted. A study group included 85 women with knee OA; a control group consisted of 50 women without this condition. The patients of both groups underwent assessment of complaints and goal-directed objective examination to identify joint diseases and chronic LEVDs, knee X-ray study, and duplex scanning of the lower extremity veins. Results. The patients with knee OA were more frequently diagnosed with lower extremity varicose vein disease (VVD) (43% vs 22%; p=0.015) and had signs of chronic venous insufficiency (28% vs 12%; p=0.03). Duplex scanning of the lower extremities showed that knee OA was characterized by generalized LEVD (bilateral valve lesions of the great and small saphenous veins and severe valvular incompetence in the veins) that was detected in 53% of the patients in this group versus 20% of the women in the control group (p = 0.0004). After adjustment for body mass index, the differences in the incidence of VVD between the groups remained clinically and statistically significant (odds ratio (OR), 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1—6.7; p=0.036). Conclusion. The 40—60-year-old patients with knee OA more commonly develop symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency than their healthy peers. Although obesity is a risk factor for both diseases, there is an independent association between knee OA and lower extremity VVD.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):53-59
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Polymorphism in the regulatory regions –С2578A and +C936T of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) gene in Russian women with rheumatoid arthritis
Shevchenko A.V., Prokofyev V.F., Korolev M.A., Banshchikova N.E., Konenkov V.I.
Abstract
Aim. To analyze polymorphism in the regulatory regions of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 257 female patients with RA. A control group consisted of 297 women without chronic diseases. The investigators examined the single-nucleotide polymorphism of VEGF-А2578С in the promoter region (rs699947) and that of VEGF+С936Т 3 in the retranslated region (rs3025039) of the gene. Genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results. There was an increase in the frequency of VEGF+936 CT and a reduction in that of the VEGF+936СС genotypes in the seronegative patients as compared to the healthy women. The VEGF+936СС genotype frequency was higher in the patients with seropositive RA than in the subgroup of seronegative patients. The frequency of the VEGF-2578СС genotype was increased in the patients with RA and rheumatoid nodules, as compared to the healthy women. Conclusion. The data presented suggest that the presence of certain VEGF gene variants located in the regulatory regions may reflect the nature of immunopathological mechanisms in RA.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):60-64
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Clinical features of osteoarthritis in patients with metabolic syndrome
Vasilyeva L.V., Lakhin D.I.
Abstract
Aim. To estimate clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and in those with OA and metabolic syndrome (MS). Subjects and methods. 164 patients with OA were examined and divided into 2 groups of 82 people: a study group (patients with MS) and a control one (those without MS). OA was defined according to the diagnostic criteria described by R.D. Althmann (1995). MS was identified based on the criteria developed by the International Diabetes Federation (2005). The location of affected and swollen joints was determined according to the Richie index; the intensity of pain syndrome was measured by a visual analogue scale at rest and on movement; the WOMAC and Lequesne indexes were estimated in the patients. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were determined from laboratory data. Results. In the MS group, the frequency of joint injuries at various sites, the prevalence of synovitis, and the intensity of pain and inflammation were significantly higher than in the non-MS group. Conclusion. The negative impact of MS on the clinical picture of OA can be inferred by the findings.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):65-68
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The frequency of ophthalmologic manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s) and their relationship to systemic diseases
Ismailova D.S., Novikov P.I., Grusha Y.O., Abramova Y.V., Bulanov N.M., Makarov E.A.
Abstract
Aim. To estimate the frequency of lesions in the organ of vision in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (Wegener’s) and to determine their relationship to systemic diseases. Subjects and methods. The retrospective study enrolled 218 patients followed up at the E.M. Tareyev Clinic of Nephrology, Internal and Occupational Diseases, with a diagnosis of GPA. The frequency and association of ophthalmic manifestations with systemic involvement were statistically analyzed using PASW Statistics 18. Results. The organ of vision was impaired in 48.1% of the patients with GPA. The most common manifestations were orbital space-occupying lesion (22.9%), conjunctivitis/episcleritis (14.7%), dacryocystitis (6.0%), and scleritis (4.6%). Orbital space-occupying lesions occurred more frequently in the local type of the disease (p=0.0003), and, on the contrary, the involvement of the conjunctiva and eyeball was seen in patients with the systemic types of GPA (p=0.02). Conclusion. The findings may suggest that the orbital lesion is an independent manifestation of GPA, which develops more commonly in its local type. Conjunctivitis/episcleritis is, on the contrary, more frequently seen in the active phase of the disease and generally in the involvement of other organs and systems.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):69-73
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Association of ITGB3, P2RY12, and CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms with platelet functional activity in patients with coronary heart disease during dual antiplatelet therapy
Muslimova E.F., Afanasiev S.A., Rebrova T.Y., Sergienko T.N., Repin A.N.
Abstract
Aim. To assess the association of CYP2C19 G681A, P2RY12 H1/H2, and ITGB3 T1565C polymorphisms with the extent of platelet aggregation in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) during antiplatelet therapy. Subjects and methods. 166 male patients with CHD, living in the Western Siberian Region, were examined. All the patients underwent a test for platelet aggregation induced by ADP (2.5 and 5.0 µm) and epinephrine (0.2 µm). Genotyping was performed using an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technique. Results. The polymorphic variants of the P2RY12 and ITGB3 genes were ascertained to have no impact on the extent of platelet aggregation in patients receiving clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid. An association was found between CYP2C19 681A allele carriage and the increased extent of platelet aggregation induced by ADP. Conclusion. The carriage of the cytochrome P450 CYP2C19 681A allele rather than platelet receptor gene polymorphisms determines a risk for clopidogrel resistance in patients with CHD.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):74-78
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Behçet’s disease: Intracardiac thrombosis (a description of two cases and a review of literature)
Alekberova Z.S., Ovcharov P.S., Lisitsyna T.A., Volkov A.V., Popkova T.V.
Abstract
Behçet’s disease (BD) is systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology, which is more common in the countries located along the Great Silk Road. The disease is diagnosed if a patient has 4 key diagnostic signs: aphthous stomatitis, genital sores, and eye and skin lesions. Vascular diseases referred to as minor criteria for BD are characterized by the formation of aneurysms and thrombosis, predominantly in the venous bed. In venous disorders, a blood clot can form in any vessel, including caval, cerebral, pulmonary, and other veins. The paper describes two clinical cases of BD with intracardiac thrombosis. In one case, a 24-year-old male patient with a documented diagnosis of BD, echocardiography revealed a left ventricular spontaneous echo contrast phenomenon that disappeared due to immunosuppressive therapy. The other case was a 34-year-old female patient, in whom the diagnosis was based on the international disease criteria: aphthous stomatitis, skin lesions (pseudopustulosis, erythema nodosum), and genital sores. Computed tomographic angiography showed a 3.7×2.2-cm mass (thrombus) in the right atrium. In addition, blood clots were present in the hepatic and inferior vena cava. No abnormalities in the coagulation system were found in both cases.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):79-82
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Vaccination in rheumatology: Evolution of views on the problem
Belov B.S., Sergeeva M.S., Tarasova G.M., Bukhanova D.V.
Abstract
The problem of coinfections that are due to both a rheumatic disease (RD) itself and the need to use immunosuppressive drugs deserves apparent attention in modern rheumatology. Coinfections substantially affect morbidity and mortality rates, especially in diffuse connective tissue diseases. The data available in the literature on the above subject matter suggest that vaccination is a powerful method for prevention of infectious diseases that are the most important problem for patients with RD.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):83-89
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Osteoporosis: Current state of the art
Verbovoy A.F., Pashentseva A.V., Sharonova L.A.
Abstract
As of now, osteoporosis (OP) is one of the most important sociomedical problems because of its high prevalence and resultant disability, as well as significant mortality attributable to complications. The current strategy for providing care for patients of OP is its early diagnosis, by determining the high risk of fractures, and early pathogenetic treatment. The article gives an update on the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of OP.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):90-97
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Chondroprotectors: A range of application in general somatic practice
Shavlovskaya O.A.
Abstract
Chondroprotectors (CP) are biological agents that contribute to the regeneration of the cartilage surfaces and articular capsule, participating in the metabolic processes of the articular cartilage. Progressive loss of hyaline cartilage and lower levels of chondroitin sulfate were observed in osteoarthritis (OA) at different sites, including dorsopathy. OA therapy is aimed at slowing disease progression, relieving pain symptoms, and reducing functional disorders. For this purpose, oral or injectable CPs (Chondroguard, Sustaguard) are prescribed. The optimal dosing regimen of parenteral CPs is the following: three intramuscular Chondrogard 1 ml (100 mg) jections during the first week; 25—30 intramuscular chondroguard 2 ml (200 mg) injections every other day during the second week, a repeat cycle after 6 months; Sustaguard 400 mg thrice weekly for 4 weeks.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):98-104
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New horizons in the use of biological agents during pregnancy in patients with rheumatic disease
Shesternya P.A., Petrova M.M., Vasilyeva A.O.
Abstract
Pregnancy in the presence of rheumatic diseases (RD) and adequate therapy before planned conception, during gestation, and after delivery during lactation is challenging. Advances in the treatment of RD are largely due to the clinical introduction of a new class of biological agents (BAs). There are less than two decades of experience in using BAs in rheumatology and to date there are no unified standards and accepted rules governing their use during pregnancy. According to the current requirements, information on a medicine should be given in three sections: 1) pregnancy; 2) lactation, and 3) use in men and women who are planning concept (the latter section has appeared for the first time). The present article summarizes data on the possible use of BAs in patients with RD during pregnancy planning, pregnancy, and breastfeeding.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):105-112
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Cancer-testis genes in colon cancer
Hilal N.R., Novikov D.V., Novikov V.V., Karaulov A.V.
Abstract
The expression of cancer-testis (CT) genes varies with tumor type. There are tumors with high, low, and intermediate gene expressions. Tumor cells of different origin are characterized by ST gene co-expression. The expression of ST genes increases in later stages of tumor development in the presence of metastases. In colon cancer, the tumor samples showed most frequently MAGE-A and SSX mRNA. The peripheral blood samples displayed most commonly XAGE, MAGE-C, and SSX mRNA. In patients with colon cancer, the expression of TSP50, MAGE-A(1-6), and SSX1,2,4 genes was associated with a poor prognosis, that of MAGE-C1 and XAGE1 was related to a favorable prognosis.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(5):113-117
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