Specificity and dynamics of psychological adaptation during the COVID-19 pandemic

Cover Page

Cite item

Full Text

Open Access Open Access
Restricted Access Access granted
Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


BACKGROUND. The relevance is due to the negative consequences caused by the COVID-19 pandemic for individuals and for society as a whole, covering almost all aspects of life at the macro and individual levels, and the lack of detailed studies of the psychological state of the population.

AIM. Study of the specifics and dynamics of psychological adaptation in subjects during the COVID-19 pandemic.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. Method of studying personality accentuations of K. Leonhard (modified by S. Shmishek); diagnostics of the state of aggression (Bass-Darkey questionnaire), multilevel personality questionnaire “Adaptiveness” by A.G. Maklakov and S.V. Chermyanin, test-questionnaire “Health, activity, mood”, clinical questionnaire for the detection and evaluation of neurotic conditions (Yakhin K.K., Mendelevich D.M.). Statistical analysis of the data was performed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, Student’s t-test for independent samples, and Student’s t-test for dependent samples. The study involved 51 people — 16% are men and 84% are women, who were selected by a random continuous method, whose average age is 21.3±1.87 years. The study was carried out in 2 stages. The first stage: the end of April 2020 — 21 days after the start of voluntary self-isolation; second stage: end of September — beginning of November 2020.

RESULTS. The subjects were found to have such character accentuations as exaltation — 94%, hyperthymism — 88%, emotivity — 86%, low level of personal adaptive potential (2.1±1.43), neurotic depression prevailed — 43%, obsessive-phobic disorders — 33%, conversion disorders — 27%. The expression of aggression was carried out mainly through verbal aggression (6.35±2.43), guilt (5.59±1.72) and irritation (5.37±1.92).

CONCLUSION. The subjects have a low level of personal adaptive potential, which increased with the end of self-isolation, accompanied by a gradual acceptance of what is happening, stabilization of the growth in the number of sick and dead, news about the development of measures to combat the spread of the virus, methods of treatment and prevention.

Full Text

Restricted Access

About the authors

Elvira V. Makaricheva

Kazan State Medical University

Email: emakaricheva@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3607-9756
SPIN-code: 1207-5554

Cand. Sci. (Med.), Associate Professor of the Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology

Russian Federation, Kazan

Maria S. Burguvan

Kazan State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: maria.ru97@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6709-3713
SPIN-code: 3633-8681

6th year student of the pediatric faculty

Russian Federation, Kazan


  1. Official website of the Ministry of Health of Russia. https://covid19.rosminzdrav.ru (access date: 25.02.2022).
  2. Huang Y, Zhao N. Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: a web-based crosssectional survey. Psychiatry Res. 2020;288:112954. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112954.
  3. Fedosenko EV. Life after quarantine: the psychology of meanings and coronavirus COVID-19. Psychological problems of the meaning of life and acme. 2020;XXV:34–47. (In Russ.)] doi: 10.24411/9999-042A-2020-00040.
  4. Sorokin MYu, Kas’yanov ED, Rukavishnikov GV et al. Psychological reactions of the population as a factor of adaptation to the COVID-19 pandemic. Obozrenie psikhiatrii i meditsinskoy psikhologii imeni VM Bekhtereva. 2020;(2):87–94. (In Russ.) doi: 10.31363/2313-7053-2020-2-87-94.
  5. Lei L, Huang X, Zhang S et al. Comparison of prevalence and associated factors of anxiety and depression among people affected by versus people unaffected by quarantine during the COVID-19 epidemic in Southwestern China. Med Sci Monit. 2020;26:e924609. doi: 10.12659/MSM.924609.
  6. Moser DA, Glaus J, Frangou S, Schechter DS. Years of life lost due to the psychosocial consequences of COVID19 mitigation strategies based on Swiss data. medRxiv. 2020.04.17.20069716. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.17.20069716v3 (access date: 25.02.2022). doi: 10.1101/2020.04.17.20069716.
  7. Asmundson GJG, Taylor S. How health anxiety influences responses to viral outbreaks like COVID-19: what all decision-makers, health authorities, and health care professionals need to know. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2020;71:102–211.
  8. Wang Y, Xu B, Zhao G. Is quarantine related to immediate negative psychological consequences during the 2009 H1N1 epidemic? General Hospital Psychiatry. 2011;33:75–77. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.11.001.
  9. Reynolds DL, Garay JR, Deamond SL. Understanding, compliance and psychological impact of the SARS quarantine experience. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136(7):997–1007. doi: 10.1017/S0950268807009156.
  10. Braunack-Mayer A, Tooher R, Collins JE. Understanding the school community’s response to school closures during the H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:344. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-344.
  11. Desclaux A, Badji D, Ndione AG. Accepted monitoring or endured quarantine? Ebola contacts’ perceptions in Senegal. Soc Sci Med. 2017;178:38–45. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.02.009.
  12. Taylor MR, Agho KE, Stevens GJ, Raphael B. Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: data from Australia’s first outbreak of equine influenza. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:347. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-347.
  13. Kharitonov SV, Pogonchenkova IV, Lyamina NP, Rassulova MA. Mental disorders in patients of a specialized hospital for the aftercare of coronavirus infection. Vestnik psikhoterapii. 2020;74(79):7–29. (In Russ.)
  14. Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE et al. The psycholo-gical impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet. 2020;395:912–920. doi: 10.1016/S01406736(20)30460-8.
  15. Hawryluck L, Gold WL, Robinson S et al. SARS control and psychological effects of quarantine, Toronto, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10(7):1206–1212. doi: 10.3201/eid1007.030703.
  16. Marjanovic Z, Greenglass ER, Coffey S. The relevance of psychosocial variables and working conditions in predicting nurses’ coping strategies during the SARS crisis: an online questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2007; 44(6):991–998. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.02.012.
  17. Papa A, Maitoza R. The role of loss in the experience of grief: The case of job loss. Journal of Loss and Trauma. 2013;18(2):152–169. doi: 10.1080/15325024.2012.684580.
  18. Fetiskin NP, Kozlov VV, Manuilov GM. Determination of personality and characterological accentuations (K. Leongard). In: Social’no-psyhologicheskaya diagnostic razvitiya lychnosti i malih grupp. (Socio-psychological diagnostics of the development of personality and small groups.) M.: Izdatelstvo Instituta Psyhoterapii; 2002. р. 370–376. (In Russ.)
  19. Diagnostics of the state of aggression (Bass-Darky questionnaire). Diagnostics of emotional and moral development. Red. i sost. I.B. Dermanova SPb.; 2002. р. 80–84. (In Russ.)
  20. Maklakov A.G., Chermyanin S.V. Multilevel personal questionnaire “Adaptiveness” (MLO-AM). Prakticheskaya psikhodiagnostika. Metodiki i testy. Uchebnoe posobie. Red. i sost. D.Ya. Raygorodskiy Samara; 2001. р. 549–558. (In Russ.)
  21. Doskin VA, Lavrent’eva NA, Miroshnikov MP, Sharay VB. Test of differentiated self-assessment of the functional state. Voprosy psikhologii. 1973;6:41–145. (In Russ.)
  22. Yakhin KK, Mendelevich DM. Clinical questionnaire for the detection and evaluation of neurotic conditions. Klinicheskaya i meditsinskaya psikhologiya. Uchebnoe posobie. Pod red. VD Mendelevicha. M.; 2005. 432 р. (In Russ.)

Copyright (c) 2022 Makaricheva E.V., Burguvan M.S.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

СМИ зарегистрировано Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор).
Регистрационный номер и дата принятия решения о регистрации СМИ: серия ПИ № ФС 77 - 75562 от 12 апреля 2019 года.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies