Vol 17, No 6 (2014)

Articles
Role of oxidative stress in development of epithelial tumors of the skin in dermatoheliosis
Snarskaya E.S., Tkachenko S.B., Kuznetsova E.V.
Abstract
Oxidative stress, developing after exposure to UV radiation of spectra A and B, leads to the formation of active oxygen species. This event leads to numerous negative consequences - formation of single-strand ruptures in the DNA and formation ofprotein suturing, promoting the emergence of mutations and triggering carcinogenesis. It also initiates the cascade of signal routes, mediated by stimulation of many receptor families: epidermal growth factor receptor, fibroplastic growth factor receptor, cytokine (TNFa and IL-1) receptors, and Fas receptor. In addition, a special mutant protein p53 is detected in epidermal cells chronically exposed to UV radiation. This protein can determine the initial stages of carcinogenesis or emerge during tumor growth, maintaining tumor acquisition of new aggressive characteristics and drug resistance.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2014;17(6):4-7
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Squamous-cell cancer of the skin in pigmented xeroderma
Albanova V.I.
Abstract
Squamous-cell carcinoma of the skin in patients with pigmented xeroderma is characterized by early onset, aggressive course, and rapid metastatic growth. The development of malignant tumors can be prevented by early diagnosis and stringent limitation ofphotoexposure of the skin. A clinical case is presented: an 8-year-old child with multiple tumors on the face with destruction of the sublying bone and cartilage tissues and metastases in the regional lymph nodes. The first tumor emerged at the age of 4 years, dissemination started at 5. Surgery, close-focus X-ray therapy, roaccutan, and cyclophosphamide were ineffective.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2014;17(6):8-12
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Erythemometry and ultrasonic study of hemangiomas in children and results of laser therapy thereof
Trapeznikova T.V., Pisklakova T.P.
Abstract
Ultrasonic examination (USE) and erythemometry were used for objective evaluation of hemangiomas (vascular tumors of the skin) before and after therapy. A total of 50 infants (aged 1-24 months) with hemangiomas were treated by Nd:YAP Q-Sw/KTP laser coagulation of vessels. The results (vascular tumor turned pale and thinned, no complications, rather painless procedure) demonstrated the treatment efficiency. Ultrasonic examinations before and after therapy proved to be an informative and noninvasive method, fit for examinations of infants for evaluating the tumor size and depth in the skin. Erythemometry of vascular tumors proved to be an objective method for evaluation of blood supply to the tumor and time course of its involution. Both methods demonstrated the efficiency and safety of Nd:YAP Q-Sw/KTP laser therapy of hemangiomas in infants.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2014;17(6):13-17
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Clovate therapy of steroid-sensitive dermatoses
Snarskaya E.S., Shnakhova L.M.
Abstract
The choice of a topical corticosteroid drug is a difficult problem for practical physician. Modern topical glucocorticosteroids are the most effective, as they unite the positive characteristics of previous drugs, their activity is comparable to that of fluorinated glucocorticoids, and their untoward effects (characteristic of hydrocortisone acetate) are the minimum. It is a class of modern potent drugs. One of them is Clovate® (active substance 0.05% clobethasol propionate; "Valeant", Canada). Prescription of a short course of Clovate during exacerbation and progress of severe psoriasis forms is safe and not associated with subclinical signs of augmenting adrenosuppression. "Step-down" therapy leads to a rapid clinical effect without side effects. Experience gained in the use of this method is presented.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2014;17(6):18-21
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Modern concepts of therapy for microsporosis and trichophytosis
Yakovlev A.B.
Abstract
Microsporosis and trichophytosis are predominant superficial mycoses of childhood. Adult patients are responsible for 9-18% cases annually. Disseminated and complicatedforms of microsporosis and trichophytosis and of all kinds of involvement of the hairy part of the head are treated by a combination of topical and systemic antimycotics. Modern treatment protocols as a rule include drugs with side effects (skin irritation), including external iodine preparations, which is fraught with a high incidence of cosmetically undesirable residual phenomena. Terbinafine (Exifine®, "Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories", India) is a more sparing drug, particularly for trichophytosis therapy. The authors present an algorithm for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of superficial mycoses.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2014;17(6):22-29
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Toxic form of Levere's bullous pemphigoid
Degtyarev O.V., Zhizhimova O.V., Bakhmutova E.G., Selivanova I.N., Vetoshkina L.N.
Abstract
This clinical report presents patients with generalized form of Lever’s bullous pemphigoid, which developed as a result of long oral therapy with L-thyroxin and marigold tincture.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2014;17(6):30-32
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Phototherapy for psoriasis: Basic mechanisms of action
Zhilova M.B., Volnukhin V.A.
Abstract
A review ofpublished data on the mechanisms of action of medium-wave UV therapy and PUVA therapy for psoriasis is presented. The therapeutic effect of phototherapy is mediated by a combination of several mechanisms of action: impairment of DNA replication and cell cycle, generation of active oxygen species, stimulation of apoptosis of T-lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and keratinocytes, modulation of synthesis of cytokines and their receptors in the skin. These effects explain the immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative effects of phototherapy.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2014;17(6):32-36
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Internet technologies in consultation dermatology
Tarasenko G.N., Barbinov V.V., Patsenko M.B., Vinogradov S.N.
Abstract
The internet potenatialities in long distance consultations are discussed. The algorithm and chart, allowing internet counselling of dermatological patients, are created. The authors emphasize that videoinformation technologies make consultations of the leading specialists in dermatological diseases, difficult to diagnose and treat, easier available for patients.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2014;17(6):37-40
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Herpes gestationis: A clinical observation
Degtyarev O.V., Tkachenko T.A., Bakhmutova E.G., Rudyk E.F., Kudaev S.V., Mesnyankina O.A., Yanchevskaya E.Y.
Abstract
A clinical case with herpes gestationis is presented. Herpes gestationis is a rare autoimmune disease emerging in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Despite its name, herpes gestationis is not associated with herpes virus. The similarity of the histological picture of this dermatosis and bullous pemphigoid prompted some authors call it “pemphigoid gestationis”. According to different sources, the incidence ofpemphigoid gestationis varies from 1:10 000 to 1:50 000 pregnancies. It manifests during the second or third trimester (month 5-6). The nonspecific clinical picture and rarity of the disease make its diagnosis particularly difficult and require special attention of dermatologists and obstetricians and gynecologists.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2014;17(6):41-43
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Psychosomatic aspects of lichen planus
Dorozhenok I.Y., Snarskaya E.S., Shenberg V.G.
Abstract
The development of psychodermatology as one of the trends of psychosomatic medicine is determined by high prevalence and polymorphism of clinical manifestations and of comorbid proportions of skin and mental disease. The psychosomatic aspects of lichen planus development are a pressing psychodermatological problem because of numerous nosogenic factors (severe forms, itching; location of eruptions on the open sites of the body, genitals, oral mucosa; probability of malignant transformation of the foci) and because of frequent stressogenic (psychogenic) origin of dermatosis manifestation/exacerbation, and also because of syndromal associations with affective diseases. Comprehensive studies ofpsychosomatic aspects of clinical forms of lichen planus was carried out in order to create more effective diagnostic and therapeutic methods within the framework of modern concept ofpsychosomatic medicine. The typical and atypical forms of lichen planus are characterized with due consideration for the psychosomatic aspects of their development. Relevant publications in Russian and foreign literature and reviewed.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2014;17(6):43-49
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Atopic dermatitis in children and adolescents: Evolution of views on the pathogenesis and therapeutic approaches
Toropova N.P., Sorokina K.N., Lepeshkova T.S.
Abstract
The pathogenesis and clinical course of atopic dermatitis (eczema, neurodermatitis) in 1966-2013 were studied by the results of analysis of 45 dissertations issued in the Ural Institute of Dermato-Venereology, Department of Hospital Therapy of the Ural State Medical Academy, and Center of Pediatric Dermatology and Allergology. The authors developed and introduced into practice new methods of systemic and topical therapy and prevention. Three monographs, 9 methodological recommendations, and 2 popular books based on the results of research were published.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2014;17(6):50-59
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Platelet-rich plasma in therapy of nonscarring alopecia
Olisova O.Y., Egorova K.G.
Abstract
Publications on the treatment of nonscarring alopecias by injections ofplatelet-rich plasma are reviewed. Cellular mechanisms of hair follicle functioning, role of stem cells in the vital cycle of a hair, and basic effects of growth factors released by platelets are described. The criteria remaining not evaluated within the framework of evidence medicine and in need offurther research are presented.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2014;17(6):60-62
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Subject index of papers published in 2014
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Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2014;17(6):63-63
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Annular elements on the skin of the upper limbs
Tarasenko G.N., Khimushkina E.V., Grebenyuk D.V., Tarasenko Y.G.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2014;17(6):64-65
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