Vol 18, No 6 (2015)

Articles
Clinical characteristics of cutaneous and mucosal melanoma and c-KIT gene L576P mutation
Komina A.V., Aksenenko M.B., Palkina N.V., Motorina A.V., Ruksha T.G.
Abstract
The impact of mutations in c-KIT gene for melanoma progress is now a proven fact. However, no clear-cut relationship between the presence of a mutation and melanoma course has been detected. We attempted detection of a correlation between L576P mutation in melanoma cells and its location and progress. The objects of the study were specimens ofprimary melanoma in sites, exposed to chronic UV irradiation as well as on mucosa membranes, on the palms and soles. Mutation L576P was detected in 3 (16%) of 19 patients with melanomas; all mutations were found on the melanomas located in the forearm. Mutation L576P was inessentialfor the characteristics of melanoma (tumor thickness according to Breslow, type of intratumorous lymphocytic infiltration, presence of pigment and ulcerations).
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2015;18(6):4-7
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Kaposi's sarcoma and pseudosarcoma: differential diagnosis
Olisova O.Y., Grabovskaya O.V., Varshavsky V.A., Teplyuk N.P., Grekova E.V.
Abstract
Review of the data on the etiology, pathogenesis, classification, clinical manifestations, and histological issue of Kaposi’s sarcoma and a clinical observation of this condition in a patient aged 66 are presented. Difficulties and algorithm of the diagnosis are described. The criteria of differential diagnosis between Kaposi’s sarcoma and pseudosarcoma are described in detail.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2015;18(6):8-13
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Dysplastic nevus: almost 40 years later
Salamova I.V., Mordovtseva V.V.
Abstract
The biological significance of dysplastic nevuses remains an object of discussion up to the present time, despite the fact that a dysplastic nevus is a high risk marker of malignant cutaneous melanoma. The role of these nevuses as direct precursors of melanoma is less certain. The authors present the results of research in this sphere, carried out over the recent decades since the fist description of dysplastic nevuses in 1978.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2015;18(6):13-15
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Blue nevus
Kozlova A.V., Rider A.V., Ilyasova S.V., Ruksha T.G.
Abstract
Melanocytic nevuses are now in the focus of attention because they are to be differentiatedfrom cutaneous melanoma. One of these tumors, requiring the attention of dermatologists and oncologists, is the blue nevus with its two clinical morphological forms: common blue nevus and cellular one. It is assumed that blue nevus is a benign melanocytic formation, its color depending on the depth of melanin deposion in the derma and the resultant optical effect. Histological studies of a common blue nevus show melanin-containing large granules, located in the axonal and spindle cells, while hourglass-shaped cellular blue nevus is formed by spindle cells, with pigmented melanocytes with long processes at the periphery. This pigmented formation is rare and is more incident in childhood. Cellular blue nevus is an object of special attention of dermato-oncologists. Cases with cutaneous melanoma simulating the clinical pathomorphological manifestations of blue nevus have been described; these facts necessitate differential diagnosis between these tumors, which should be carried out by specialists in dermatooncology. Melanoma is hazardous because of its aggressive course and metastases and because it is liable to “mimic” the blue nevus and even its cell structures. A clinical observation of blue nevus is presented.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2015;18(6):16-18
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Role of Golgi complex calcium pumps and the immune system in the pathogenesis of Gougerot-Hailey-Hailey's familial benign pemphigus
Makhneva N.V., Chernysh E.S., Beletskaya L.V.
Abstract
Hailey-Hailey’s disease is a rare persistent autosomal dominant hereditary vesiculo-bullous dermatosis characterized by suprabasal link disorders between epidermal cells. Mutations in ATP2C1 gene locus, coding for Ca 2+/Mn 2+ ATPase secretory pathways, play pivotal role in its pathogenesis. Increase of the cytosol calcium concentration and its decrease in Golgi complex are presumed to lead to glycosylation reduction and improper location of epidermal cell adhesion molecules, which can lead to acantholysis. The absence of correlation between the clinical picture and mutation type suggest the existence of other pathogenetic factors, promoting disease manifestation, including the immune response. A review of literature on the role of Golgi complex Capumps and the immune system in the pathogenesis of Hailey-Hailey’s disease is presented.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2015;18(6):18-25
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Colloid fetus type congenital ichthyosis in a new-born
Efanova E.N., Ulitina I.V., Ivannikova E.N., Rusak Y.E., Lakomova I.N., Vasilyeva E.A.
Abstract
A clinical observation is presented: survival of an infant with congenital ichthyosis of the colloid fetus type, treated by systems glucocorticosteroids from the first days of life. This clinical case demonstrates the possibility of survival, life span prolongation, and improvement of the quality of life in patients with congenital ichthyosis provided the early adequate therapy with systemic glucocorticosteroids from the first days of life and proper care. Prenatal diagnosis, particularly in families with high risk of genetic dermatoses, is essential for prevention of this disease.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2015;18(6):26-28
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Seborrheic pemphigus associated with viral infection
Makhneva N.V., Kartashova M.G., Syuch N.I., Voronova V.V., Zaidenov V.A., Beletskaya L.V.
Abstract
Association of viral infections with autoimmune diseases is a well-known fact. Herpesvirus infections are often assumed to be involved in the development of autoimmune pemphigus. It is however probable that the virus association with pemphigus is accidental, caused by iatrogenic immunosuppression and/or dysregulation of the host immune response. The authors present a case of seborrheic pemphigus manifestation associated with a chronic infection caused by cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. High titers of specific IgG antibodies to protein components of these viruses indicate the persistence of herpesvirus infection and its probable subclinical course with involvement of various organs and tissues. Study of the role of viral infection in the development and course of autoimmune pemphigus considering the antigenic heterogeneity and formation of specific antibodies to the virus protein components is expected to promote the creation of more effective therapeutic protocols and new approaches to the treatment ofpatients suffering from autoimmune pemphigus.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2015;18(6):28-32
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The flaws of total systems therapy with biological preparations in psoriasis
Sokolovskiy E.V., Kruglova L.S., Ponich E.S.
Abstract
Basic studies of the etiology and pathogenesis ofpsoriasis created prerequisites for development of a group of novel gene engineering biological preparations (GEBP). The experience accumulated by the present time in the use of biological therapy preparations demonstrates the flaws of GEBP (initial inefficiency, “escape effect”), suggests protocols of transition from one preparation to another, and demonstrates the safety of combined use of GEBP and systemic cytostatics. Clinical use of GEBP in refractory cases is discussed.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2015;18(6):32-38
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New potentialities of therapy for atopic dermatitis
Olisova O.Y.
Abstract
Published data on the pathogenesis and main methods of therapy for atopic dermatitis (AD) are analyzed. Defects in the barrier function of the skin are regarded as one of the major phenotypical signs of AD. Therapy of AD is a difficult problem; however, the use of hydratants and oily means remains the base topical therapy to repair the barrier function of the skin. A new lipid-replenishing cream for topical therapy of AD, Xeracalm, is presented. The cream was used in 15 patients aged 15-32 years with mild AD. The efficiency was evaluated by objective criteria (erythema, desquamation, dryness) and subjective sensations (skin “shrinkage”), SCORAD index, and dermatological quality of life index. The studies demonstrated high efficiency of Xeracalm cream, which could be recommended for therapy of AD and maintenance of clinical remission.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2015;18(6):38-41
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Cellulitis vs cellulite
Plieva L.R.
Abstract
Cellulitis is an acute infection of soft subcutaneous tissues, characterized by diffuse serous inflammation with hyperemia, edema, and local pain. The place of cellulitis among infections of the skin and subcutaneous fat is defined. In Russian literature the use of this nosological term to denote the so-called “cellulite” (gynoid lipodystrophy) - a cosmetic problem - is erroneous. Based on analysis of 59 publications (the majority from PubMed), the author presents the clinical characteristics and differential diagnostic critaria of cellulitis and describes the therapeutic and preventive approaches to this dermatological nosological entity.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2015;18(6):42-49
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Melatonin preparations in dermatological practice
Garanyan L.G.
Abstract
Published data on the efficiency of exogenous melatonin in therapy of some dermatological diseases - psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, eczema, and androgenic alopecia - is presented. Combined therapy including exogenous melatonin leads to normalization of immunological parameters, improves the treatment efficiency, prolongs remissions, and prevents disease relapses.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2015;18(6):50-52
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Functional diagnosis of the skin and evaluation of methods for therapy of gynoid lipodystrophy
Korolkova T.N., Sogomonyan A.V.
Abstract
Gynoid lipodystrophy (GLD) is found in the overwhelming majority of women aged over 35. The efficiency of numerous methods used in its treatment is evaluated mainly by clinical methods. We evaluate the time course of skin functions in order to validate the therapeutic effects of systemic enzyme therapy (SET) and its combinations with vibrovacuum therapy (VVT) in patients with GLD of different severity. A total of 122 patients with GLD were observed in 2008-2014, which were divided into three groups, receiving SET, VVT, and SET+VVT. Each group was divided into two subgroups with GLD of different severity : degree 1-2 (A) and degree III-IV (B). Subgroup A patients received SET in tablets - 5 x 3 daily during 1 month, subgroup B patients received the drug in a dose of 7 x 3 daily during 1 month. Vibrovacuum therapy (vacuum applicator resolution 50-60 kPa, frequency 30-50 Hz) was administered by 2-3 weekly sessions for 30 min, 10 sessions per course. Water content, acid base balance, erythema and pigmentation degree, and mechanical functions of the skin (according to elastometry) were evaluated. Enzyme therapy was in fact inessential for the skin function parameters, VVT was effective in subgroup A, while VVT+SET proved to be the most effective, particularly in subgroup B.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2015;18(6):53-58
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Results of examinations of patients with a history of syphilis
Bokhonovich D.V., Loseva O.K., Yudakova V.M., Maksimova I.V.
Abstract
Examinations (echocardiography, liquor analysis) of 70 seropositive patients with a history of treatment for syphilis up to 36 years before the examination detected late forms of syphilis (neurosyphilis or cardiovascular syphilis) in 1/3 (n=23) ofpatients. The highest incidence of late syphilis forms was found 5-15 years after initial treatment. The authors necessitate revision of the current standards of clinical serological monitoring of syphilis patients, which should be prolonged and qualitatively improved (echocardiography and liquor analysis should be included as obligatory components). It is also essential to prolong the duration of storage of medical files of syphilis patients. These results can serve as the guidelines for improving clinical serological monitoring.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2015;18(6):59-62
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From collection of prof. N.P. Teplyuk and N.V. Makhneva. Bullous pemphigoid and its clinical variants
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Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2015;18(6):63-64
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Nodules in the armpits
Artemiev E.M., Yakubovich A.I., Belykh D.V., Tarasenko G.N., Tamindarov R.R.
Russian Journal of Skin and Venereal Diseases. 2015;18(6):65-66
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