Vol 7, No 1 (2012)

Articles
RETINOPATIYa NEDONOShENNYKh, SOVREMENNOE SOSTOYaNIE PROBLEMY I ZADAChI ORGANIZATsII OFTAL'MOLOGIChESKOY POMOShchI NEDONOShENNYM DETYaM V RF
Katargina L.A.
Abstract
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):5-7
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YAG-LASER POSTERIOR CAPSULOTOMY FOR THE TREATMENT OF CONGENITAL FIBROSIS OF THE LENS POSTERIOR CAPSULE OF THE EYE IN THE CHILDREN PRESENTING WITH CONGENITAL CATARACT
Arestova N.N., Kruglova T.B., Egiyan N.S., Kononov L.B.
Abstract
We have developed and patented the optimal method for YAG-laser posterior capsulotomy in artiphakic eyes with congenital fibrosis of the lens posterior capsule (including execution algorithm, focusing mode, and energetic regimens of YAG-laser radiation) that takes into account the peculiar features of the eyes and congenital fibrosis of the lens posterior cavity in the children presenting with congenital cataract. The surgical treatment was performed on a total of 56 eyes with congenital fibrosis of the lens posterior capsule in 43 patients at the age from 4 months to 5 years presenting with congenital cataract. Taken together, the high efficiency, safety, and atraumaticity of the proposed method open up prospects for the more extensive application of non-invasive YAG-laser surgery in the field of pediatric ophthalmology.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):8-10
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THE PROGNOSTIC AND IMMUNOGENETIC FEATURES OF OPTIC NEURITIS IN THE CHILDREN PRESENTING WITH DISSEMINATED SCLEROSIS
Guseva M.R., Boiko S.Y., Boiko A.N.
Abstract
The present work was designed to estimate the prognostic value of clinical features of optic neuritis based on the study of 67 patients (38 girls and 29 boys) at the age under 16 years presenting with the confirmed diagnosis of disseminated sclerosis in the beginning of the demyelinizing disease. The prognostic significance of optic neuritis as the earliest manifestation of disseminated sclerosis was evaluated by comparing clinical symptoms in the patients of this group with those in the children with a different onset of disseminated sclerosis. The clinical assessment of the neurologic status was done based on the Kutrzke expanded disability status scale. Subject to the prognostic analysis were the age of the patients at the onset of the disease and its clinical features, the annual frequency of exacerbations, the time of secondary progress, and formation of neurological deficit. The following procedures were performed: fundus examination, computed perimetry, electrophysiological and immunogenetic studies, the latter being focused on genotyping HLA class II region of chromosome 6. It was shown that optic neuritis is a common manifestation of disseminated sclerosis in the children. The severity of sclerosis decreases when the myelinizing disease starts as optic neuritis rather than otherwise. The clinical features of optic neuritis are virtually identical when it is the first manifestation of optic neuritis and in the case of exacerbation of the primary disease. On the whole, the children suffering disseminated sclerosis were shown to exhibit the enhanced occurrence of DR2(15) haplotype especially when this condition initially developes as optic neuritis.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):10-14
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THE ROLE OF VITREORETINAL SURGERY IN THE TREATMENT OF STAGE IV RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY IN THE ACTIVE PHASE
Karyakin M.A., Korotkikh S.A., Stepanova E.A., Khlopotov S.V.
Abstract
This paper presents the results of analysis of the outcomes of vitreoretinal surgery performed for the treatment of premature infants presenting with stage IV retinopathy. It is shown that the surgical intervention in 80% of the cases of uncomplicated stage IV retinopathy allowed to stop the progress of the disease and prevent the total retinal detachment. In the presence of "plus disease" or aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity, it proved possible to arrest the retinal detachment in 45% of the cases. It is concluded that the early vitreoretinal intervention in the patients with retinopathy of prematurity allows the central vision to be preserved in 46.7% of the cases.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):15-18
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THE MODERN METHODS FOR DIAGNOSTICS OF GLAUCOMATOUS OPTIC NEUROPATHY IN THE CHILDREN PRESENTING WITH CONGENITAL GLAUCOMA
Katargina L.A., Mazanova E.V., Tarasenkov A.O., Ryabtsev D.I.
Abstract
The results of the studies of the posterior part of the eye in the patients presenting with various forms and stages of congenital glaucoma are reported. The work was done with the use of the modern highly informative methods, viz. confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscopy (HRT) and spectral optical coherent tomography (S-OCT). The morphometric data thus obtained in conjunction with certain pathognomonic symptoms of the damage to the optic nerve, retina, choroid, main branches of the central retinal artery (CRA) and central retinal vein (CRV) associated with congenital glaucoma are needed to gain a deeper insight into the pathogenesis of this condition, improve its diagnostics and prognosis, evaluate stabilization of the glaucomatous process, and choose the optimal treatment strategy.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):18-21
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THE EFFICACY OF FUNCTIONAL REHABILITATION OF VISUAL DISTURBANCES IN JUNIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN
Kashura O.I., Egorov V.V., Smolyakova G.P.
Abstract
A group of junior schoolchildren suffering amblyopia, accommodation disorders, myopia, and heterophthalmia remained under observation during a 3-year long period of functional rehabilitation. The results of the study indicate that visual acuity improved from 0.49 to 0.33 on the average; simultaneously, the predisposition to the spasms of accommodation was eliminated in 64.3 ± 2.9% of the cases, stabilization of myopia and recovery of binocular vision were achieved in 63.6 ± 3.0% and 50.0 ± 3.3% of the children respectively. The data obtained confirm the importance of secondary prophylaxis of visual disturbances in junior schoolchildren.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):22-25
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CORRECTION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND HEMODYNAMIC CHANGES IN THE CHILDREN PRESENTING WITH MYOPIA AND ACCOMMODATION DISORDERS
Matveev A.V., Guseva M.R., Markova E.Y., Ul’shina L.V., Kuznetsova Y.D.
Abstract
A total of 238 children and adolescents presenting with the diagnosis of myopia or habitually excessive accommodation strain were examined and treated. It was shown that the introduction of antioxidative preparations in the combined treatment of the above disorders significantly enhanced the relative accommodation reserves, normalized the antioxidant properties of blood plasma, and improved the blood supply to the eyes. The composite antioxidant preparations proved to exhibit the especially high therapeutic efficacy.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):25-28
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EYE CHANGES IN THE CHILDREN PRESENTING WITH TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS
Mosin I.M., Balayan I.G., Yarkina O.S., Neudakhina E.A., Beslaneeva M.B., Rasulova S.G.
Abstract
The results of ophthalmologic examination of 119 children aged from 6 months to 18 years presenting with tuberous sclerosis are reported. Changes in the eyes were documented in 75.4% of the patients. Astrocytic hamartomas of the retina were found in 53.8% of the children. Punched-out areas of retinal depigmentation were seen in 43% of the patients with tuberous sclerosis compared with 4% healthy children. In the disputable situations, the finding of the depigmented spots can be regarded as a diagnostic criterion suggesting tuberous sclerosis. Abnormal refraction and heterophthalmia were documentd in 58% and 17.3% of the children with tuberous sclerosis respectively. These disorders were responsible for the persistent visual impairement due to visual deprivation. It is concluded that the correction of ametropia and heterophthalmia constitutes an important treatment modality for the rehabilitation of the children presenting with tuberous sclerosis.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):29-32
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RETINAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATION IN GRADE III AND IV RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY
Ryabtsev D.I., Katargina L.A., Kogoleva L.V.
Abstract
The authors report the results of the study of retinal vessels in the patients with grade III and IV cicatrical retinopathy of prematurity with the use of spectral optical coherent tomography. A total of 29 children (40 eyes) at the age varying from 6 months to 12 years with this condition were available for the observation. Seventeen of them (21 eyes) were under the age of 6 years and the remaining 12 ones (19 eyes) were older that that. The spectral optical coherent tomography was employed to estimate the depth distribution and the diameter of the first-order retinal vessels. These vessels were found in the ganglion cell layer only in eight of the 40 (20%) eyes. In 12 (30%) eyes they were localized in the nerve fiber layer and in 20 (50%) ones outside the retina. In other words, "physiological" location of the vessels in the ganglion cell layer was documented only in 20% of cases. The study revealed the relationship between the degree of displacement of the retinal vascular bed and the presence of the extraretinal tissue. Another finding of interest was a tendency toward the thinning of the retina in the eyes with the extraretinal localization of the vessels (p < 0.01). We failed to observe correlation of the gestational age and body weight at the time of birth with the localization of the retinal vessels (p > 0.05). It is concluded that localization of the retinal vessels may be used as a reliable criterion permitting to elucidate preclinical negative dynamics in the patients with cicatrical retinopathy of prematurity. At the same time, it is a risk factor of the development of late complications, such as tractional retinoschisis, retinal detachment and tear. The study revealed a tendency toward decreasing vessel diameter and increasing arteriovenous index. These findings suggest the impaired blood supply to the retinal vasculature in the cases of retinopathy of prematurity compared with the age-matched healthy full-term children. This disorder may be a cause of development of dystrophic processes in the retina.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):32-34
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MELANOCYTIC LESIONS OF THE CONJUNCTIVA IN THE CHILDREN
Saakyan S.V., Ivanova O.A., Zakharova G.P.
Abstract
The tumours of epibulbar localization account for 14.6% of all neoplastic pathology of the organs of vision. Up to 52% of these tumours are conjunctival nevi of which 86% occur in the childhood. The present study is focused on the analysis of the clinical picture of this condition, medical histories, histological findings, and late consequences of pathology based on the results of examination of 478 children.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):35-37
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UP-TO-DATE APPROACHES TO THE CORRECTION OF VISUAL DISORDERS IN THE YOUNG CHILDREN
Saidasheva E.I., Skoromets A.P., Kryukov E.Y., Kotina N.Z.
Abstract
This study was designed to estimate the efficacy of the introduction of peptide drugs, such as cortexin and retinalamin, in the combined treatment of visual impairment of central genesis in the young children. A total of 57 children at the age from 28 days to 1 year presenting with optic nerve atrophy were given combined therapy. The absolute majority of the patients (48.84%) showed positive dynamics of visual disorders and 8 (14%) of them had peripapillary oedema reduced by the above treatment with clear-cut boundaries of the optic disk. The amplitude decreased in 12 (21%) children, the nystagmus disappeared in 3 (5.3%) cases, and squint angle improved in 25 (43.7%) children. None of the patients developed systemic complications (in the form of allergic reactions). On the whole, the study has demonstrated the high efficacy of cortexin and retinalamin for the treatment of visual impairment in young children.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):37-39
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VARIOUS FORMS OF ACCOMMODATION DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH MYOPIA AND THE CRITERIA FOR THEIR DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS
Tarasova N.A.
Abstract
The classification and criteria of differential diagnostics of accommodation disorders are discussed. The definition of accommodation is proposed.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):40-44
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THE NEW METHODS FOR OBJECTIVE ACCOMODOMETRY
Tarutta E.P., Filinova O.B., Tarasova N.A.
Abstract
The new methods for the objective estimation of accommodation parameters with the use of a Grand Seiko WR-5100K binocular "open-field" autorefractometer are presented with special reference to the measurement of the resting tone of accommodation, direct and consensual accommodation, objective reserves and stability of accommodation. The results of the investigations using these methods are presented along with the assessment of their diagnostic value. The data thus obtained extend the possibilities of studying accommodation both for the clinical purposes and for the investigations into pathogenesis of abnormalities of refraction of the eye.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):45-48
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THE SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF MOLECULAR-GENETIC RESEARCH IN OPHTHALMOLOGY
Khlebnikova O.V., Dadali E.L.
Abstract
The results of the investigations into clinical polymorphism and genetic heterogeneity of hereditary eye diseases are presented. The scientific and practical significance of molecular-genetic studies in ophthalmology is discussed.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):48-51
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INVESTIGATIONS INTO DYNAMICS OF THE ACCUMULATION OF PHOTODITASINE GEL IN THE EYE WITH THE USE OF RADIOISOTOPES
Filatova N.V., Sidorenko E.I., Filatov V.V., Karalkin A.V., Ponomarev G.V., Muraviev M.V.
Abstract
The present study on the dynamics of the accumulation of photoditasine gel in the eyeball with the use of radioisotopes was carried out on the in vivo rabbit model. The photoditasine gel labeled with 99Te was administered into the conjunctival sac of the animals, with the time of exposure being 15, 30, and 60 minutes. The maximum accumulated dose amounting to 23 ± 1.0 counts/cell was documented in the experiments with the exposure time of 15 min. Observations of the dynamics in the accumulation of radiolabeled photoditasine within 15 and 30 min after the end of exposure revealed the progressive reduction of its concentration in the eyeballs of all the animals. It is concluded that the highest efficiency of photodynamic therapy appears to be achieved within 15 minutes after the administration of the photosensitizing agent into the conjunctival sac when it is accumulated in the greatest quantity.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):52-53
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THE MEDICAMENTAL TREATMENT OF GLAUCOMA IN THE PATIENTS PRESENTING WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
Alekseev I.B., Shteiner I.I.
Abstract
This review is aimed at the analysis of the literature data concerning the action of pharmaceutical products for the treatment of glaucoma on the respiratory function of the patients presenting with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The beta-adrenergic blocking agents that are at present extensively used to manage hypertension are known to deteriorate the respiratory function not only in the patients with chronic broncho-obstructive pathology but also in the elderly patients having no pulmonary problems in their medical histories. It is concluded that the patients presenting with confirmed or suspected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease should be treated with prostaglandin analogs and local carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):54-58
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CONJUNCTIVAL FIBROSIS (CASE REPORT)
Markova E.Y., Gorbunova E.D., Lobanova I.V., Zakharchenko A.V., Ul’shina L.V.
Abstract
The authors describe a case of conjunctival fibrosis in a child. The diseases was diagnosed at the stage of development of its complications (traumatic keratitis) based on the analysis of the medical history (early-age onset and subsequent progression), clinical observations (bilateral lesions, dendriform pseudomembranes on the tarsal conjunctiva), and histological findings (fibrotic foci with lympho-leukocytic inflammatory infiltration and dysplastic areas in squamous epithelium of the conjunctiva).
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):59-61
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THE EXPERIENCE WITH THE USE OF OFTALMOFERON IN THE CLINICAL PRACTICE OF A PEDIATRIC OPHTHALMOLOGIST
Ryabtseva A.A., Tarannikova S.V.
Abstract
The results of the present study confirm the therapeutic efficacy of oftalmoferon eye drops for the treatment of various clinical forms of ophthalmic herpes in the children.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2012;7(1):62-63
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