Vol 13, No 2 (2018)

Articles
ACHIEVEMENTS OF PEDIATRIC OPHTHALMOLOGY IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION FOR 10 YEARS
Katargina L.A., Arestova N.N., Michaylova L.A.
Abstract
In recent years, there have been significant positive changes in the organization of ophthalmological care for children, formed the legal basis for the provision of medical care to children with ophthalmopathology, increased the availability and quality of medical care, detectability of ophthalmopathology (6%), increased the results of treatment, which reduced the level of primary disability per 10 thousand of the child population in the Russian Federation has declined from 1.4 in 2004. to 0.9 in 2016. Early treatment has helped reduce blindness and low vision in 2.6 times (from 58.4 in 2009 up to 22.7 in 2016). The rapid development of pediatric ophthalmology is due to the introduction of new highly informative objective methods of research, high-tech surgical and laser treatment in the leading ophthalmic centers of Russia: Federal clinical recommendations on diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of children with retinopathy of prematurity (active phase), myopia, congenital cataracts, retinoblastoma, concomitant strabismus, congenital glaucoma, uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, congenital pathology of lacrimal pathways in newborns and children of the first year of life have been developed and put into practice.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2018;13(2):62-66
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СORNEAL BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN AND WAYS OF ITS PREVENTION
Pleskova A.V.
Abstract
The article presents the structure of corneal blindness in children and ways of its prevention. Regional features of childhood blindness according to the epidemiological studies based on socio - economic conditions of society were analyzed. The analysis of the primary childhood disability due to visual disturbances in different regions of Russia, and the causes of corneal blindness in the structure formation of the disability from an early age, according to a clinical unit (Moscow Helmholtz Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Department of Eye Pathology in Children).
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2018;13(2):67-69
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NEW OPPORTUNITIES IN THE REHABILITATION OF CHILDREN WITH CONGENITAL ANOPHTHALMOS AND MICROPHTHALMOS WITH METHOD OF STEP-BY-STEP PROSTHETICS
Filatova I.A.
Abstract
Purpose. to present new opportunities in the rehabilitation of children with congenital anophthalmos and microphthalmos with method of step-by-step prosthetics. Material and methods. the analysis of clinical material for 3 years (2015-2017) on the basis of ocular prosthetics office of Moscow Helmholtz Research Institute of Eye Diseases. The clinical group consisted of 155 children: with congenital anophthalmos - 59 patients and microphthalmos - 96 patients (bilateral microphthalmos (9), bilateral anophthalmos (5)). The age of patients ranged from 1 month to 11 years. Under the age of 1 year, there were 82 children (53%). The identified dynamics in the age category of children significantly increased the number of patients under the age of 1 year who were treated for primary ocular prosthetics (53% for 2015-2017. versus 20.2% for 2000, 2013). Results. all 155 patients were treated for dilatation of the conjunctival cavity by the method of step-by-step eye prosthetics. To step eye prosthesis used set increasing in size retail, which can be varied in 3-4 weeks as stretching of soft tissues. In congenital anophthalmos to achieve stable results were performed from three to 6-7 replacement of the eye prosthesis, in congenital microphthalmos, depending on the size of the eye 4-6 replacement of the eye prosthesis. The volume of eye prosthesis used for 3 years increased by 4-5 times, respectively, noted an increase in the size of the conjunctival cavity, eyelids and the size of the orbit. Conclusion. The possibility of frequent and timely replacement of the medical eye prosthesis ensures the gradual formation of an adequate conjunctival cavity, and, accordingly, the development of bone orbit and eyelids. This treatment tactics promotes both functional and cosmetic rehabilitation of patients of early childhood with congenital anophthalmos and microphthalmos.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2018;13(2):70-75
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THE ROLE OF MONOAMINES IN REGULATION OF ANGIOGENESIS AND PROSPECTS OF THEIR APPLICATION IN RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY
Katargina L.A., Denisova E.V., Osipova N.A., Panova A.Y.
Abstract
Retinopathy of prematurity is the main cause of visual impairment and blindness in infants with low birth weight and preterm gestational age, in spite of the achievements in neonatology and wide applying of diagnostic and treatment guidelines. The pathogenetic role of VEGF is determined in course of normal angiogenesis and in retinopathy of prematurity. Scientists continue the search of another significant vasoprolifirative factors and methods how to inhibit them. This review is devoted to monoamines’ role in angiogenesis. The search for the relevant literature was carried out using the Medline database.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2018;13(2):76-80
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IMPORTANCE OF IMMUNOLOGICAL FACTORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY
Kuznetsova J.D., Balashova L.M., Bykovskaya S.N.
Abstract
Retinopathy of prematurity is one of the most severe multifactorial diseases eye deeply in preterm infants is associated with general and local morfofunkcional’noj immaturity and vazoproliferasion, often leading to blindness and low vision project and progressing during the entire life. Our review article focuses on the role of immunolological factors in the development of retinopathy of prematurity. The data obtained and further research to study the role of immunological parameters in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity and develop, on the basis of this, it caused by correction techniques to prevent the occurrence and progression of the disease remain a burning issue at present.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2018;13(2):81-86
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PATHOLOGY OF THE VITREOUS BODY IN CHILDREN. POSSIBILITIES OF INSTRUMENTAL AND LASER SURGERY
Kalinichenko R.V., Arestova N.N., Egiyan N.S.
Abstract
Despite the rather active use of YAG-laser surgery in adult patients, it is practically not used on children. At the same time, some children have a vitreous pathology what can be operate with laser surgery - changes in the vitreous body can be a manifestation of the congenital persistent fetal vasculature syndrome, retinopathy of prematurity, effects of the injuries, operations and uveitis. The opacites and synechia forming of the vitreous body reduce acuity and often adduce to the traction, which can lead to detachment of the retina, ciliary body, progress of eye subatrophy. The review presents the main pathological conditions of the vitreous body with syndromes, congenital and systemic diseases in children, the possibilities of instrumental and laser vitreal surgery in children. A literature search for the review was conducted using the Medline and RINC database.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2018;13(2):87-98
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DIAGNOSTICS OF STRABISMUS INCOMMITANT
Aklaeva N.A.
Abstract
Strabismus incommitant-complicated kind of oculomotor pathology. Timely detection of signs of strabismus incommitant contributes the choice of the correct optimal treatment tactics, achievement of high functional results and restoration of the lost visual functions. On the ground of long-term working experience in the department of pathology of refraction and binocular vision of The Helmholtz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases were elaborated general diagnostic schemes of the strabismus incommitant for children and for adults, which help to identify features of strabismus and binocular diplopia and also to reveal the affected oculomotor muscle (muscles).
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2018;13(2):99-102
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HEREDITARY MACULAR DYSTROPHIES. PART 1. DYSTROPHIES ASSOCIATED WITH DYSFUNCTION OF RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIAL CELLS
Katargina L.A., Denisova E.V., Osipova N.A.
Abstract
Purpose - to acquaint the reader with a relatively rare heterogeneous group of diseases - hereditary macular dystrophies associated with damage to cells of retinal pigment epithelium and external segments of photoreceptors. А review of the literature based on publications from the Medline scientific medical articles database is presented. The review includes a description of the clinical picture, consideration of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the main juvenile macular dystrophies, illustrated by own clinical examples.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2018;13(2):103-108
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CLINICAL-GENETIC FEATURES OF THE KNOBLOCH SYNDROME IN THE RUSSIAN FAMILY
Khlebnikova O.V., Dadali E.L., Bessonova L.A., Konovalov F.A.
Abstract
The article presents the clinical and genetic characteristics of a patient with Knobloch syndrome caused by the previously indescried combination of mutations in the compound heterozygous state c.4054_4055delCT / c.1469-2A>G in the gene COL18A1. The peculiarity of the presented case is the absence of symptoms of central nervous system damage, found in most patients with this syndrome.
Russian Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2018;13(2):109-112
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