No 4 (2014)

Articles
EFFECT OF PRE-SOWING TREATMENT FOR THE FEED AND ENERGY VALUE OF SOYBEAN CROP
Vasin A.V., Vasin A.V., Ryazanova E.V.
Abstract
The purpose of researches - is to increase productivity and quality of soybean crop due to application of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers and pre-sowing treatment of seeds. Soya is one of the oldest crops in the world. Among plants, rich in protein, prevalence belongs the first place. In soybean production in Europe, Russia takes the second place with acreage 0.7 million, and its productivity remains low of 8.4 kg/ha. In Samara Region about 25 thousand hectares employs under soybean rough calculations showed that for the cultivation of soybeans in rotation region, it is possible to use up to 100 thousand hectares arable land. The results of research in the period from 2005 to 2010 are presented by soybean productivity, crop quality, value agroenergy with pre-sowing treatment and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers application. In two-factor experiment are included: fertilization (factor A) control, making P 60K 60, options for seed treatment (factor B): Rizotorfin (strains 24100); Tenso cocktail (100 g/t) and their combination. It was found that soybean yields depend on the prevailing weather conditions and agricultural practices. Adding phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in favorable years significantly increases the yield. All treatment options increase seed yield. The best option is the combination of Rizotorfin and Tenso-cocktail (2.10 t/ga). This option provides an output feed units 3.66 thousand/ga; digestible protein 734 kg/ga, the exchange energy 30.74 kg/ga and the energy efficiency ratio of 1.95.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):3-6
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INFLUENCE OF GROWTH STIMULATORS FOR CHICKPEA CAPACITY AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MINERAL NUTRITION
Vasin V.G., Makarova E.I., Rakitina V.V.
Abstract
The purpose of the researches - is chickpea productivity due to different pre-treatment methods of seeds and fertilizer on ordinary chernozem soil in the conditions of Middle Volga Region forest-steppe. Chickpea, having a high resistance to drought, pea weevil, adaptability to cleaning, also can significantly stabilize the production of high-protein grain and increase the stability of agroecosystems. The protein content in chickpea seeds varies from 20.1 to 32.4 percent. And chickpea protein has a high content of essential amino acids, especially lysine. The results of chickpea yield productivity and quality for mineral nutrition different levels studies are shown. Into two-factor experiment to study the seed bed different fertilizes methods were included: three background mineral nutrition: without fertilizer (control), calculation of NPK doses and norms for the planned yield of 1.8 and 2.2 t/ha of grain (conditionally background 1, background 2) (factor A); to determine the effectiveness of stimulants : Mival Agro, Megamix, Albite both separately and in conjunction with bacterial drug Rizotorfin (factor B). The maximum yield observed when fertilizer for the planned yield of 2.2 t/ha and joint processing of seeds Rizotorfin and Megamix 2.43 t/ha were found that average for 2012-2013, the yield for the background 2 is significantly higher than the background 1 and the control.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):7-10
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IMPROVEMENT OF MELILOTUS ALBUS MEDIK CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY IN NON-IRRIGATED CONDITIONS OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
Kazarin V.F., Kazarina A.V.
Abstract
The purpose of researches - is the optimization of Donnyk annual white (Melilotus albus Medik) cultivation basic technological methods in rainfed conditions of the Middle Volga Region. The results of white melilot annual agrocetnoz of drought resistance evaluation are adduced. Thus, white melilot annual common biological features as a crop with moderate requirements to moisture, its varieties can differ substantially in adaptability to drought. This crop has valuable next genetically determined adaptive morphological and physiological characteristics associated both with the ability to make fuller soil moisture reserves using by means of more vigorous root system and its ability to reduce evaporation. Thus, the accumulated scientific potential and best practices of melilotus albus medik cultivation in non-irrigated chernozem steppe zone of the Middle Volga Region allows us to conclude that melilotus albus medik is fairly drought resistant and reliable crop for its cultivation in the cereal field rotations in the region. This paper proposes the set of cultural practices enable to get guaranteed seed yield at least 0.5 t/ga under dry conditions. These include - accommodation clover crops after winter harvesting using the main improved plowed fields processing type; minimizing spring tillage both their number and the depth of treated layer, use for sowing crop varieties that differ in length of vegetation ; maneuvering of clover sowing terms in the fields from early to late optimally within reasonable period; creation of fine lumpy soil surface by row treatments during crops maintenance; purity crops from weeds maintaining by means of efficient agricultural methods and herbicides. Such agricomplex best accumulation focus, saving and most economical use of natural water resources - the basis of consistently high yields both green mass and melilotus albus medik seed in non-irrigated conditions of the Middle Volga Region.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):10-15
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FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY AND AGROENERGY EFFICIENCY OF PEAS CULTIVATION BY SEED TREATMENT DIFFERENT PRE-SOWING TECHNIQUES
Vasin A.V.
Abstract
The purpose of researches - is to evaluate the productivity and quality of peas on different levels in feed crop rotation mineral nutrition with busy fallow and green manure on grain with seeds pre-sowing treatment by Rizotorfin, Tenso-cocktail and both of them. In the Russian Federation pea is the main pulse crop. It occupies about 80% of produced grain legumes. Pea seeds contain average about 26% protein substances. The results of surveys measuring the productivity and quality of peas on different levels in feed crop rotation mineral nutrition with busy fallow and green manure on grain with seeds pre-sowing treatment by Rizotorfin, Tenso-cocktail and both of them are presented. In three-factor experiment with placing third pea crop in the rotation studied the influence of the aftereffect of the employed and green manure couple (factor A) fertilizing the planned yield of 2.2 t/ha (pattern I) and 2.6 t/ha (pattern II) (factor B), and seed treatment agents (factor C). Investigations revealed that the cultivation of peas flagship 9-link rotation with green manure and busy fallow in the application of pre-treatment of seeds and fertilizer application on the planned yield of 2.2 and 2.6 t/ha provides productivity with the implementation of the program to 102.3 and 103.6% on the first level and 93.5 and 99.2% on the second level, the high quality of the collection crop digestible protein 0.46-0.47 t/ha and it is energetically justified energy efficiency ratio of 1.26-1.31.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):15-19
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PROCESSING METHODS AND EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATION ARTEMISIA DRACUNCULUS L. IN THE KALMYKIA
Dridiger V.K., Yanov V.I.
Abstract
The purpose of researches - is improving cultivation technology for new southern Russia arid zone fodder crop - Artemisia Dracunculus L. Long-term studies found that Artemisia Dracunculus L. 8 species, white, black, lemon, pine, saline, Austrian and bitter highest productivity for the dry matter collection, gross energy and crude protein in the Artemisia Dracunculus L., which can be cultivated as a long-term (17 years) grazing crop. Artemisia Dracunculus L. is readily eaten by cattle all year round, while bitter, pine, lemon and tarragon Austrian is eaten by only 5-8%, or not eaten at all. We tarragon also the highest bioenergy and economic efficiency of pasture forage, which makes it a very promising forage crop for arid zones of southern Russia. Application of Artemisia Dracunculus L. cultivation technology optimal primary tillage methods, terms and methods of planting, making the hydrogel and rotted manure significantly increase bioenergy and crop production efficiency. Thus, when using plowing profitability was 77.1%, which is 63.4% higher (5.6 times) compared to the surface soil treatment disc tools, and the introduction of joint 120 t/ha rotted manure and 600 kg/hа hydrogel increases the mass of profit from 1 hectare compared to the control (no manure and hydrogel) from 2035 to 5623 rubles, or 2.7 times.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):19-23
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THE INFLUENCE OF THE SOIL PROCESSING MINIMIZATION FOR THE SUGAR BEET HARVEST FORMATION
Butyaikin V.V.
Abstract
The purpose of the researches - is increasing the productivity of sugar beet by minimizing basic treatment of soil and mineral fertilizers, or send your option. Two-factor field experiment was carried out in 2007-2009 on 4-field grainrestplown crop rotation in the Republic of Mordovia for beet (the variety Crocodile). As a first studied factor moldboard processing was used (to depth of 20-22 cm with plow coulter Euro Diamond-2), the surface (to depth of 8-10 cm BDT-4, with harrow Rubin) and zero processing (the direct seeding drill «Monopil», and as a second factor different doses of mineral Fertilizers were applied: 1 - no fertilizer (control); 2 - N 128Р 128К 128; 3 - N 150Р 150К 150. Winter wheat was the predecessor. Тhe results of the research show that the area of leaf surface was the largest when the dose in plants grown on the variant with moldboard processing and was averaged in three years 39,42 thousand. m 2/ha, higher than on the surface and zero processing on 6.28 and 12.79 thousand m 2/ha respectively. The Minimization of soil N 150Р 150К 150 was given. The cultivation reduced the value of the photosynthetic potential of the plant for 24-33%. The highest yield - 55.9 t/ha during average for three years was obtained with moldboard processing for dose N 128Р 128К 128; 3 - N 150Р 150К 150. The lowest accumulation of sugar (12.3%) is observed in zero processing. Surface and zero soil processing have greater influence for the accumulation of phosphorus and potassium in the 0-10 cm layer. Moldboard processing contributed to increase 10-20 cm in the plowing layer.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):23-27
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WINTER WHEAT MINERAL NUTRITION PRECISION BY FARMING TECHNOLOGY
Gorjanin O.I., Chichkin A.P., Dzhangabaev B.Z.
Abstract
The purpose of researches - is to optimize winter wheat precision mineral nutrition of agriculture cultivation elements development in the conditions of Samara Region. The researches were conducted by the experimental plot of agriculture and new technologies and Samara Agricultural Research Institute in conjunction with the «Agrochemical Service Station» Samara». Weather conditions during the research were dry in 2009-2010 in spring-summer sowing (hydrothermal coefficient May-June - 0.13-0.45). In autumn 2010, winter due to insufficient wetting of the soil seed growing season ended by germ phase. Conducted during the first phase justify the concept of precision-ground Delia agrochemical analysis of soil samples mixed landfill showed that each field is characterized by number of properties significantly different from each other. Lower variability of mobile phosphates different-containing soil - 160±15 mg/kg soil, the greatest - humus content (4.2±0.1-0.9%). The micro-elements of the soil is characterized by the lowest security copper contents - 0.08 mg/kg and zinc - 0.63 mg/kg. Based on soils developed electronic cartograms data and nutrients field test site were carried digitizing, defined standards change and alignment parameters of soil fertility in the cultivation of winter wheat. On ordinary humus with the 77.78-134.45 mg/kg soil nitrate content, 128-148 mg/kg of mobile phosphates, 141-172 mg/kg of exchangeable potassium, the formation yields of winter wheat at 3.0-3.5 t/ha provides the introduction of mineral fertilizers starting doses (35-40 kg/ha of nutrient nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). In this case, the protein content of wheat grain was as follows: 13.8% without fertilizer, making the calculated doses of fertilizers - 14.6-14.8-15.2%. The use of fertilizers for winter wheat yield 3.0-3.5 t/ha promotes the highest paying nutrient fertilizers and crop-payback additional enforcement costs for planned cultivation of winter wheat crops in the Samara Zavolzhie.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):27-31
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VIGNA RADIATA SAMPLES TEST IN THE MIDDLE VOLGA CONTINENTAL ENVIRONMENTS
Kurianovich A.A., Kazarina A.V.
Abstract
The purpose of researches - is theoretical and practical justification of mash bean’s introduction in ecological conditions of the Middle Volga. This culture is versatile in use: as food, feed, green manure and medicine. The seeds are used in food as cereals, green beans and etiolated shoots - as vegetables, green herbage is dried, ensiled and plowed into the ground (green manure), straw and chaff are fed to the cattle. Average harvest of the gain is 10-16 hwt per 1 hectare, green mass - up to 200 hwt per 1 hectare. Mung beans and its products are well assimilated by human organism. When Vigna radiata L. (R) Wilczek is used to eat almost not observed meteorism. Starch from mash has low glycemic index. That is especially important for people with diabetes. This high-protein culture contains all the essential amino acids in sufficient quantities. It also has B group vitamins, PP vitamin (nicotinic acid), C vitamin (ascorbic acid) and other important organic and mineral nutrients. This is a valuable crop for the available diet food. 60 Vigna radiata L samples have been examined represented by the collection of Russian Crop Science Institute. According to the methodological instructions of this Institute, characteristics of the clones within the specific climatic conditions, their drought tolerance and productivity were grown and developed. The year of the study is considered as extreme draught conditions for crops, resulted in obtaining much more adequate and numerous Vigna radiata L specifications within described climatic environment and soil moisture less. Thus with a potential yield of 8-19 dt/ha (hundreds kilograms per hectare) with a satisfactory weight of 1000 seeds and the length of the growing period 70-110 days. These samples к-12208 (India), к-617558 (China), к-617653 (China), к-617654 (China), к-617566 (China), к-617578 (China), к-617582 (China), к-617584 (China) able to adapt to weather and climatic conditions of the region, can be considered as the initial base for the selection within the Middle Volga Area.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):32-35
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PERFORMANCE AND TECHNOLOGY QUALITIES OF THE SUGAR BEET ROOT CROPS WHILE USING NITROGENOUS FERTILIZERS IN DIFFERENT DOSES
Islamgulov D.R.
Abstract
The purpose of researches - is productivity and technological quality of sugar beet roots increase increasing. The article presents the results of research productivity and technological qualities of sugar beet. Studies were carried out in the conditions of Republic of Bashkortostan southern steppe 5 deposit options were investigated before sowing nitrogen fertilizer (ammonium nitrate) in varying doses: 1) N 40 (control); 2) N 80; 3) N 120; 4) N 160; 5) N 240. In order to establish of sugar beet patterns technological qualities change under nitrogen fertilization in different doses, the basic parameters of sugar beet technological quality (sugar content in the roots, potassium, sodium, ά-amino nitrogen, refined sugar) were determined. Studies have shown that with nitrogen doses increasing, the yield of sugar beet growing. Yield of sugar beet at the maximum dose of nitrogen (N240) was significantly higher than in the other embodiments. Unlike yield, sugar content and sugar content of the purified is inversely related to the dose of the nitrogen fertilizers that with nitrogen doses increasing decreases their value. With nitrogen doses increasing the content of potassium, sodium and ά amino nitrogen in the roots are increased. Standard sugar losses in molasses also increased with fertilizer nitrogen doses increasing, mainly due to the high content of potassium and άamino nitrogen. In the course of studies the molassigenic matters variability degree were found. For sugar beet with low molassigenic matters leached southern forest Bashkortostan chernozems were recommended with optimum dose of nitrogen fertilizer 160 kg/ha, the dependence on technological qualities of roots for nitrogen fertilizer dose. The usefulness of gross yield refined sugar in assessing the productivity of sugar beet hybrids were proved.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):35-39
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ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF NITROGEN FERTILIZERS APPLICATION IN PEA AND BARLEY MIXTURE CULTIVATION DUE TO GRAIN IN URAL REGION
Eliseev S.L., Renev E.A., Reneva Y.A.
Abstract
The purpose of the researches - is the technology of nitrogen fertilizers application in pea-barley mixture cultivation due to grain in the Ural region improving. Different ratios of the components at sowing, methods and doses of nitrogen under pea and barley agrophytocenosis to obtain the yield no more than 4 tn/ha in the Ural region in years with unfavorable conditions for moisture grain-legume crops was studied. In the sub-padzolic highly enriched with phosphorus and potassium soil the highest yield of 5.36 tn/ha pea and barley agrophytocenosis is formed at the mixture ratio of 12.5+87.5% with nitrogen at 60 kg/ha before the presowing cultivation. Between the studied methods nitrogen fertilizer significant difference was identified. The increase of the yield of pea and barley agrophytocenosis with 3.34 tn/ha in the version without applying nitrogen to 4.58 tn/ha at 60 kg/ha was observed with increasing dose of nitrogen. Depending on the mixing ratio of nitrogen at planting dose should be differentiated. Mixture with a higher seeding rate of barley 12.5+87.5% responded positively to the dose of nitrogen 60 kg/ha, with a ratio of peas and barley at sowing 25+75% nitrogen, the optimal dose was 45 kg/ha at sowing and before making the root and 30 kg/ha for foliar application. The economic efficiency of the studied methods and nitrogen fertilizer doses at cultivation of pea and barley mixture of grain was determined. The maximum net income obtained by the ratio of the components of 12.5+78.5% with nitrogen under before sowing cultivation in the dose of 60 kg/ha - 11852 rub./ha.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):39-43
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PLANTS DEVELOPMENT AND VERMIN AND ILLNESSES STABILITY OF SPRING RAPE VARIETIES
Tul’kubaeva S.A., Vasin V.G.
Abstract
The purpose of researches - is collection material assessment to the most flexible and resistant highlight to adverse conditions of Northern Kazakhstan rape varieties. Varieties of spring rapeseed selection of the All-Russian Research and Development and Rape Design-technological Institute, All-Russia Research Institute of Oil Crops, Siberian Experimental Station of All-Russia Research Institute of Oil Crops, Kazakh and German selection are presented. Anniversary variety is adapted as a standard. The replication of experience is fourfould, the location of the plots is consistent, the accounting area of ​​the plot - 24 m 2. During the growing season of 2009-2010 varieties of spring rapeseed lodging practically is not subjected. In the conditions of atypical vegetative period 2011 y. (precipitation of the vegetation period is 127% of the long-term norm) the row of spring rapeseed varieties largely undergone lodging - Rubezh, Forum - on 5 points; Ratnik - 4 points; Lipetsk, Fregat, Lira, Madrigal, KSI Galant 15, K-121 - 3 points; Hunter - 2 points. On the speed of ripening most high middle point - 5 showed varieties of Rubezh, Accord, Lizora, Highlight. Anniversary variety is ripened unevenly - 3 points. The varieties of Lizora, Lira, D 01/08 RAS during 2009-2011 were distinguished simultaneous passage of the phases development and good uniformity. Spending the annually monitoring of the affection rape parasitic organisms has revealed presence of following vermins - crucifer flea, cabbage moth, bug crucifer, cruciferous aphids, rape beetle, beetle and sawfly, in excess of economic threshold which applied insecticide spraying. The most harmful are cruciferous flea beetles (need for insecticidal treatments - from two to four times). The variety of Lira characterized by the minimum damageability cruciferous flea beetles. On the average for the years of research maximum length of the vegetation period in the varieties of Ratnik and Forum - on 106 days. The most early variety of Highlight - 99 days; K-121, Lizora, KSI Galant 15 - 100-101 days.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):43-48
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NUMBERITY AND HARMFULNESS OF HAPLOTHRIPS TRITICI IN THE WINTER WHEAT ZAVOLZHIE FOREST-STEPPE CROP
Zhichkina L.N.
Abstract
The purpose of researches - is to identify and determine the wheat thrips harmfulnes population dynamics in winter wheat. Among the sucking insect pests complex the wheat thrips ( Haplothrips tritici Ed.) is the most widespread and numerous. It is found everywhere, where wheat is cultivated , but the most damage is reported in the forest-steppe and steppe zones. The studies were conducted in 2011-2012. Kinel Area in Samara Region. The object of study is Haplothrips tritici , the subject of study is Povolzhskaya 86 winter wheat varieties. The greatest number of old wheat thrips during the study notes at the flowering stage in 2011, it amounted to 415.0 in 2012 - 433.0 ins./100 sweeps butterfly net, respectively. In earing phase female pest start oviposition. The number of eggs on average in 2011 was 43.5 ins./colossus, in 2012 - 20.9 ins./colossus. A week later, hatching larvae begins. In 2011, the number of larvae 1 and 2 age ranged from 7.0 to 70.5 ins./colossus, in 2012, from 15.8 to 41.5 ins./colossus. Damaged grains of wheat thrips in 2011 was 45.5%, in 2012 - 51.4%. Damaged Haplothrips tritici seeds crop quality was reduced, and seeds, damaged to lesser degree the germination is reduced by 41.8%, laboratory germination by 12.0%; damaged in the average degree of 47.3 and 29.0%; damaged to great extent by 60.0 and 37.0%, respectively.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):48-51
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RUSSIAN SELECTION OILSEED FLAX VARIETIES RESEARCHES IN NORTHERN KAZAKHSTAN
Tul’kubaeva S.A., Vasin V.G.
Abstract
The purpose of researches - is the creation of new oilseed flax, more productive, high oil yielded, early maturing, resistant to diseases and pests, adapted to adverse soil and climatic conditions to Northern Kazakhsta. Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) due to their high adaptive properties can grow in geographical, soil and climatic conditions variety. The gene pool of the Linum usitatissimum L. world collection is a source of valuable morphological, biological and agronomic traits. The degree of knowledge largely determines the success of selecting. During the ecological strain testing experiment, 10 varieties of All-Russia Research Institute, of Oil Crops and Siberian Experimental Station of All-Russia Research Institute selection of oil flax were studied. Kustanaisky Yantar variety was adapted as standar. The replication of experience is fourfould, the method of comparison. The area of ​​the plot - 40 m 2. The seeding rate of 7 million seeds/ha. On average for the 2009-2011 period most oilseed flax early varieties is Rucheek, Bizon, VNIIMK - 72 days. The highest varieties are Severny - 69 cm, Linol - 67 cm. The optimal crop structure indexes were noted for Severny (number of one plant boxes - 69, number of seed in box - 10, mass of 1000 seed - 7.3 g) and the Legur (number of one plant boxes - 79, number of seed in box - 9, mass of 1000 seed - 6.4 g). Bison oilseed flax has the highest productivity, higher standard, varieties formed (yield - 23.7 c/ha, oil - 40.3%), Rucheek (yield - 21.6 c/ha, oil - 44.7%), Severny (yield - 20.8 c/ha, oil - 44.4%).
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):51-56
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BARLEY SEEDS PRODUCTIVITY AND SOWING QUALITIES BY CROP PROTECTION AGAINST WEEDS
Kochelyaev V.V., Karpova L.V., Kochelaeva I.P.
Abstract
The purpose of researches - is to justify an optimal protection against weeds, high-yield seeds with high sowing qualities. The plots location in the experience with systematic is triplicate. We studied the formation of barley seeds harvest and sowing qualities in the plant herbicides processing (Eraser extra graminicide + Ballerina) using micro - antidotes: Eleplant, Parafilm. Sowing material is Syrsky Favorite spring barley variety. The effectiveness of barley protection from weeds were characterized by their biological effectiveness, which options experience average years of research was within 59-95%. The chlorophyll concentration in the leaves at reference sites and for different versions characterizes the condition of the plants through which it is possible to ascertain the presence of stress in them. The minimum value of chlorophyll concentration i n the leaves marked on the 4th day after treatment of crops with herbicides (srvc. units) - 220-310, maximum - 12-days - 542-610 that corresponded with those of the reference plant. The maximum grain yield (4.0 t/ha) was obtained in the variant where the crops were treated tank mixtures Eraser extra (0.5 l/ha) + Ballerina (0.4 l/ha). When using the Eraser extra clean and tank mixture with the herbicide Ballerina with half rate and adding antidotes (microfertilizers Eleplant and Parafilm) the yield was lower. Laboratory germination of seeds grown in different crop protection from weeds, 3-year average was 93.9-95.1% and germination was 86.7-91.2%. It is established that for more complete suppression of the weed species composition of the barley should be treated tank mixtures Eraser extra (0.5 l/ha) + Ballerina (0.4 l/ha). The use of plant protection products in the recommended application rates in the range of conventional technology to form high yields of seeds with high sowing qualities.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):56-60
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ORGANIC ADDITIVES INFLUENCE FOR THE YIELD AND MORPHOLOGICAL QUALITY OF AGARIKUS BISPORUS
Dulov M.I., Alexandrova E.G.
Abstract
The purpose of researches is determination of organic Doba vegetable and animal origin using possibility, as the main component of subjets, to improve productivity and quality of Cultivated Mushrooms. The Exploration for studing the effect of organic additives and methods for Cultivated Mushrooms efficiensy were conducted in 2012-2013 at the Department of «Tech-nology and production expertise of herbal products» in Samara SAA technological faculty. The authors have revealed the influence of organic nitrogen-containing additives application type and method for the yield and morphology-ronmental quality indicators Cultivated Mushrooms. Presented in this paper data allow to make informed conclusions about Cultivated Mushrooms growing on synthetic substrate, prepared in winter, the highest mushrooms yield per fruiting period is provided by the introduction of organic additives as 3.0% by weight of the brewers' grains, either during the laying of the substrate, as well as during the first re-mixing (on the 7th day after laying) or casing soil. On these options of mushrooms yield per fruiting period from the substrate with thickness of 15 cm, constitutes 11.2-13.6 kg/m². Application of the substrate prepared in summer time, allows to receive at least 2 Cultivated Mushrooms harvest. When using 3.0% beer pellet during bookmarks substrate for two fruiting time fungi yield from 1 m 2 of substrate thickness of 15 cm is average of 21.6 kg at the first substrate stirring - 20.6 kg, while the second variable - 16.0 kg, when incorporated in coating can be obtained with the soil of 1 m² is not less than 19.0 kg. Mushrooms are grown on synthetic substrate, by method is applicable for all-of brewers' grains, have an attractive appearance, dense texture, the height of the cap at 9.1-13.5 mm, thicker, resilient, void-free base.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):61-65
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THE INFLUENCE OF THE STORAGE CONDITIONS AND DURATION FOR THE WHEAT FLOUR QUALITY
Zhuravlev A.P.
Abstract
The reseach purpose - is the premium wheat flour quality prolonging during its storaging. Wheat flour weighing 18 kg was divided into three parts (on 6 kg). Each part was packaged on 12 samples on 0.5 kg. One part of flour (12 samples) was stored in paper packages at temperature of 20-22°C, the second part (12 samples) - in paper packages at temperature of 5-8°C, the third part (12 samples) was packaged in plastic bags and was stored without air access at temperature of 20-22°C. Duration of flour storage in all three options made 1, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 months. On the expiration of each storage period were opened on one sample of flour in all three options of storage way and indicators of flour quality - organoleptic indicators, humidity, quantity and quality of gluten, acidity, number of falling and water absorbing ability were defined. Color, smell, taste of flour, falling number, water absorbing ability in the course of storage without air access at temperature of 20-22°C, in a paper package at temperature of 5-8°C in 24 months storage wasnt change. At flour storage in a paper package at temperature of 20-22°C the smell of flour was changed (smell of the spoiled fat), taste of flour was changed and became bitterish at storage more than 16 months. Acidity of flour wasn't change at storage without air access till 7.5 months, in a paper package at temperature of 20-22ºС - till 6 months, in a paper package at temperature of 5-8ºС - 12 months. At flour storage in a paper package at temperature of 20-22ºС there was gluten strengthening, after 6 months of storage the gluten became crumbling. It is offered for long storage of premium wheat flour should be used by low temperatures 5-8ºС.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):65-70
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EXTRUDATES FROM VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS WITH A HIGH CONTENT OF LIPIDS
Kurochkin A.A., Shaburova G.V., Frolov D.I., Voronina P.K.
Abstract
The purpose of researches is identifiing and assessing the various factors impact of the herbal extrusion process with high content of lipids for the quality of the extrudates. Experimental studies were performed using a single-screw extruder, additionally equipped with a vacuum chamber and the rotary valve. As object of research were selected seeds, milk Thistle and grain of wheat units which have extrudible within 15-20 s temperature 100-105°C with the last criterion impact on emerging from the die matrix extruder raw material reduced pressure of equal to 0,05 MPa. Speed screw extruder was 7.5 s -1, the diameter of the extruder die matrix - 4 mm. The experiment was performed in triplicate. Statistical analysis of experimental data, performed with the help of regression analysis in Microsoft Excel environment of 2010 and Statistica 10, allowed to obtain mathematical model of the second order, adequately describe the dependence of the extrudates (coefficient explosion) index expansion by the investigated factors. Analysis of the resulting model suggests that the magnitude of the extrudates (coefficient explosion) index expansion is significantly influenced by the content of Thistle seeds in the extrudable mixture to the decrease in milk Thistle in the mixture to 10-15%, it increases to 4.5 to 5.0. By increasing the moisture content of the extruded thistle coefficient explosion also increases, making its optimum value in the humidity range 16-26% of the processed raw material. In this humidity wheat in terms of the resulting extrudate optimal quality range 10-18%. Experimental studies show very important in practical terms, regularity at the same moisture content of milk thistle and wheat and, especially at the higher moisture content of wheat than the thistle, the process of extruding the mixture deteriorates. To obtain the extrudate Thistle with an acceptable coefficient of explosion (3.5-4.0) as filler, you can use wheat with moisture content of 14-15% and 75-80% of the extrudable mass. In this humidity extrudable thistle, is within 22-24%.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):70-74
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IMPROVING THE TECHNOLOGY OF WAFER PRODUCTS USING PUMPKIN POWDER
Bochkareva Z.А.
Abstract
The purpose of research was to improve the technology of wafer products with product processing pumpkin - pumpkin powder. The article shows the possibility of enriching and extending the range of wafer products by adding pumpkin powder into waffle cake mix. The research was based on semi-finished goods - waffle dough and baked wafer sheets. Investigated the chemical composition of the powder of gourd, obtained in experimental drying plant with a perforated drum, adjustable infrared heater and a fan for forced movement of the carrier and further grinding. In the model formulation batter was added the powder of pumpkin pulp in an amount of 3; 5; 10% of the weight of the flour with a decrease in dosage of flour and conducted experimental laboratory baking. Our results demonstrated that the mass fraction of moisture in the batter is in the normalized range, but with increasing amounts of pumpkin powder batter humidity decreases. Investigation of the effect of the amount of added powder pumpkin on the dynamic viscosity the dough during its consumption showed an increase in viscosity with an increase in the amount of powder pumpkin and discharge time. In the baked semi-finished product moisture mass fraction and sensory characteristics of the samples with 3 and 5% of the powder is in the range of values ​​adopted in the standardization of the quality of semi-finished products made ​​of dough. When adding pumpkin powder in an amount of 10% by weight of the flour organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters deviate significantly from the range of values taken in the standardization of the quality of semi-finished products made of dough. The developed wafer semifinished product advantageously differs from the control sample due to wide variety of minerals such as potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine, and elevated level of β-carotene.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):74-79
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PROSPECTS FOR THE EXTRUDED BUCKWHEAT USE IN BREWING AND BREAD BAKING
Shaburova G.V., Voronina P.K., Kurochkin A.A., Frolov D.I.
Abstract
The purpose of researches - is the possibility and the feasibility of the application extruded product of buckwheat in the technology of beer and beer beverages, as well as in the production of bakery and pastry goods. To achieve the objective of the study the chemical composition of extruded whole grain, buckwheat, obtained with special technology that is protected by the RF patent on ISO-bretenie, as compared to the chemical composition of the native grain of buckwheat, barley and malt, was applied in brewing, as well as in comparison with the flour wheaten of first grade, used for the production of bakery products. A destruction of the buckwheat extruded polymers (starch and crude protein) that are important for the formation of quality Pee and beer beverages as well as lipids. In addition, investigated the functional and technological properties of buckwheat extruded, which determine the appropriateness of the use of non-traditional commodities into technology bakery and pastry. Definition of the indicators were the ŝeprinâtymi methods. Discusses the prospects of using buckwheat extruded articles with a view to the creation of new types of beer and beer beverages and intensification of biotechnological processes during their manufacture. Reasonable prospects of buckwheat extruded technology of bakery and pastry goods, as an integrated refinery, would enable increase the biological value of goods of mass demand.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):79-83
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THE INFLUENCE OF JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE POWDER FOR THE QUALITY OF THE HIGHEST GRADE BREAD FLOUR
Zhuravlev A.P., Ladina S.V.
Abstract
The purpose of researches was to identify the impact of the Jerusalem artichoke powder for the quality of bread made from the highest grade flour. Inulin and pectin contained in the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke, is removed from the body of the person heavy metals salts, poisons, radio-nuclides, cholesterol of high density. The person receiving with Jerusalem artichoke complex of biologically active substances, becomes resistant to stress and disease. The most convenient products for the correction of power are bread-baking products. The influence of Jerusalem artichoke powder for organoleptic and Physics-chemical quality parameters of bread from the highest grade flour are shown. The technology of production from the highest grade flour bread with the use of Jerusalem artichoke powder is developed. Laboratory bread baking was conducted at about-marinate the control sample bread method obtained without adding Jerusalem artichoke powder, and the experimental samples with the addition of 1, 2, 3, 4% Jerusalem artichoke powder with decreasing flour in experiments on the appropriate percentage of the Jerusalem artichoke The certain samples of bread were investigated by physical-chemical and organoleptical quality. The volumetric output of the control bread sample was 375 cm 3/100 g, adding up to 3% of Jerusalem artichoke - 370-375 cm 3/100 g, adding 4% powder of Jerusalem artichoke - 360 cm 3/100 g. The influence of Jerusalem artichoke powder for baking and shrinkage of bread is not detected. Total average ball score control sample of bread is equal to 4.8 points. The sample of bread prepared with addition of Jerusalem artichoke powder by in the amount of 1.0%, meets the average point estimate of 4.8%. The addition of 1.0% of Jerusalem artichoke powder has not changed color cover (light brown), color cover remained the same as in the control sample. The increasing Jerusalem artichoke powder to 2.0 and 3.0%, is affected to the color of the peel. It was brown, which is priced five-point grading scale assessment. The highest score is assessed bread with the addition of Jerusalem artichoke powder in the amount of 2.0 and 3.0 per cent for the shape of the product, surface and color, color and condition of the crumb, taste and smell. Total average ball assessment of these options amounted to 5 points. Adding the powder of Jerusalem artichoke in the amount of 4% has changed the surface of the cover (smooth) - 4 points, the taste and smell of steel with the scent of Jerusalem artichoke - 4 points. Total average points score with the addition of Jerusalem artichoke powder in the amount of 4% is equal to 4.5 points. Making Jerusalem artichoke powder in the amount of 3% does is not impair the physics-chemical and organoleptic characteristics as indicators of bread quality.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):83-87
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INFLUENCE OF IODINE-CONTAINING RAW MATERIALS AND ADDITIVES FOR THE QUALITY OF BREAD MADE FROM RYE FLOUR
Krutyaeva E.V.
Abstract
The purpose of researches - is to justify the introduction of iodine-containing raw materials various types and additives in formated bread products. The flour quality was determined by the physics-chemical and organoleptic characteristics, according to SEST Р 52809-2007. As the iodine-containing raw materials and additives were used: additive iodinated casein, iodinated proteins «Ioddar», detergent kelp and iodized salt. In our experiments we used the no-time dough method of preparation of test liquid leaven, provide for kneading the entire amount of flour, water, salt, yeast, and iodized raw materials according to the recipe. Baking was carried out at temperature of 200-220 0C for 35 minutes. Cooling of bread carried out in natural conditions within 8 to 12 hours. A pilot batch of bread was made in the laboratory of the department «Production technology and expertise herbal products» of Technology Department of Samara State Agricultural Academy. Determination of iodine conducted titrimetric method ( MUK 4.1.1106-02 «Determination of the mass fraction of iodine in food and raw materials titrimetric method» approved by Chief state sanitary doctor of the Russian Federation of 14 February 2002) after kneading, after proofing, after baking, after 24 and 48 h after baking. The method of determining the mass fraction of iodine based on the removal of organic substances, extraction of iodide oxidation from iodide to Iodate and the release of free iodine, which titrimated by acid sodium and consumption which count the iodine content in the sample of the investigated product. The results of the study revealed that the minimum iodine content is observed in the sample with the addition of iodized salt.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):87-90
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PECTIN RAW MATERIALS INFLUENCE FOR THE QUALITY OF BREAD FROM WHEAT FLOUR
Romadina Y.A.
Abstract
The purpose of researches - is improving the quality of bread from white flour with pectin material. The studies were conducted at the Department «Technology of production and examination of herbal products» Technology Faculty Samara SAA. The object of study is bread of white flour, as a raw material used in the dry pectin extracts from lemon, pumpkin and apple in an amount of 3; 5; 7% by weight of the flour. In the experiments we used a method of straight preparing method, water temperature was 35 0C kneading, kneading was carried out in a mechanized way. Baking was carried out at a temperature 220-240 0С for 5 minutes. According to the study established the optimal number of making pectin contained in extracts from lemons and apples - 3% to the flour weight. The highest average score organoleptic quality was observed in bread making 3% pomace of lemon and apples - 4.9 and 4.7 points. Surface smooth crust of bread, crumb color white, porosity, fine, delicate, uniform, pleasant taste. Volumetric yield of bread with lemon and apple pomace was 350 and 360 cm 3, respectively. At the higher swelling ratio (456.1%), we can conclude that the bread with pectin contained in apple pomace (3%) stale bread slowly without pectin, which is extremely important to increase the shelf life of bakery products. Bread with pectin contained in extracts from pumpkin 3; 5 and 7%, has a specific taste, so it is recommended not for the industrial scale, and mini bakeries.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):90-93
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MALTOSE MOLASSES INFLUENCE FOR THE QUALITY OF BREAD FROM HIGHER BAKERY WHEAT FLOUR AND FIRST GRADE MIXTUR
Alekseeva M.M., Pashkovа E.Y.
Abstract
The purpose of researches - is the quality of bread made from higher quality wheat flour and first grade mixture improving by the expense of making the dough syrup maltose. These studies were carried out at the Department « Technology of production and examination of herbal products». The maltose syrup is used to improve many sorts of bread like rye and wheat flour, and mixtures thereof. The average score for the quality of the bread without making molasses maltose was 3.6 points, with the introduction of 1% molasses - 3.3 points, bread with 2% molasses - 3.6 points, bread with 3% molasses - 3.9 points, bread with 4% molasses - 4.0 score the bread with 5% molasses - 4.1 points, bread with 6% molasses - 4.0; bread with 7% molas- ses - 4.0. Volume of the bread from 100 g flour with increasing doses of molasses was changed and was equal in the variant without making molasses 300 cm 3, in the variants with 3%, 6% and 7% molasses volume was 300 cm 3, in the variant with 1% molasses - 305 cm 3, 2% molasses - 310 cm 3, with the introduction of 4% molasses happened bread volume - 295 cm 3, with 5% molasses bread was a volume of 350 cm 3. Baked bread from higher quality wheat flour and first grade mixture with the introduction of molasses, maltose correspond to the indicators GOST R 27842-88 «Bread from wheat flour. Technical conditions». After analyzing the data it can be noted that the best options from all studied is the bread from the flour (mixture of first and higher grades) with maltose molasses in an amount of 5%.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):93-96
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COMPLEX ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY AND COMPETITIVENESS OF MILLET GRAIN
Volkova A.V.
Abstract
The purpose of researches is complex assessment of different grades millet grain quality and determine the level of its competitiveness for increase in gross collecting the grain meeting the requirements of the cereal industry. Object of researches was grades of Saratov-6 millet, the Peasant, Kinelskoye-92 and Zaryana. On average from 1999 to 2008 the greatest grain yield was received for millet of Zaryanа grade and made 2.60 t with 1 hectare that is 0,23 t/hectare more, than at Saratov-6, taken for control. Results of complex assessment and calculation of competitiveness showed that for the enterprises - producers of millet grain the most competitive are Zaryan's grades and Kinelskoye-92 as they differ in the greatest productivity of grain. The Peasant grade is less competitive as at high quality of grain nevertheless concedes to them on productivity. Calculation relative and integrated the indicators of quality considered by krupozavoda showed that grain of millet of grades the Peasant, Kinelskoye-92 and Zaryana surpasses in quality grade millet grain Saratov-6, taken for control. However the greatest share of influence on competitiveness the grain exit possesses. In spite of the fact that values of an integrated indicator of competitiveness of grain of millet of the studied grades were practically almost at one level, more competitive is the grain of millet of a grade of Zaryanа which is characterized by smaller filminess.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2014;(4):96-99
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