No 4 (2013)

Articles
GROWTH STIMULATOR PRE-SEEDING SEEDS TREATMENT AND FOLLOW TREATMENT EFFECT ON SORGHUM GRAIN YIELD
Vasin A.V., Kazutina N.A.
Abstract
The purpose of research – development of methods of increasing the yield of grain sorghum. The task of the research was to assess the productivity of sorghum crops under the application of fertilizers and growth promoters. In two-factor experiment on sorghum there were studied: two phases of treatment (treatment of seeds and crops in the tillering stage) (factor A), the following drugs (seed treatment , treatment for vegetation): 1) album (60 ml/m, 50 ml/ha); 2) Na + K humate trace (200 ml/m, 400 mL/ha); 3) Mival agro – (15 g/ton, 10 g/ha); 4) Megamiks (2 l/t; 0,2 l/ha ) (factor B). The main indicators of the economic value of annual crops are planted quantity and quality of the crop. The yield increase from the use of seeds treatment was 0,12-0,38 t/ha, increase from pre-treatment while vegetation 0,09-0,28 t/ha, with the joint use of drugs (seed treatment + treatment of crops) increase amounted to 0,12-0,51 t/ha. The maximum yield was achieved in a case of double treatment by Megamix and was 2,25 t/ga. Average of three years (2010-2012). Yield was at 1,50-2,25 t/ha. The maximum yield was obtained after the double use of drug Megamix (treatment of seeds, application while vegetation) 2,25 t/ha, as well as seeds treatment MivalAgro and treatment while vegetation by Megamix – 2,04 t/ha.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):3-5
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TIME-SPACE VARIABILITY OF WINTER WHEAT IN WINTER ENVIRONMENT CONDITIONS OF SAMARA REGION
Samokhvalova E.V., Maslova G.Y.
Abstract
The work done to develop information management modeling productivity of winter wheat. The problems of modeling and evaluation of preservation at overwintering plants, depending on the agro-meteorological conditions in winter were researched based on field observations of the SSI Povolzshskiy SRIS and agro-meteorological station of Ust-Kinel for 1983-2012 years. Use existing methods to predict the thinning of crops, depending on the minimum soil temperature at the depth of the tillering node status of the plant in the winter and fall, the estimated index of tillering. To calculate the autumn tilling the dependency of the amount of effective air temperatures from the date of germination to the end of the autumn growing season (coefficient of determination of 0,61, the relative error of calculation of 18%). To implement the method used at any point in the territory in the absence of a relevant field observations applied stochastic modeling of temperature fall period and a minimum during the winter soil temperatures at the depth of the tillering node. As a result, found that the simulated time series thinning of crops as a result of freezing and damping-off of plants in good agreement with the actual data of field observations and estimated values (significance level of the Chi-square test of 0,129 and 0,444, respectively). Design scheme is implemented on the territory of the Samara and neighboring areas. The results indicate that in most of the risk of significant thinning of crops for overwintering (20% or more) is in the range of 15-20%. The achieved accuracy of modeling the safety of plants with overwintering justifies its use to calculate the efficiency of a winter wheat and analysis of bioclimatic potential of the area.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):6-10
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WINTER WHEAT CROP RESIDUES EFFECT OF WINTER OILSEED RAPE SEEDS GERMINATION
Dridiger V.K., Popova E.L.
Abstract
The purpose of research – increasing the yield of winter oilseed rape with minimum tillage. Allelopathic activity was determined by germinating seeds in Petri dishes of winter rape seed varieties Dragon in different concentrations present crop residues of winter wheat. In the first series of experiments at a concentration of infusion of 25 to 100% is already on the third day there was a strong (34-43%) inhibition of germination of seeds of winter rape, and on the seventh day of germination decreased by 64-80%. It is very strongly inhibited the development of seedlings of winter rape. In a second series of experiments (concentration present from 5 to 20%) only at concentrations of 5 and 10% showed very little (2-4%) and mild (7-8%) reduction in germination of winter oilseed rape, wherein the 7th day of observation all the seedlings have formed cotyledon leaves of green with long stem 35,3 and 30,4 mm in length spine – 20,3 and 18,1 mm. Increasing the concentration to 15 and 20% led to a decrease in the laboratory germination at 18 and 43%, of which only 84 and 74% of the seedlings have formed a pale yellow color.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):10-14
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CULTIVATION METHODS IMPACT ON SORGHUM GRAIN EFFICIENCY IN THE MIDDLE VOLGA FOREST-STEPPE AREA
Vasin V.G., Ruhlevich N.V.
Abstract
The purpose of research – increasing productivity of grain sorghum in the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga Area. Field experiments on the development of rare crop of grain sorghum cultivation methods in the Middle Volga forest-steppe were carried out in 2010-2012, under fodder crop rotation were by the chair «Plant Breeding» of Samara State Agricultural Academy. Soil of test area is plain black soil residual carbonate with a medium moderately heavy loam. Farming equipment included: stubbling, moldboard plowing, harrowing fall plowing, harrowing early spring the cover, the first cultivation and sowing cultivation to a depth of seeding, seeding planter SSNP-16 with a row spacing of 15 and 45 cm, with herbicide application in the stage of tillering, crops treatment with insecticides upon the occurrence of damage threshold, small plot harvest have been implemented. Field experiments were accompanied by laboratory and field observations and studies by conventional methods. Studying the rate of plants preservation at the time of harvesting, it has been revealed that under the wide-row planting, and this figure has been higher 69,4-90,7%. It has been found that the most fruitful grain sorghum variethas cured to be Premier when seeded 15 cm row spacing and after seeding herbicide treatment – 2,02 t/ha (without the use of mineral fertilizers) and 2,33 t/ha (with the application of mineral fertilizers).
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):14-17
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THE РROMISING SAMARA REGION SOUTHERN AREA POTATOES VARIETIES HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION FEATURES
Trots N.M., Chernyakov A.I.
Abstract
The studies were conducted in the fields of peasant farm (KFH), located in the Volga region of Samara Oblast. 14 varieties of potato crops grown under irrigation have been selected. The research purpose – the development of technological methods of production environmentally safe products under irrigation. The starch content of the studied varieties ranged from 12,9% (grade Lanorma) to 14,9% (grade Vitesse). The studied varieties have had higher sugar content (normal 10,5 g) the highest grade in the elite Sprint – 14,42 g. The moisture content has been within the normal range on average reaching 76,0%. Ash tuber varieties studied ranged from 2,05% (grade Sprint Elite) to 5,88% (grade Rosary). Fiber has been studied in grades ranging from 0,83% (grade Vitesse) to 8,98% (grade Rocko). The studied varieties are characterized by low dry matter content (less than 22%). Nitrogen content ranges from 1,74% in the elite Sprint grade to 3,07% for class rose garden, which is a valid value (up 4,6%). Potassium values ranging from 2,06% (grade Rosary) to 3,07% (grade Rosalind), OK – up to 4,2%. The phosphorus content varies from 0,36% in grade Rosary to 0,46% in grade Sprint elite and Super elite Rosary (normally 0,5%). Content of mobile forms of the studied heavy metals in the soil in average have not exceeded the maximum permissible concentration. There has been a slight excess of the baseline values by the accumulation of zinc (1,25 MP) and copper (1,15 times). The grade Colette (16,37), accumulated the least amount of heavy metals Lian (13,42), Rosalind (15,19). The greatest amount of heavy metals have nee accumulated by grades Sprint Elite (19,35), Jelly (16,4). The calculation of correlation have showed that the studied heavy metals show the greatest relationship with (r = 0,292) a dry plant matter and phosphorus content (r = 0,289).
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):17-21
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THE SAMARA REGION MAIN SOIL TYPES HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION
Ishkova S.V.
Abstract
The research purpose – prediction of ecological condition of agricultural land Zavolzhskaya province steppe zone. While researching in 2011-2012 on the dark brown , gray forest soils and black soils ( south, ordinary, typical, leached and podzolized) of Zavolzhskaya grassland steppe-area, pre-Urals area and Central Russian forest-steppe area of Samara region, soil profiles cuts were made of 1,5 m from which it was produced by the selection of soil samples every 30 cm in each soil sample in the laboratory identified agrochemical parameters of soil (humus content , available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, hydrolyzable nitrogen, pH salt extraction) and the concentration of mobile and total forms of heavy metals (Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn and Cd). Based on the studies It has been found that the soil of agricultural land in Samara region generally are environmentally friendly on the heavy metal contamination , the soils of Samara region with heavy metals accumulation are isolated and localized. Identified deficiencies of soils mobile forms of trace elements Zn and C have been surveyed. Natural and man-made elements accumulate differently in different soil types. Statistical processing of study results have helped to identify paired correlations between the content of total forms of Pb, Zn, Cr mobile forms of gross content of mobile forms of Pb on the pH of the soil solution, as well as between the content of Pb, Cu, Cr, and total forms of Zn, Mn and Cd in the humus layer and the parent rock. In addition, recommendations on the organization of agri-environment measures studied territories.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):21-26
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CROPS NUTRITIVE MATTERS CONSUMPTION FEATURES UNDER GRAIN-FALLOW –ROTATION IN SAMARA ZAVOLSHYE
Obuschenko S.V., Chernyakov A.I., Gorshkova O.V.
Abstract
The research purpose – improving the efficiency of fertilizer with a justification of the coefficients of their consumption. To study the nutrient intake of basic grains was laid korotkorotatsionny 4-dipole field crop rotation with the following crop rotation: black couples – winter wheat – spring wheat – spring barley. Bookmark the experiments carried out with the main guidelines. The area of plots – 720 m 2, repeatedly – three times, placing plots – consistent. In calculating the rates of application of fertilizer for winter wheat, spring wheat and barley in the central agro-climatic zone of Samara Volga, be aware that the removal rates of nitrogen in winter wheat , spring wheat and spring barley are within 20,2-48,7; on phosphorus – within 8,9-28,7, and the content of potassium removal rates can vary from 26,2 to 85,7. Our studies have established the consumption of nutrients from the soil and fertilizers and calculate the odds of their use. It was revealed that most of the nitrogen was admitted to the plant from the soil. For the formation of 1 quintal of grain crops is required from 2,04 to 3,01 kg of nitrogen, phosphorus and 0,92-1,22 kg 1,66-2,52 kg of potassium. With the application of mineral fertilizers removal of elements per unit increase in the average yield of nitrogen to 11,9-23,8% for phosphoru – on 6,6-9,7%, of potassium – on 16,2-30,7%.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):26-29
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THE EFFECT OF A THICK SOWING ON FORMATION OF PLANT SEEDLINGS AND THE YIELD CAPACITY OF SILFIUM PERFOLIATUM AT SEED AND VEGETATIVE CULTURE PROPAGATION
Yemelin V.A.
Abstract
The purpose of research – to develop the scientific basis for new theoretical and practical agro-biological processes to improve the technology of cultivation of sylphs pondweed for green fodder and seeds with a rational use of land, material and energy resources in the forest and steppe zones of agriculture. Field experiments on the sylphs pondweed laid three times in the time since 2006. Soil test area sod-podzolic, medium. An area of 25 square meters plots, replicates fourfold. Found that when thickened sowing seeds of renewal buds are formed on plants with basal rosette of leaves in the amount of 4-6 pieces or more. Seedlings of annual plants with buds on underground shoots provides a high yield of green mass. For such seedlings and accelerated reproduction of sylphs pondweed defined rational seed and breeding area of culture. Seedlings of annual plants with buds on underground shoots provides a high yield of green mass. For a seedling determined seeding rate (including germination – 29,8 kg /ha) and the area of reproduction of culture. With this seeding rate and the output from one hectare of seedlings almost 770 thousand pieces of plant breeding landing area (70x40 scheme for green fodder) was 21,6 ha. The proposed method simplifies the vegetative propagation of culture, allows thickened by sowing seeds to produce a large number of seedlings per unit area and the efficient use of land. This method reduces the consumption of seeds, easy care plants, reduces the cost of production and is optimal for rapid multiplication of species in practice.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):29-33
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THE INFLUENCE OF THE RELEAF ON THE HARMFULNESS OF WHEAT THRIPS IN THE VOLGA STEPPE
Zhichkina L.N.
Abstract
The purpose of research – a scientific rationale to reduce wheat thrips damage by optimizing the location of winter wheat crops taking into account meso relief in the forest steppe of Zavolzhye. The studies were conducted in 2009-2011, Kinelskiy area of Samara region. The experiments were laid in the forest-meadow landscape of steeply sloping hills and on the slopes of the north-western exposure on experimental fields, depending on their location in the landscape: the top, middle and bottom of the slope. The object of study – wheat thrips, the subject of the study – winter wheat varieties Volga 86 (at the top and bottom of the slope), varieties Kostyantynivska (in the middle of the slope). Seasons of research on temperature and rainfall were markedly different from each other the driest was 2010, moistened 2011 years of research, regardless of the location of the field in the landscape was dominated by a weak degree of damage to winter wheat grain wheat thrips. In 2010 maximum number of slightly damaged grains per ear was noted (except for the upper part of the slope – a maximum in 2009), a minimum – in 2011, the average in 2009-2011. The largest grain damage was noted in the upper part of the slope – 67,3%; 21,5 and 16,3% more damage than the middle and lower parts of the slope. Reveal an average correlation between damage to the grain in the ear and weight of grain from the ear, the correlation coefficient – 0,41-0,71.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):33-37
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INCREASE SOIL SUPPRESSIVENESS TO CAUSATIVE AGENTS OF ROOT ROT
Postovalov A.A.
Abstract
The purpose of research – to increase soil suppressiveness to phytopathogens and plant resistance to root rot by pre-seeding disinfection of barley and pea seeds by fitosporin. This purpose was resolved through bookmarks field and laboratory experiments. Studied microbiological activity in the rhizosphere of barley and peas, it has been estimated the impact of pre-seeding treatment of seeds by fitosporin. Seed material – spring barley variety Preriya, peas – Aksayskiy usatiy. In laboratory conditions it has been set out that the introduction fitosporin at concentrations from 0,1 to 4,0% into the medium inhibits the growth of pathogenic fungi. Inhibition reaches the highest rates in the preparation concentration in the medium being 4%, oppression growth of mycelium Bipolaris sorokiniana is 68,4%, and Fusarium oxysporum – 75,4%. When processing the seeds of peas and barley fitosporin in the rhizosphere of the plant there was an increase in soil suppressiveness to causative agents of root rot. This is evidenced by the increase of CO 2 emissions from the soil to 58,3-65,4 mcg/h, in the rhizosphere of barley increases the number of microorganisms involved in the cycle of nitrogen 2,2-3,5 times, in the rhizosphere peas number oligonitrophil and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms reaches 0,55 million/g soil and root nodule bacterium 38 piece/plant. Pre-seeding of seeds the development of the disease on spring barley in 1,8 times, and on the pea 1,4 times, biological efficiency up 45,1 and 27,1%. Use fitosporin provides a true increase of productivity. So the productivity of spring barley has increased by 37%, peas-by 17%.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):37-40
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AMARANTH CULTIVATION EXPERIENCE AND PERSPECTIVES UNDER UTILIZATION OF THE NEW SEEDING UNIT
Kazarin V.F., Galenko I.Y., Artamonov E.I.
Abstract
The research purpose – improving the method of sowing fine seeds of amaranthus paniculata. Planting material – amaranthus paniculata varieties Kinelsky 254. Sowing seed drill CO – 4,2 and experimental precision seeder. Quality of seeding has been evaluated by a number of indicators that combined characterize its compliance to agro-technical requirements. Key indicators of seeding quality have been even distribution of seeds in a row and the uniformity of seed placement depth. It has been found that the use of the new seeding device can significantly improve the quality of the crop through the optimal placement of the seeds in a row, and to reduce the non-uniform distribution of plants by 2,9 times and the number of seeds embedded in a definite horizon can increase seeding quality 1,6 times in comparison to the control seeding. All mentioned has been resulted in the weakening of the association stress in phytocenosis, makes more efficient the use of vital resources and as a consequence a higher crop yield of protein and grains per area unit are obtained. The average yield within the five years through the green amaranth mass – was 56,4 t/ha, grain – 2,3 t/ha, of dry matter yield – 13,4 t/ha, protein – 1,5 t/ha, which is 24-35% higher than in the control embodiment.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):41-44
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ENERGY AND ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS OF URBAN EFFLUENTS SEDIMENTS APPLICATION IN SOYA, SPRING WHEAT AND BARLEY CULTIVATED ON THE LIGHT GREY FOREST SOIL
Mikhailov L.N., Titova G.A.
Abstract
The research purpose – to justify the energy and economic efficiency of precipitation of urban waste water from the soil the way of their utilization as fertilizer in the cultivation of soybeans, spring wheat and barley on a light gray forest soils in the Volgavyatskiy region. The results of the analysis of the chemical composition of the sediments of urban wastewater (OGSv) Novocheboksarsk, a comparative analysis of the chemical composition and OGSv half rotted cattle manure. The presence of OGSv more than in the cattle manure, the amount of calcium and magnesium favourably impacting soil environment, its structure and nutrient status are of particular value for Sod-podzolic and gray forest soils. The limiting factor in the use of OGSv as a fertilizer, is the accumulation of heavy metals in soils and agricultural produce. Application OGSv as fertilizer for 60 t / ha direct effect does not increase the energy efficiency of soybean cultivation (EFC = 0,14 pcs.), however, an aftereffect, the spring wheat cultivation and barley energy efficiency ratio increases, respectively, to 1,21 and to 1,17 units. In this case the cultivation of soybean, spring wheat and barley is profitable for economy .The content and dry organic matter of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in deposits of municipal wastewater is higher than in cattle manure, which defines their particular value as a fertilizer.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):44-49
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TECHNIQUES IMPACT ON LEAF SURFACE FORMATION AND MILLET CROPS PHOTOSYNTHETIC POTENTIAL IN THE FOREST-STEPPE OF CENTRAL VOLGA AREA ENVIRONMENT
Volkova A.V.
Abstract
The purpose of research – to study cropping method influence of, seeding rate, depth seeding and doses of applied mineral fertilizers in combination with application on crops of the anti-stressful biological preparation Albite on the formation of the leaves surface and photosynthetic potential of millet crops to optimize high-quality technologies of millet cultivation in the environment of the forest-steppe Area of Central Volga. It is established that in the conditions of the forest-steppe of Central Volga Area by the phase beginning a tasseling crops of millet form 32-46% of values of FP for vegetation, and from the tasseling beginning before maturing 54-68% that testifies to high security of crops with an assimilatory surface in the most responsible phases of development – flowering, having poured and grain maturing. The greatest size of the assimilatory device is formed by usual ordinary crops with norm of seeding 3,5-4,0 million/hectare and wide ranks with norm of seeding of 2,0 million/hectare. The greatest sheet surface forms and keeps more longer in an active condition of millet crops of a grade the Peasant and Zaryana with seeds depth 5 -7 cm against introduction of settlement doses of mineral fertilizers on a planned grain yield 3,5-4,0 t/hectare with plants treatment in a tillering phase by biological preparation Albite.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):49-54
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EFFICIENCY OF PRESOWING SEEDS TRATMENT (PSEUDOMONAS ANDROPOGONI) AGAINST DRUGS RED BACTERIOSES OF SORGHUM CROPS IN THE FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF SAMARA REGION
Matvienko Е.V.
Abstract
The research purpose – evaluation of the effectiveness of pre-sowing treatment of sorghum crops by drugs against bacterial blight of red in the forest-steppe region of Samara. The results of the surveys and the prevalence of bacterial blight on red sorghum crops in 2010-2012. Experiments have shown that the most effective drugs for bacterial blight of red control are the Prestige and Grandsil – for sweet sorghum varieties Kinelskoye 4 – Albit, Fitosporin and Grandsil, for grain sorghum varieties Ros’; Prestige and Grandsil, to a lesser extent Fitosporin and Albit – for sorghum Premiera. In 2011-2012 at sowing the seeds of grain sorghum varieties with the Premiera of plants, the least affected by red bakteriosis (9,3%), the use of the Prestige and provided Grandsil increase yields 12-29% at sowing the seeds from the plants to the average (45%) lesions bakteriosis – 11-28% at sowing seeds of defeat bakteriosis 64,5 and 79,1% – 7-15 and 3-10%, respectively. As in 2011 and in 2012 with the use of the Prestige options and Grandsil allowed to increase the yield of sorghum varieties Ros’, compared with the control, at 4-13%. The use of the Prestige, Grandsil and Fitosporin increased yield of sweet sorghum varieties Kinelskoye-4 by an average of 3-32%, compared with the control.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):54-59
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INTEGRATED EVALUATION OF MALT QUALITY AND ITS PROCESSING FEATURES IN LAGER BEER PRODUCTION
Dulov M.I., Dulova E.V.
Abstract
The research purpose – to develop a comprehensive assessment of barley malting quality, in the production of lager beer varieties. In a production laboratory of PCs «Baltica» – «Baltika – Samara» the light barley malt produced by «Belsolod» (class 1), JSC «Yarpivo» (class 1), OAO «Russian malt» (2 class), «Avangard» (Class 2) have been explored. Malt has been estimated by organoleptik, physical and physico-chemical indicators. For the evaluation of objective quality of brewing malt it is appropriate to apply the method of evaluation of malt quality index (ICS). By a comprehensive assessment of lager barley malt quality produced by «Belsolod» and JSC «Yarpivo» refer to class 1. Light malt produced by OAO AKB «Avangard» refers to the 2nd class, but on the specification of the summary of all indicators is 14,5, which relates it to the brewing barley lager malt of very good quality. Pale barley malt, produced by «Russian malt», has the lowest rate and refers to the 2 classes of good quality. The proposed specification and comprehensive assessment of the malt quality can be used in research to study the possibility of growing barley for brewing purposes in a specific soil- climatic zone, as well as on the effect of the studied agricultural practices to improve the quality of malting barley grain.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):60-64
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HYDROCOLLOIDE IMPACT ON THE POULTRY MEAT HAM MINCED SAUSAGES QUALITY
Blinova O.A.
Abstract
The purpose of the study – the improvement of consumer properties of chopped ham and sausages from poultry meat using hydrocolloid. The optimum amount of the hydrocolloid in the sausage meat in a hydrated form. Studies on the effect of hydrocolloid «Rondagam M 200» on the quality of ham, sausage patties of meat, poultry, were carried out in the production department of the laboratory equipment and automated processing productions Technology Faculty of VPO Samara State Agricultural Academy. The author has developed model formulation samples of sausages in applying the hydrocolloid in an amount of 0,3; 0,4; 0,5 and 0,6% by weight of the raw material gidrotirovannom unsalted form. The use of hydrocolloid «Rondagam M 200» in the form of hydrotherapy any fixed at 0,3-0,4% does not affect the organoleptic and physico-chemical characteristics of the product , contributes to its richness, will allow to improve the consistency and appearance sliceability sausages; reduce the risk of bouillon – fat edema, increased water binding – bearing capacity of 1,4-3,6%. As the amount of hydro – colloid used the yield of chopped ham and sausages from poultry by 2,4-3,9%.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):65-69
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THE USE OF CRUSHED FRUIT OF THE CAROB TREE IN THE PRODUCTION OF INTEGRATED FOOD ADDITIVE CACAO BEANS BASED
Alekseyeva M.M.
Abstract
The research purpose – is improvement of quality of a complex food additive on the basis of cocoa beans through the use of crushed fruit of the carob tree. Cocoa powder was replaced crushed fruit of the carob tree in the amount from 10 to 50%. When this was received complex food additive, which can be used for production of flour confectionery products, as a filler for ice cream, yogurt and other Studies were carried out in the testing laboratory of LLC «НаDО». Best on organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters was the version with the replacement of cocoa, crushed fruit of the carob tree in the amount of 30%. The resulting product will have a pleasant smell, harmonious taste with a strong creamy aftertaste, had a dark-brown color, glossy surface, dense elastic texture. The higher the percentage of crushed fruit of the carob tree in the complex food additive, the higher becomes the pH, which varies from 5,5 to 5,8, due to the additional content of sugars in chopped fruit of the carob tree. The same relationship is modified, such an indicator as the content of dry substances on a scale of sucrose. It increases to 53,0-54,0%. Indicator visco-STI also increases with 8000 to 9,400 cf. Introduction of additives allowed also to reduce microbiological contamination Increase in the number of carob affected the microbiological contamination of the product, which by the presence of QMA reduced almost twice, and also reduced the number of mold and yeast.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):69-73
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CONSUMER PROPERTIES AND BEEF QUALITY INDEXES
Buymisheva D.S., Buymishev R.K., Hasanov R.R.
Abstract
The research purpose – to ground influence of invasion on the change of consumer properties, indexes of quality and food value of beef. Study on the identification of fatness, categories of freshness, identify inter-chiy find sarcocyst and enzyme peroxidase in meat were conducted in the conditions of laboratory of veterinary-sanitary expertise of the society with limited liability STRK «Kinelsky market» Federal state budgetary institutions of Samara region «Kinel’skaja city station on animal illnesses control» and the laboratory of faculty of technology, definition of mass fraction of protein in beef, carried out by the Cieldal method in the test laboratory of the Federal state institution «Samara referential centre of Federal service for veterinary and phytosanitary supervision, the division of amino acid composition of the scientific andresearch laboratory of animal husbandry of the Samara state agricultural Academy. Quality characteristics of meat and meat products is largely determined by the clinical and physiological state of animals, from which it is received, age, conditions of keeping and feeding, transportation and pre-exposure. The problem of providing the population with food directly linked to the development of livestock breeding, productivity of which 70% is determined by factors of habitat, including its level of Biosafety. The existing governmental obstacle in the development of cattle breeding, apart from infectious and of noncontagious diseases, are invasive disease.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):73-76
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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PACKAGING MATERIALS ON CONSUMER PROPERTIES OF PREMIUM WHEAT FLOUR BREAD
Alekseyeva M.M., Pashkova E.U.
Abstract
The research purpose – to justify the use of various types of packaging materials during storage of bread from premium wheat flour. These studies were conducted at the Department «Technology of production and expertise of herbal products». The object of the study was the bread of wheat flour of the premium, the packed in different types of packaging materials: PVC food film, aluminum foil, perforated film, vegetable parchment. Also investigated the bread of wheat flour in bulk. The quality of bread from wheat flour premium after 24 hours of storage did not change. Only noticeable difference in the smell of products. After 48 hours of storage unspoken bread smell was observed in bread wheat flour without the premium package, and store in a perforated film (3 points respectively). Insufficiently distinct smell was the bread, which was kept in PVC cling film (4 points). After 72 hours of storage products acidity studied were: the bread in bulk – 2,3 degrees stored in PVC cling film – 2,5 degrees in aluminum foil – 2,6 degrees – is the maximum value in the vegetable parchment and a perforated film – 2,4 degrees. Porosity and moisture content decreased, but remained within the range required by the standard. Bread that has been stored in PVC cling film and vegetable parchment in determining the microbiological indicators, in particular mold had the lowest value, or they were not found, so we encourage producers to pack bread wheat premium is in these packaging materials.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):77-81
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GRAIN (GROATS) MARKET STATE AND MILLET GRADE INFLUENCE ON MILLET CONSUMER PROPERTIES
Volkova A.V.
Abstract
The research purpose – is an increase of gross harvest of millet grain, answering requirements cereals industry. Object of researches were Saratov-6 millet grade, the Peasant and Zaryana. On the average from 2005 to 2008 the greatest grain yield was received for the period on crops of millet of a grade of Zaryan and made 2,89 t with 1 hectare that is 0,41 t/hectare more, than at a grade Saratov-6, taken for control. The greatest sized weighing 1000 seeds at the level of 9,8 g characterizes grain of millet of a grade the Peasant. Uniformity of grain of all studied grades considerably exceeded a minimum regulated by operating standard in 65% and at a grade Saratov-skoye-6 was at the level of 88,6%, and at grades the Peasant and Zaryana it made respectively 92,2 and 91,4%. Millet from grain of millet of a grade of Zaryan in storage process in a bigger measure kept kernel brightness. The received results allow to draw a conclusion on that. That in the conditions of the forest-steppe of the Average of the Volga region of a millet grade the Peasant and Zaryana are characterized by higher values of productivity and technological properties in comparison with a grade Saratov-6. It does them more suitable for processing in grain .
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):81-85
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FENUGREEK HAY SEEDS POWDER APPLICATION IN PRODUCTION OF BREAD FROM THE WHEAT BAKING FLOUR
Krutyaeva E.V.
Abstract
The research purpose – to reveal powder influence from seeds of a fenugreek hay on quality of grain products from a flour wheat baking the highest and first grades. Powder from seeds of a fenugreek hay is brought into the dough in quantity: 1; 2; 3 and 4%. Straight dough way of preparation was used In the trials water temperature at mixing ingredients was 35ºC, dough mixing was carried out mechanically. The baking was carried out at a temperature of 220-240ºC within 35 min. The experimental batch of bread was made in the conditions of laboratory «Technology of Production and Examination of Products from Vegetable Raw Materials» chair of Farm technology faculty of FSBEI HVE «Samara State Agricultural Academy». By results of researches of organoleptic and physical and chemical indicators of quality three best grain products were allocated: bread from wheat flour of the first grade with addition of 2% of powder from Shambhala seeds, bread from wheat flour of the highest and the first grade with the content of powder from seeds of Shambhala 2% and 3%; as these grain products possess the highest consumer properties in comparison with products without additives. Production of a new type of bread from wheat flour of the first grade will be 2% economic under addition powder from Shambhala seeds, level of profitability of production of this bread will increase respectively by 1%, the annual sum of profit will make 2210 rub. Production of bread from a mix of wheat flour of the highest and the first grades with addition of 2% and 3% of powder from seeds of Shambhala also economically profitable, level of profitability increases by 1,3% and 1,6%. The additional annual profit will make 3680 and 3990 rub.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):86-88
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INFLUENCE OF HIGH-QUALITY FEATURES OF MILLET ON QUALITY OF LOW ALCOHOL BOUZA DRINK
Makushin A.N.
Abstract
The research purpose – to define the best grade of millet for production of low alcohol Bouza drink. For research, millet grades recommended for cultivation on the average the Volga region were taken: Russian; Peasant; Zaryana. The compounding was used, described in the historical and ethnographic directory «People World». For determination of quality of used raw materials the grain assessment was carried out: content of impurity; humidity; weight is 100 seeds; nature and filminess. As a result of the conducted researches it was revealed: humidity of grain varied in side-altars of 9,2-9,6%; the largest grain is noted at a grade the Russian, the smallest at Zaryan's grade – the mass of 1000 seeds of 10,1 and 8,5 g, respectively; the greatest volume mass of grain is noted at a grade the Peasant – 793,5 g/l. Protein content was in side-altars of 8,93-9,33%; starch – 50,02-51,20; fat – 3,15-4,48%. From these raw materials 6 types of low alcohol Bouza drink were made: 3 from not unhusk grain of millet of studied grades and 3 from the unhusk grain. It is established that all types of low alcohol Bouza drink conform to GOST 52700-2006 requirements «Low alcohol drinks. The general specifications» on physical and chemical indicators. The minimum quantity of points by an organoleptic assessment was gathered by drinks from a kernel of grain of millet of a grade the Russian, having got 8 points, and the Bouza from a kernel of grain of millet of a grade the Peasant – 9 points. Level of profitability of production of low alcohol Bouza drink makes of integral grain 92,81 of a kernel of 90,02%.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):89-94
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THE REGULATION OF THE STRUCTURE OF EXTRUDATES OF VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS
Kurochkin A.A., Shaburova G.V., Frolov D.I., Voronina P.K.
Abstract
The research purpose – to identify and assess the impact of technological factors extrusion process and technical parameters of the extruder on the structure of extrudate vegetable starch raw materials. Experimental studies were performed using a single-screw extruder, additionally equipped with a vacuum chamber and a gateway shutter. The object of the study were selected barley seeds, oats seeds, millet and buckwheat seeds with a mass fraction of moisture 12-18% without flaking of the surface. Crops extrusion processing listed in the extruder without vacuum chamber showed the same pattern: the rapid transition of the material from the high pressure (in the path of the machine) in terms of atmospheric pressure, humidity extrudate compared with the humidity in the test material decreases in the range 21,0-31,9%. The maximum decrease (31,9%) was observed in the experiment with oat and minimum (21%) – in the processing of buckwheat. The transition of extruded product from the high-pressure (2,0-2,7 MPa) in a vacuum chamber with a pressure of 0,02-0,09 MPa significantly intensified the process of removing water from the raw material. Dependence of extrudates expansion index from the moisture of processed grain, air pressure in the vacuum chamber and the diameter of the extruder die opening it is obtained by implementing a 3-x factor of composite central plan. Statistical analysis of experimental data, performed by regression analysis in the environment of Microsoft Excel 2010 and Statistica 10, allowed to obtain a mathematical model of the second order, adequately describing the dependence of the extension index of extrudates (coefficient of explosion) of the studied factors. Analysis of the resulting model indicates a significant impact on the value of the index of extrudates expansion of air pressure in the vacuum chamber of the extruder. By changing the pressure in the vacuum chamber of the extruder can be influenced by humidity and the value of the index extension extrudates, as well as control the intensity of the formation of the porous structure.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):94-99
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THE USE OF PUMPKIN SEEDS IN WAFFLE FILLINGS
Bochkareva Z.А.
Abstract
The research purpose – is the development of technologies of fat toppings for waffles with a product of pumpkin seeds processing. The possibility of enrichment and expansion of assortment of waffle foodstuff by making a paste of whole-milled pumpkin seeds in a fatty stuffing in the amount of 10-20% is shown. The influence of pumpkin seeds to the physico-chemical and organoleptic quality indicators of waffle fatty fillings is studied. Mass fraction of fat in the studied samples in comparison with the reference sample is reduced from 0,6% to 6,3%. When replacing 20% fat by the paste of pumpkin seeds, a deterioration of the technological properties is observed. During the replacement of the part of the confectionery fat in quantity 10% by the paste from the pumpkin seeds the content of proteins increases 1,5, in quantity 15% – 1,7 times, in quantity 20% – 2 times. Fatty filling is enriched by food fibers, the content of mineral substances is considerably grows, especially ferrum – 4-6 times also of zinc 8-13 ones. It is established that the replacement of the part of the confectionery fat by paste from the seeds of pumpkin in amount of 10-15%, does not worsen organoleptic indices, but it increases the food value of waffles.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):99-103
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THE MILLET EXTRUDATE IN TECHNOLOGY OF MEAT CHOPPED PRODUCTS
Bochkareva Z.А., Kurochkin A.A., Shaburova G.V.
Abstract
The research purpose – is the reasoning and working out of technology of functional foods from chopped meat with millet ekstrudate. Rational methods of preparing and making extruded millet is reasoned. Hydration of extruded articles millet is soaking it with water with a temperature of 15-20°C, for a period of 5-10 min. Hydro Kit 2,5. The influence of extruded millet on physico-chemical and organoleptic quality indicators of combined minced meat products is studied. A fraction of total mass of moisture, protein and fat decreases with an increase in the amount of filler. A fraction of total mass carbohydrates increases. Millet extrudate has a pH 5,45 aqueous solution, t.e. approximately equal to the pH of meat. The pH of the combined mass decreases when mixing chopped mass with the hydrated extrudate. When replacing the raw meat extrudate in an amount of 15%, the pH is reduced by 13%. Slight increase of a fraction of total mass of moisture observed In the samples of chopped meat products by increasing the amount of filler because of rising of water-holding capacity of products as result of adding starch and dietary fiber extruded millet. Introduction of the filler to the formulation increases the yield of finished products from 6 to 26% depending on the amount of the extrudate. The best results are observed in samples of products with substitution of raw meat with an extrudate in an amount of 5 and 10%. The optimum amount of the chopped meat extrudate weight in the hydrated form was 5-10%.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):103-108
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TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND EXTRUDATEВ BARLEY BEER CHARACTERISTICS
Voronina P.K.
Abstract
The research purpose – the development of technology, using beer instead of extruded barley malting barley malt. Studied the effect of the duration of extrusion processing on the content of starch, dextrin, soluble sugars and extract content of barley in the brewing industry accepted methods. The dependence of the studied parameters on the duration of treatment. The best results were achieved in the processing of barley for 15-20 seconds. Developed a new technology and formulation beer instead of using extruded barley malt in an amount of from 10 to 20% by weight of the cereals. A method for producing wort – infusion. This reduces the process of sugarification, fermentation process is intensified wort. Engineering samples of beer with the introduction of 15 and 20% extruded barley wort were characterized by higher rates of alcohol and lower acidity. Adding extrudate barley amount more than 20% by weight of cereals leads to a deterioration of the organoleptic and physico-chemical characteristics of beer. Thus, the use of barley in the manufacture of beer subjected to extrusion processing, in quantities of 15-20% by weight of cereals contributes to intensification of the process of sugarification by mashing, wort amine nitrogen enrichment, enhance fermentable carbohydrates, activation fermentation wort.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):108-113
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EFFECTS OF PLANTS – REPELLENTS ON GRAIN PESTS DEVELOPMENT UNDER SPRING WHEAT STORAGE
Romadina J.A.
Abstract
The research purpose – to expose the most effective types of rheochrysins of phytogenous and methods of their application at protecting of grain of wheat from the wreckers of panary after-passes. We studied the grain of spring wheat varieties Kinelskoye 59, zoned in the Samara region. Studied the effect of 6 – repellent plant species used in various forms (oil, whole and crushed leaves or flowers, alcohol and aqueous extracts): allspice, mint grass, bay tree, lambsquarters, Sochirca field and marigold), the following biological parameters: free choice of food, the loss of dry matter, development duration lifetime. When feeding beetles small black beetle smallest grain mass loss observed in the presence of essential oil of cloves (86% less than in the control) and the aqueous extract and dried peppermint leaves and flowers of carnation (by 72%). Emergence of small black beetles beetle does not occur on the grain with crushed clove flowers. The death of the granary weevil beetle occurs in the presence of chopped mint (by 17,7% less than in controls). Complex effect of repellents on the granary weevil appeared in samples with crushed clove flowers and leaves of bay leaf. Lowest life expectancy of small black beetles beetle was observed on grain treated with aqueous extract of mint and cloves, which killed 67,2-68,0% beetles. greatest deterrent effect of small black beetles beetle appears if you select write on corn treated with mint essential oil (by 96,2% compared with control) and clove oil (91,6 %). More effective form repellents are crushed leaves and flowers of plants (bay leaf, clove) and peppermint essential oil, compared with clove oil.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):113-118
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INFLUENCE OF THE COMPLEX FOOD ADDITIVE «FLEISHWURST A 35269» (15% BEEF SIMULATION ) ON THE QUALITY OF COOKED SAUSAGES FROM POULTRY
Romanova T.N.
Abstract
The research purpose – to expose influence of complex food addition «Fleishwurst A 35269» (15% beef simulation) on the quality of cooked sausages from poultry. Studies were conducted in laboratory conditions of the chair «Technology of processing and examination of products of animal husbandry» of t Samara state agricultural Academy, faculty of technology and in the testing laboratory of FSEI «Samara referential centre of the Federal service for veterinary and phytosanitary control». The object of research were cooked sausages from poultry with the addition of a complex food aromatic additives, which was part of minced meat in different quantities, %: 0,6; 0,8; 1,0; 1,2. The control sample was submitted without the Supplement. On the basis of the studies, conclusions can be made: the use of a complex food additive «Fleishwurst A 35269» in the production of sausages improves the flavour and sausages, manufactured products is more juicy, tender, increases the range of finished products. All the samples had good organoleptic characteristics, but it is best manifested themselves samples 4,5. Their appearance was more delicious and had excellent taste qualities, physico-chemical indicators of the best have samples 2 and 5 for fat content and samples 2 and 4 the content of the protein. Total moisture, хлористому sodium all models conform to the permitted norm. The best option experience was 5 model with the addition of 1.2% food additive, he was more gentle, pleasant on taste, with excellent taste characteristics that distinguishes it from the other examined samples of sausages.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):119-124
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SAMARA REGION CROPS RESISTANCY TO PESTS WHILE STORAGING
Romadina Y.A.
Abstract
The research purpose – is to determine the stability of spring and winter wheat grain varieties to storage stocks pests due to biological and chemical indicators. 6 varieties of grain crops 3 varieties of spring wheat – Kinel’skaja Niva, Kinel.skaja Otrada, Грекум 3835, 3 varieties of winter wheat Volga 86, Konstantinovskaya Erythrospermum 30-36 have been studied towards Sitophilus granarium L., Rhizopertha dominiсa F. and small black Tribolium destructor Uytt. Among the spring wheat grain varieties the Grekum 3835 showed highest resistance to the barn Sitophilus granarium L., and small black Tribolium destructor Uytt , and to Rhizopertha dominiсa F. – Kinel’skaja Otrada. Among grain winter wheat varieties the most resistant was variety of of Erythrospermum 30-36, which had smaller weight loss during pests hosting and higher their mortus number. Grain varieties of winter wheat after all three pests types hosting and feeding showed no significant differences in the weight loss that ranged from 0,09 to 0,14, Comparison of grain studied varieties, chemical composition have estimated that their resistance to pests is associated with individual content of grain compounds.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2013;(4):124-127
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