Vol 4, No 4 (2019)

Articles
INFLUENCE OF SIDERITE CULTURES ON THE HUMUS BALANCE OF OIL-CONTAMINATED CHERNOZEMS OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
Trots N.M., Gorshkova O.V.
Abstract
The development of methods for the biological stage of oil contaminated soil remediation of agro-climatic zones of the Middle Volga region to restore their fertility was the aim of the study. Ensuring a deficit-free balance of humus for industry-related soils and their return to agricultural crop rotation is an actual problem of soil fertility recovery of agricultural lands of the Middle Volga region. Studies were carried out involving periods between 2012-2015 on oil-contaminated soils of three agro-ecological zones of the Samara region and, accordingly, oil fields groups: northern (NOF), central (COF), southern (SOF). Oil-contaminated chernozems with an area of 3.2 hectares (NOF), 5.28 hectares (COF), 35.32 hectares (SOF) were subject to remediation. Mixtures of oats with peas, Sudan grass with clover, oil radish with mustard, and yearling monoculture melilot were used as sidereal crops. The studies revealed that agro-phytocenosis on oil contaminated soil contained showed environmental sustainability, which is evidenced by the data on the aboveground mass of plants grown. The use of the following grass mixtures contributes to more effective phyto-remediation of oil contaminated soils: in the northern group of fields - oats + peas; central and southern areas - Sudan grass + clover. The break crops studied in all experiments provided a deficit-free balance of humus in the emergency fields. It is noted that in terms of the positive balance of humus, the most promising is a mixture of Sudanese grass and yearling melilot. The maximum humus balance turned out to be when cultivating a mixture of these siderites in the Central agro-climatic zone, the superiority in comparison with the Northern and Southern zones was 0.28 and 0.07 t / ha respectively.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2019;4(4):3-7
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TOLERANCE OF POTATO VARIETIES TO STREPTOMYCES SCABIES AND FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM IN IRRIGATED CONDITIONS OF ORENBURG REGION
Mushinsky A.A., Aminova E.A., Saudabayeva A.Z.
Abstract
Monitoring of varieties of Solánumtuberósum L. of domestic and foreign selection and to assess their resistance to the presence of relevant pathogens in irrigated conditions of the Orenburg region is the aim of the research. The possible vulnarability of Solánumtuberósum L. by the main pathogens typical for this territory - scab ( Streptomyces scabies ), stolonate rot and Fusarium wilt of potatoes ( Fusarium ochusrogim ) is considered by comparing table varieties of Russian and foreign selection cultivated in irrigated conditions of the Orenburg region. The experiment took place in 2016-2018 on the irrigated site of LLC «Agrofirma Promyshlennaya». The soil cover of the experimental site - southern chernozem, medium humus, srednemoschny (4.2% humus; 6.88 mg / 100 g of soil NO3ˉ; 2.59-3.89 mg / 100 g of soil P2O5; 33-45 mg/100 g of soil K2O). Most pathogenic diseases of potatoes cause huge damage to agriculture, as they spoil the marketable properties of the crop and thus lead to financial losses of farmers. During the period of research Streptomycess cabies was tested in control varieties Nevsky (1 %) and Spiridon (3.1 %), in variants with planting varieties Lubava - 12.1%, Agate - 3.2%, Burren - 2.3%, Red Scarlett and Fresco - 1 %. The rest of the varieties, showed no scab, the Fusarium tuber disease was observed in Agate varieties - 9.4 %, Lubava - 3.8 %, Fresco - 1.3 %, Burren - 1.0 %, Nevsky (control) - 4.2 %. The most resistant to the main pathogen varietiesof Solánumtuberósum L ., combining at the same time high yield (over 40 t/ha): Cavalier, Zakhar, Tarasov and Rosara. The studies were carried out in accordance with the research plan for 2019-2020 of the Federal state budgetary institution (№ 0761-2019-0011).
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2019;4(4):8-12
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NFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS, SOIL PROCESSING SYSTEMS AND FERTILIZERS ON THE YIELD AND QUALITY STRUCTURE OF SPRING WHEAT
Bakaeva N.P.
Abstract
The improvement of agricultural technology of spring wheat cultivation in order to obtain high quality yield and grain is the task of the study. It was established that the indicators of the elements of the crop structure depend to a large extent on the prevailing hydrothermal regimes of vegetative periods, to a lesser extent on the applied fertilizers and quite slightly on the soil cultivation systems. The greatest number of plants and the highest grain yield was obtained in the wet 2007 and 2017, the number of grains per spike, weight of grain per spike and 1000 grains in the medium dry 2008, 2009, 2016, the greatest accumulation of protein in grain was observed under hot and dry 2010. Significant values of the studied parameters were noted in the variants with the use of fertilizers. The weight of grain from the ear and 1000 grains depend on weather conditions and base of fertilizers. The largest weight of grain from ear and 1000 grains both on a fertilized soil and without fertilizers were in the average dry years 2008, 2009, 2016, with an increase in the values when applying fertilizers by 7.5-8.8%.In wet 2007, 2017, the weight of grain from the ear and 1000 grains on a fertilized soil was less by 24.3-27.0%, without fertilizers-by 20.6-25.3%. In extremely arid 2010, the weight of grain from the ear and 1000 grains on a fertilized soil was less by 40.1-40.5%, without fertilizers-by 39.1-39.7%. For the maximum values, the degrees of dependence on vegetation periods were determined, the connections were from weak and back, weak direct and medium direct to strong direct. Correlation coefficients amounted to -0.23, 0.22, 0.48, 0.42, 0.56, 0.62 accordingly.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2019;4(4):12-19
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SUBSTANTIATION OF NEEDLE SHAPE OF TRACTION-DRIVEN TILLAGE TOOLS
Savelyev Y.A., Petrov A.M., Ishkin P.A., Petrov M.A.
Abstract
Energy efficiency increase during soil cultivation by substantiating the shape of needles of rotary working parts of traction-driven tillage tools is the aim of the research. Tillage energy efficiency increase is one of the important tasks in improving the profitability and sustainability of agricultural production. It is proposed to increase cultivation energy efficiency due to the use of traction-drive tilling implement with active working parts, not creating high traction resistance and not requiring a large towing weight of aggregated tractor. The possibility of increasing the efficiency of the unit by reducing slipping of the tractor wheels and loss on rolling of the unit has been determined, which is achieved by transferring part of the power using the PTO of tractor to the drive working parts of tilling implement, which compensate traction resistance of the implement and create pushing force, reducing the resistance to rolling. The influence of the needle shape of the driving working parts on the direction of the resultant vector of resistance to soil deformation is investigated. The most advantageous shape of the needle is such one that provides minimal resistance to the penetration of the needle into the soil, and the resultant vector of resistance to soil deformation by it has a minimum value of the vertical component, i.e. total soil resistance is aimed at creating a pushing force. For this result the shape of the needle should provide a deepening of its entire working part through one point of the needle contact with the surface of the field. A theoretical dependence has been obtained that allows determining the optimal radius of curvature of the working part of the needle, depending on the disk diameter and the depth of loosening of the soil.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2019;4(4):20-28
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INSEMINATION PERIODS OF HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE COWS AFTER CALVING
Baymishev H.B., Eremin S.P., Baymisheva S.A., Petukhova E.I.
Abstract
The aim of the study is cow breeding capacity in terms of intensive technology of milk yield. It was established that 9 cows were successfully inseminated within the period 40-60 days after calving, 24 cows during 80-100 days, 48 cows during 110-130 days and 9 cows during 150-180 days. Totally of 100 cows were inseminated 90% of cows, 10 cows were not inseminated and after 200 days, despite the fact that all cows involved in the study were tested by rectal examination and ultrasound at the end of the involution of the uterus. The test revealed that in cows inseminated 110-130 days after calving (group 3), the fertilization index was 0.6; 0.8; 1.0 less than in cows of group 1, 2 and 4, respectively. The duration of delivery and the postpartum feeding are correlated with the period of insemination after calving. In cows inseminated after 40-60 and 80-100 days, the duration of delivery is 0.97 and 1.22 hours longer than in cows inseminated 110-130 days after calving. In group 3 cows the detention of the placenta is not marked, in the first group the percentage of detention of the placenta was 20, second - 10, fourth - 10%. In 10 cows of the first group postpartum complications were noted: in the form of subinvolution of the uterus 8% and acute purulent catarrhal endometritis - 2%. The most optimal period of insemination of highly productive cows after calving is 110-130 days, which apparently contributes to better preparedness of the morphofunctional state of the genital system of highly productive cows after calving, as well as the result of reducing the milk dominant. In cows not inseminated after 200 days, latent inflammatory processes in the uterus were revealed.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2019;4(4):29-33
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CONTENT OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN COLOSTRUM OF COWS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS DEPENDING ON TIME AFTER CALVING
Bakayeva L.N., Karamayev S.V., Karamayeva A.S.
Abstract
The aim of the research is to improve the quality of young replacements raising of dairy productivity by improving the immune status of colostrum milk and timely feeding of newborn calves. The main objective of the research is to study the dynamics of the immunoglobulins content of different classes in the colostrum of cows depending on the time after calving. Immunoglobulins incorporates three main classes-G, A, M. The Bestuzhev, Blackand White, Holstein and Ayr breeds of climatic zone of the Middle Volga and southern Urals were studied. IgG content in immunoglobulins of Bestuzhev colostrum breed amounted to - 86.1%, Black and White - 84.2%, Holstein - 84.0%, Ayr - 85.5%, IgA, respectively 8.9; 10.7; 10.9; 9.4%, Ig M-class - 5.0; 5.1; 5.2; 5.1%. It was found that Bestuzhev breed regardless of immunoglobulins class and time after calving, showed its highest content in colostrum, and Holstein breed the lowest share. The difference in the content of immunoglobulins in colostrum of cows with first milk yield between Bestuzhev and other breeds were as follows: IgG - 8.2-87.0%, IgA - 10.6-49.0%, IgM - 16.0-77.7%. Since the flow of immunoglobulins into the cells of the secretory epithelium of the udder alveola after calving stops, with each subsequent milking, their content in colostrum decreases. At night, when cows are not milked, there is also a decrease in the content of immunoglobulin of all studied classes. Just 24 hours after calving the IgG content in the Bestuzhev breed colostrum decreased by 44.3%, Black and White - 49.8%, Holstein - 40.5%, Ayr - by 47.2%, the content of IgA, respectively in regard to breeds - 28.4; 23.2; 16.7; 28.6%, IgM, 3; 2.9; 2.9; 3 times. Thus, the immune status of colostrum during the first days after calving significantly reduces, and loses its properties.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2019;4(4):34-39
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MORPHOLOGICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE APPLICATION EFFICIENCY FOR FUR FARMING
Slesarenko N.A., Voronin A.M.
Abstract
The aim of the study is morphological justification of the effectiveness of protein hydrolyzate use for fur farming. Influence of protein hydrolysate derived from mink muscle tissue on the structural organization of the American mink intestinal canal, characterized by absence of destructive rearrangements of its wall, strengthening of its absorption capacity, barrier and motor functions, have been estimated. On the basis of data obtained related to its stimulating effects on the tested additive on the remodeling of the structures of dermic and hair, the expediency of its application for fur farming was scientifically substantiated. The object of investigation is the American mink (n=60). Material of research - disembowel organ complex of the abdominal cavity, intestines and total cover of animals of the control group and animals receiving protein hydrolysate. Comprehensive methodological approach, including anatomical dissection with a detailed study of the structures that make the intestine and the overall cover, histological examination, macro-and micromorphometry, scanning electron microscopy and statistical processing of the data obtained by conventional methods were used. It was revealed that animals provided protein hydrolyzate were found to have morphological transformations of the intestinal canal wall aimed at enhancing its absorption capacity, barrier and motor functions, which is accompanied by increase of lymphoid associated tissue in its wall. Stimulating effect of protein hydro-lysate on the growth and metabolic processes of skin is expressed in the activation of the process of Remodeling of its structures and is confirmed by the increase in experimental groups of animals compared to con-controlling counterparts, indicators of its overall thickness by reducing the thickness of the epidermis and depth of hair follicles, and increase of hair in the flock. The normative macro- and micromorphological, morphometric indices of the intestinal canal and the total cover of the American mink, which are basic in the diagnosis of its clinical and physiological state, as well as the evaluation of the effects of drugs that stimulate growth and metabolic processes, were established.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2019;4(4):39-47
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VETERINARY AND ZOOTECHNICS COMPUTER MODELING IN VETERINARY MEDICINE
Petrov A.M., Kolsanov A.V., Baimishev H.B., Nazaryan A.K.
Abstract
The purpose of the study is the development and introduction into the subject «Animal Anatomy » innovative educational device - interactive anatomical 3D-Atlas of the cow provided at agricultural higher school training process » . The rapid process of digitalization of all spheres of activity of animal husbandry in General and veterinary medicine in particular raises the need of introduction modern teaching AIDS into the educational process, computer simulators, the creation of new forms of education associated with the educational technologies upgrading. For this purpose three cows were slaughtered of the same age, live weight and gender; anatomical dissection and morphometry including typical positional data of all anatomical structures of black-and-white cows. Then case records of textures and elastic layers of tissues of organs measured by strain gauge were created. Computer tomography and scanning of anatomic dissection were used for mathematical modeling and creation of a three-dimensional model of a cow. The created model allowed building of a hardware and software system for virtual work with a three-dimensional model of a cow. Anatomical 3D-Atlas cows expanded the range of training material use from visual familiarity with the anatomical material and acquired record to test of the quality of knowledge and automatic processing of the results; in addition anatomic body study and microanatomy is being provided and besides it is also possible to compare anatomical objects with each other (including normal range and pathology). The accuracy of demonstrating the organism of a cow, the granularity of huge anatomical information, its storage, as well as the rapid search and quality of pathological samples make the developed Atlas unique in anatomical, topographic and clinical content.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2019;4(4):48-54
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DEPENDENCE OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN COLOSTRUM OF COWS ON THE STORAGE AND PREPARATION FOR FEEDING
Bakayeva L.N., Karamayeva A.S., Karamayev S.V.
Abstract
The purpose of this work is colostrum upgrading via storage optimization and preparation it before newborn calves feeding.The colostrum of Bestuzhev, Black and White, Golstein and Ayr breeds stored before calves feeding at different temperatures was tested. It was established that the highest content of immunoglobulins in colostrum of Bestuzhev breed (98.86 g/l) predominated over Black and White contemporary composition by 55.8%, Golstein - by 80.1%, Ayr - by 17.2%. In the colostrum cooled up to 4°C and when then warmed up in 24 h to 38°C the content of immunoglobulins decreased, respectively in groups by 3.44; 5.22; 6.16; 4.04%. Not only temperature regimes, but also storage duration period affects colostrum quality change. Colostrum freezing preservation within 365 days, leads to decrease the content of immunoglobulins, respectively on breeds by 5.28 g/l (5.3%); 5.25 g/l (8.3%); 5.41 g/l (9.9%), 5.20 g/l (6.2%). Along with colostrum quality decline, the intensity of transition of immunoglobulins into the blood of calves decreases, when cooling colostrum to 4°C with the subsequent heating to 38°C by 4.4; 8.7; 7.8; 9.5%, storage at freezing preservation, thawed state and warmed up to 38°C, respectively by 22.0; 14.7; 13.7; 21.2%. As a result, colostrum stored at first keeping conditions, the incidence of calves disease increased by 5.1; 9.9; 8.4; 4.4%, in the second case - by11.0; 21.6; 20.2; 10.3%. Thus, immunoglobulins of colostrum are very sensitive to temperature influences and further researches are recommended to be conducted within searching of more perfect method of colostrum thawing.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2019;4(4):54-60
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MORPHOLOGIC FEATURES OF SKELETAL MUSCLE OF EGG QUAIL FEMALES
Slesarenko N.A., Bolshunov V.A.
Abstract
The aim of the study was to establish regularities and features of skeletal muscle morphogenesis on the example of the musculus quadriceps femoris rectus capitis and the musculus pectoralis major of egg flock of males and females. The patterns and features of postembryonic skeletal muscle morphogenesis of females and males of the Japanese quail of egg flock, at different stages of growth (days 32 and 42), using the example of the musculus quadriceps femoris rectus capitis and superficial pectoral muscle including indicators such as: the thickness of muscle fibers and their bundles, the thickness of endomysium and perimision, the number of muscle fibers under the view, the correlation of muscle areas and the connective tissue on the longitudinal section. The work was carried out on the basis of the Department of «Anatomy and Histology of Animals» named after Professor A.F. Klimov and on the basis of JSC Technology Department of the Federal Scientific Center «VNITIP» RAS in the period from 2016 to 2019. Classical macro- and micromorphological methods and statistical analysis of the digital data obtained were used. Asynchronous growth of the skeletal muscles, increased differentiation of cellular structures at certain times (21st and 32nd days) has been established, differences in the histological structure of skeletal muscles depending on the age of birds and its gender has been shown. It was established that female quails of the breed studied dominate over males in all respects. A comparative characteristic of these muscles at different stages of postembryonic ontogenesis, as well as in regard to gendered dimorphism during research periods is given. Superiority of the quadriceps femoris muscle, namely its straight head over the superficial pectoral muscle, over all micromorphological indicators at all periods of the research, as well as the earlier differentiation of its intracellular structures.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2019;4(4):60-65
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