Vol 5, No 1 (2020)

Articles
WINTER WHEAT CULTIVATION WITH HIGH PROTEIN PRODUCTION IN THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION
Saltykova O.L., Zudilin S.N.
Abstract
The aim of the research is improving the agricultural technology of winter wheat cultivation in the Middle Volga region. The research involved many years was conducted in the fields of the Department «Agriculture» and research laboratory «Agroecology» of the Samara State Agrarian University. The highest yield of winter wheat (2.79 t/ha) was obtained by double application of nitrogen (N30 + N30) on complete fallow with zero tillage. At the same time, the 1000 grains mass reached 46.6 g. The nitrogen content in the grain, on the average, was the highest (2.4%) in the variants on complete fallow when plowing and loosening the soil with double nitrogen application, which contributed to the highest accumulation of protein in grain (13.92%) and gluten fractions (gliadins and glutelins) - 8%. The highest nitrogen yield was observed on complete fallow in the variant without cultural practice and with double application of nitrogen-on the average 179.10 kg/ha, on full fallow (peas), the nitrogen yield was the lowest - on the average 70.3 kg/ha. Economic efficiency calculation of winter wheat cultivation showed that the lowest cost of 1 ton of grain, the highest net income and profitability (at the level of 92.34%) were obtained on complete fallow without cultural practice and with double application of nitrogen fertilizing. This variant was characterized by the highest coefficient of energy efficiency of harvesting - 2.18, and the lowest coefficient of energy intensity of protein accumulation - 5.31.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(1):3-9
views
ASSESSMENT OF AGROMETEOROLOGICAL INDICATORS OF ATMOSPHERIC DROUGHTS AND YIELD OF GRAIN CROPS UNDER THE CHANGING CONDITIONS OF THE REGIONAL CLIMATE
Nemtsev S.N., Sharipova R.B.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is justification the use of drought-resistant varieties suitable for local conditions and technologies for their cultivation on the territory of the Ulyanovsk region. The relevance of the study is important due to the problem of agrometeorological monitoring of drought and crop conditions, since the Ulyanovsk region has a very high probability of severe and very severe droughts, which in some cases cause a catastrophic decrease in crop productivity. In this regard, the research is aimed at identifying patterns of formation of dry phenomena and adaptation of the agricultural sector to specific conditions of aridity, taking into account crops and specialization of agricultural production. Methods of comparison, analysis and generalization of the initial data make the base for studies. Estimates of regional climate changes were made using proven statistical methods, correlation and trend analysis, the reliability of which was evaluated using Fisher and Student criteria, allowing a comprehensive review of agrometeological indicators of atmospheric droughts and crop yields in changing regional climatatic conditions, as well as providing recommendations for adjusting the technology of their cultivation. Materials presented for analysis on climate change within the period between 1961-2018 years revealed an increase in the average annual temperature over the years of research by 2.3°C and an increase in precipitation by 131 mm, and understand the recurrence of atmospheric drought in the region every three years. An intense, persistent drought that causes a significant decrease in crop productivity occurs on average once every nine years. The materials of the article are of practical value for agricultural specialists in the preparation of recommendations, reference books and generalization of microclimatic information in an intensive farming system.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(1):10-17
views
METHODS FOR PRODUCTIVITY OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS INCREASE BY USING ORGANIC MINERAL FERTILIZERS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION FOREST-STEPPE
Kiseleva L.V., Zhizhin M.A.
Abstract
The study aim is increasing the productivity of sunflower hybrids by using organic and mineral fertilizers. The effectiveness of complex treatment with organic fertilizers for sunflower cultivation is confirmed by both scientific and farm tests have been provided including all regions and climatic zones of Russia. In 2017-2019, the field experience was based on a two-factor scheme in 3-fold repetition on the experimental field of the Department «Crop Production and Agriculture of the Samara State UNIVERSITY». The Moldovan sunflower hybrids Zimbru, Talmaz, Oscar, Codru, Dacia, Performer, NSH 6006, NSH 6009, as well as Spanish organic fertilizers (Aminokat 10%, Raikat development, Kelkat Bor) were involved into study. During the years of research, favorable weather conditions happened for the use of organic and mineral fertilizers. In the first critical period, there was a decrease in temperature in the phase 1-3 pairs of true leaves that affected the length of the growing season of all studied hybrids and was from 3 to 30 days longer. For late-maturing hybrids, this phase took a longer period, and they almost avoided the negative effects of low temperatures. The article presents data on the effect of processing various combinations of organic and mineral fertilizers on the formation of agrophytocenosis of sunflower hybrids. Their positive effect is clearly visible - the yield of hybrids increased relatively to the control when using Aminocate 10% + Raikat. Development by an average of 9.5...18.8%, and to a lesser extent when processing Aminocate 10% + Kelcat Boron - by 4.9...15.2%. Among the hybrids, the most productive was NSH 6006-23.4...26.5 C/ha. The possibility of Moldovan sunflower hybrids to produce high yields of good quality when using organic fertilizers in the forest-steppe of the Middle Volga region was established.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(1):17-23
views
INFLUENCE OF COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF MICRONUTRIENT ELEMENTS ON COTTON PLANT GROWTH AND YIELD
Pirakhunova F.N., Abzalov A.A., Turakulov A.A.
Abstract
The aim of the research is increasing the viability and stability of seeds of various cotton varieties in unfavorable soil and climatic conditions of Uzbekistan. Trace elements with different ligand compounds effect favorably on cotton boll bursting. Cobalt-34 facilitates the cotton boll bursting by 28% in comparison with the control. The copper stimulating effect on early maturity of cotton boll is 14.5-26.5%, in control one - 1.6%. Seed soaking seed before sowing takes place and cotton fertilization during budding contributed to more intensive growth and greater productivity. The yield of cotton in the control was 33.1 C/ha, in experimental versions - 37.5-39.3 C/ha. Processing of seeds with trace elements before sowing activates seed germination, accelerates the phenophase start and leads to early cotton boll bursting (up to 32%) compared to the control. Secondary seed tillage with compounds of cobalt and copper of different ligands nature increases the yield to 6.2 C/ha due to reducing the early fall of cotton boll. Under the influence of trace elements, the hydrolytic breakdown of proteins increases. Copper-12 and cobalt-34 24 hours later after seed soaking accelerate the breakdown of proteins, which have 11 and 12 electrophoretic albinotic bands against 13. In these variants, the breakdown of albinotic substances into simpler ones (amino acids, ammonia, etc.) contributes to the germination of cotton seeds. After the second day of soaking cotton seeds in all variants, there is a quantitative decrease in electrophoretic protein bands especially in ones containing Copper-12 and cobalt 8. Seed soaking for a period of 72 hours accelerates the breakdown of proteins from 13 to 7 electrophoretic lbinotic bands, while there is increased seed germination. Soaking cotton seeds for more than 24 hours reduces the quality of the seed, increases the breakdown of protein substances that are vigorously spent on cotton germination, which makes difficult to sow, damaging a large number of seeds. 24-hour soaking of cotton seed is recommended to get early and good shoots.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(1):23-29
views
EFFECT OF ANTI-CORROSION INHIBITORS ON PROTECTION PERFORMANCE OF AUTO BODY ELEMENTS
Sazonov D.S., Erzamaev M.P., Zhiltsov S.N., Bychenin A.P.
Abstract
The research purpose is increasing the effectiveness of anti-corrosion treatment of external auto body elements u sing the inhibitors. Studies of anti-corrosion inhibitors for protecting wheel arches and auto bottoms during periodic moisture condensation without electrolyte exposure, as well as in the electrolyte (magnesium chloride-11 g/l, calcium chloride - 1.2 g/l, sodium sulphate - 4.0 g/l, sodium chloride - 25 g/l) are presented. Type steel plates 09G2S were selected as object of conservation. The plates were treated with the following anti-corrosion inhibitors: OILRIGHT lubricant, Kudo base coating, and Dinitrol Metallic anticorrosion material. Control samples were Plates with no inhibitor treatment were chosen as control samples. Before applying corrosion inhibitors, the surface of the plates was degreased and dried, and then each plate weight was determined by AND HR-200 electronic laboratory scale. Kudo coating and Dinitrol Metallic material were applied from aerosol bottle according to the technical documentation. OILRIGHT lubricant was applied by dipping the plate for 1 min into an inhibitor heated in a water bath to a temperature of 100ºC. The results showed that the Dinitrol Metallic inhibitor provides the best protection during periodic condensation of moisture without electrolyte affect. Electrolyte study shows the anti-corrosion material Dinitrol failed to provide protection against corrosion on (41.6% of the total area) KUDO coating left 11.9% of area corrosion unprotected. The studied inhibitors showed the best efficiency of protection against the effects of the electrolyte has the OILRIGHT lubricant, its degree of protection is 90.6%, and a total corrosion affected area was less than 1%. The Dinitrol Metallic material protects steel from salt exposure by 28.8%, while the corrosion rate is reduced by 1.4 times. Kudo protective coating slows down corrosion by 2.6 times and provides a protection level of 61.9 %.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(1):29-36
views
FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM OF THE SOWING UNIT BASED ON A PNEUMATICCALLY OPERATED SEEDER
Kravtsov A.V., Konovalov V.V., Kuchmasov K.S., Zaitsev V.Y.
Abstract
The purpose of the study is developing a structural scheme for the operation of a pneumatic seeding unit. Seeding down is one of the main technological processes determining the final result of total field operations targeted at the cultivation of grains. It is possible to determine the influence of various factors, including design solutions, on the quality performance of the sowing unit by developing and analyzing its structural scheme of functioning. Based on the analysis of constructive-technological scheme of the machine-tractor unit for grains sowing, conditions of work, textural composition and physical and mechanical properties of seed and fertilizer structural diagram of the functioning of the sowing unit with pneumatically operated seeder was developed. The analysis of the structural scheme of functioning of the sowing unit allowed revealing main directions of improvement of qualitative and quantitative indicators of seeding. Improving the accuracy of seeding is determined by setting the seeding machine to a given seeding rate, taking into regard compensation for wheel slippage. The improved uniformity of seeding in rows may account for the improvement of the design of rail line (from the ejector to the distributor) and reduction of the ripple of the sown material from that meter, as well as the partial smoothing of the motion of seed in the pneumatic system of the drill. Reducing seed injury is possible due to the improving the design of the sowing apparatus, reducing the speed mode of the air concentrated product flow, improving the design of the pneumatic system in terms of preventing frontal impacts of particles on the walls of the pneumatic system. Improving the uniformity of seeding in a row is determined by the design of the Coulter group and its compliance with the speed mode of the seeder operation, subject to the permissible values of the air outlet speed from the Coulter.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(1):36-44
views
IMMUNOLOGICAL COW’S STATUS DEPENDING ON AN IMMUNOMODULATING AGENT DOSAGE
Baimisheva S.A.
Abstract
The aim of the study is increasing the immunological status of highly productive cows before and after calving. To conduct research, 4 groups of 10 heads each were formed from the number of cows that were in the first period of dry standing, using the principle of analogue pairs (control, experienced-1, experienced-2 and experienced-3). Cows of the control group were not injected with an immunomodulatory agent, the experimental groups were intramuscularly injected 25-30 days before calving with an immunomodulator three times at intervals of 7 days and once 8-12 hours after calving. The immunomodulating agent was administered to cows of the experimental groups in the following dose: experimental-1 - 4.0 ml; experimental-2 - 6.0 ml; experimental-3 - 8.0 ml. The conditions for feeding and keeping animals of the studied groups were the same. It was found that the introduction of an immunomodulatory agent in a dose of 6.0 ml intramuscularly three times with an interval of 7 days 25-30 days before calving and once 8-12 hours after reduces the number of rod-nuclear neutrophils from 3.2 to 1.6%, young neutrophils-from 1.4 to 0.6%, lymphocytes - from 56.0 to 53.6% and increases segmentonuclear neutrophils from 30.08 to 35.20%, monocytes - from 2.8 to 4.8%. Indicators of natural resistance of cows that were injected with an immunomodulating agent at a dose of 6.0 ml had larger gradients compared to the ones of animals in the control groups: in regard to phagocytic activity of neutrophils - by 4.67%, for bactericidal - by 5.95%, for lysozyme - by 3.41% (5 days before calving). The use of an immunomodulatory agent in a dose of 6.0 ml increases the performance of the protective ability of cows before and after calving.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(1):45-50
views
INFLUENCE OF STROMAL-VASCULAR FRACTION CELLS ON REPARATIVE REGENERATION OF INDUCED ACHILLES TENDON INJURY
Slesarenko N.A., Zharikov A.M.
Abstract
The purpose of the research is to provide a morphological justification of the effectiveness of cell products in Achilles tendon rupture. Autologous drugs have the highest biological safety among cellular drugs. Out of these, stromal-vascular cells and multipotent mesenchymal stem cells that have the ability to support themselves, differentiate into different cell types, and mobilize the reparative process in tissues have been positively recommended for clinical practice. Almost there’s no information about the dynamic morphological process control and reparations in their application. The impact of stromal-vascular fraction of rat adipose tissue on the regenerative process in the healing of the defect, which is expressed in reducing the risk of recurrence, peaceful architectonics fibers shaped dense connective tissue and activate the formation and maturation of granulation tissue have been evaluated. Based on the data on the positive effect of the studied cell product on the regeneration of the Achilles tendon, scientifically grounded its feasibility and use in veterinary medicine. The experimental model of the study is a fancy rat (n=20). The material for the study is the Achilles tendon. A set of methods including anatomical dissection, experimental modeling, and histological examination of Achilles tendon biopsies have been used. It was revealed that in experimental animals which were injected with this cell product, micromorphological transformations of connective tissue were detected, aimed affected the fibroarchitectonics and thickening of bundles of collagen fibers. The stimulating effect of the stromal-vascular fraction on the reparative process of the Achilles tendon defect is expressed in a greater degree of vascularization of the tissue and an increase in the number of fibroblasts in groups of experimental animals, while in animals of the control group, the regulating of fibers is disturbed, which contributes to the recurrences.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(1):50-56
views
THE ADAPTIVE CAPACITY OF MONTBELIARDE COW BREED
Valitov H.Z., Talakina A.A., Karamaev S.V.
Abstract
The aim of the research is breeding Montbeliarde cattle which milk can be used for the production of hard cheeses. The research was carried out on Kinelsky farm of LLC «AGROCOM» of Samara region. Three groups of cows were formed: 1) black-and-white 2) cross of black-and-white with Holsteins and 3) Montbeliarde breeds. Experimental animals were provided common feeding and keeping conditions. One of objective indicators of adaptation of cattle to the conditions of their habitat is the state of the hair cover, upon which health of cows, strength of their Constitution and productivity can be determined. Features of adaptation to environmental conditions of cows from experimental groups were studied in winter (February), when hair covering is well marked, and in summer (July), when new hair grows after molting (n=5). Depending on the season of the year hair cover, its characteristics, morphological composition of blood, biochemical blood parameters, humoral and cellular factors of nonspecific protection of the body of experimental cows were assessed. Changes were found not only in the morphological composition of the hair, but also in the content of mineral substances depending on the breed. The hair cover of Monbeliarde breed in regard to seasons provides good adaptability to the environment. Cows have good protective hair cover - in winter, the specific weight of down increases, in summer-awn, which indicates good adaptive capability of animals in the conditions of industrial technology. Specific animal adaptive capability is largely determined by natural and protective resistance of organism to various adverse environmental factors.
Bulletin Samara State Agricultural Academy. 2020;5(1):56-63
views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies