Bioethics

The need for such a publication as the journal "Bioethics" was realized at the beginning of the twenty-first century in connection with the following events:

  1. Adoption of the International Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine. Russia endorsed the Convention, but did not accede to it due to the lack of the ethical and legal framework in this area. It was necessary to create it.
  2. International contacts of researchers in the field of natural sciences and, above all, medicine, could not be carried out without sanctions from ethical committees. They have already begun to be created in Russia, but it was necessary to seriously improve the qualification of their members. Educational programs and a platform for the exchange of experience were needed.
  3. Since 2001, Bioethics has become an obligatory academic discipline in medical universities in Russia. There was no system for retraining and / or enhancing the staff of bioethics teachers in the country. It was necessary to develop a teaching and methodological base for them.\
  4. The introduction of new biotechnologies into the practice, first of all, medical ones, required research on the social risks associated with them. Ethical filters for the implementation of human enhancement technologies, the prediction of the negative effects of neurobiological constructs, editing the human genome, ART, the convergence of living and nonliving, regenerative medicine, etc. - all this has become an urgent task, which only bioethics could solve.

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Vol 14, No 1 (2021)

Theoretical bioethics

SOCIAL VALUE OF ETHICAL PROBLEMS FOR MODERN GENETIC RESEARCH IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY
Kubar O.I., Mikirtichan G.L., Nikitina A.E., Steger F.
Abstract

This paper presents the multivariate analysis of the bioethical criterion for the understanding the social value of genetic research in medicine and biology. From the point of view of moral assessment, a historical retrospective and dialectics of genetic technologies’ development and their application in medical practice are given. The presented data indicate the social and moral conflict of the unbalanced genetic technologies’ using and the way for ethical and normative solution. The leading approaches to the search for optimization of genetic technologies based on improving the ethics of science, education, public confidence, and ensuring the ethical component of legislative regulation are considered. The construction of the work and the discussion of the results confirms by real and promising examples of genetic technologies: perinatal and pre-implantation diagnostics; genetic banks; editing the human genome. The specificity of the work lies in the direct long-term author's participation in the creation of an ethical concept of genetic research in medicine and biology on the national, regional and international levels.

Bioethics. 2021;14(1):5-12
pages 5-12 views
THE APOLOGY OF THE WHOLE
Tiras H.P.
Abstract

At the level of the whole organism, an idea of the complexity of living things is formed as a combination of levels of organization (layers) of biological and virtual reality, which develops as a space for visualization (digitization) of living objects. New digital formats of living objects, coupled with the naturalistic ethics of obtaining them, create a trend towards a complete transition of biology to a quantitatively new level of obtaining biological information – information about the state of living biological objects. The development of digital biology contributes to an increasingly large-scale transition to the creation and analysis of virtual images of living biological objects, and at the same time "removes" the biologist from the actual object of research: a biologist can work with a virtual image and not destroy his research object. Digital naturalism appears, and, consequently, a digital "experiment" must also be expected, which will undoubtedly continue the eternal confrontation between naturalists and naturalists or vitalists with mechanists in the new techno environment.

Bioethics. 2021;14(1):13-17
pages 13-17 views
THE PHENOMENON OF DISASTROUS PROGRESS IN THE LIGHT OF CONSERVATIVE BIOETHICS
Smirnov K.S., Korobko E.V.
Abstract

The phenomenon of the disastrous progress is analyzed in the article. This one is conditioned by the development of technoscience having biocapitalism behind it. The essence of the disastrous progress is that so-called digitalization leads to the rise of digital civilization, which is giving opportunities for the total control, new, technological form of slavery and even optimization of the size of "useless" people. As the alternative of the disastrous progress the bioethical discourse in the form of conservative bioethics is proposed. This one is considered as new philosophy. Using deconstructive approach one is demonstrating that conservative bioethics is the study about human as spiritual creature, who is connected with life as net structure just in this dimension. Thus, conservative bioethics is interpreted as radical ethics of the preservation of life, which is able to block the destructive tendency of the modern progress

Bioethics. 2021;14(1):17-21
pages 17-21 views
THE FORMATION OF THE ETHICS OF ANCIENT MEDICINE
Tabatadze G.S., Kostenko O.V., Karachentseva T.S.
Abstract

The article considers the formation of the ethics of healing in ancient Egypt and Ancient India, as mandatory rules of behavior of a doctor. Based on historical sources, the article highlights the most characteristic ethical norms of ancient medicine. The formation of the foundations of medical ethics in these countries (III–II millennium BC), had very similar features, and the specifics were related to the historical and cultural characteristics of a particular society, it occurred spontaneously, at the level of subjective perception and evaluation of the appropriate actions of the doctor. The formation of the doctor's ethics is considered as a process of his socialization, i.e. as a kind of mastering of the ethical norms accepted in this society. It is shown that the formation of medical ethics changes the emphasis of public morality, shifting them towards interpersonal relations in the field of healing, thereby supplementing ethics with new values and understanding of human life.

Bioethics. 2021;14(1):21-26
pages 21-26 views
DESYNCHRONIZATION, TEMPORALITY AND ANTI-HUMANISM: THE PROBLEM OF BIOCAPITALISM STABILITY
Petrov K.A.
Abstract

For a significant number of researchers, the theoretical and methodological prerequisite for the analysis of biocapitalism is the "local knowledge" model. It is characterized by the fact that the research position is ethically loaded: the only possible way to talk about various forms of capital is associated with the need to give the floor to representatives of social groups subjected to discrimination and exploitation. This requirement leads to the elimination of biocapital as a research problem, its transformation into a non-object. Such disregard for bio-capital leads to the impossibility of an adequate assessment of the risks associated with the development of biotechnologies. An important step towards the creation of a theory of biocapitalism is the appeal to the concept of "theoretical anti-humanism" proposed by Louis Althusser. Based on this methodological principle, biocapitalism should be considered as a set of non-objective processes based on the movement of value, whose continuity is rooted in the special modes of functioning of biotechnologies. One aspect of biotechnologies is their ability to create, modify, and control "local times" i.e., the flow rates of various processes. These opportunities become a source of profit for bio-capital. Explication of the conditions of such capital work shows that any biotechnological innovation becomes what is called in the language of actor-network theory a "point of mandatory passage" – a point of connection of the interests of a set of heterogeneous actors. Each of the actors connects their own social expectations with the existence of the technology. Thus, the desire to use oocytes frozen in the biobank suggests the need to maintain the existing technoinfrastructure. Thus, the desynchronization that occurs when using biotechnologies is a way to preserve the available method of capital production, which leads to the idea that there is no alternative to biocapitalism.

Bioethics. 2021;14(1):27-31
pages 27-31 views

Practical bioethics

UNDERSTANDING OUTCOMES OF THE PANDEMIC: SAFETY ETHICS
Filippov A.V., Donika A.D., Ostrovsky A.M.
Abstract

Summing up the interim results in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic determines a multidisciplinary approach to studying the problem of security for all spheres of society. The analysis of the priority of scientific publications carried out on the platform of the information resource CyberLeninka showed that the main interest of researchers is medical and information security. Taking into account the tendency for legal norms to lag behind ethical ones, and the specifics of the legal support of these spheres of social life, a working hypothesis was developed based on the assumption that the explication of ethical challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic will determine the strategy of social policy in these priority areas. Quantitative and qualitative sociological methods (content analysis, case study, survey) were used in the work. Fragments of sociological research carried out in collaboration based on the Volgograd and Gomel State Medical Universities are used. The results obtained demonstrate ethical deformations in the medical and, in general, in the social sphere. In the context of the pandemic, the problem of the vulnerability of socially unprotected groups has become more acute. The basic moral tenets of the ethics of care are violated in relation to patients with severe concomitant diseases and patients with limited mobility. The extreme conditions which the national health care system found itself began to be perceived in the professional group of medical specialists as "extenuating circumstances" allowing, in conditions of survival, to neglect not only medical ethics, but also the law. These tendencies are reflected in the minds of future doctors, which requires strengthening the positions of the humanitarian block of disciplines in the curricula of professional education. The tendencies noted have an international nature, which determines the possible implementation of the approaches developed in the process of international collaboration into the practice of humanitarian national professional education.

Bioethics. 2021;14(1):32-35
pages 32-35 views
SURGICAL MASK AS A SYMBOL OF LIFE TRANSFORMATION
Wiegel N.L., Shapoval G.N., Kartashova E.A.
Abstract

The article examines the history of the emergence and use of surgical masks. Despite such a significant variety of masks types, the meaning and main function of them are the same in any case: to cover the face, not to let you see emotions, experience, feelings that are always reflected on the face. Hiding the face from others, translated from the language of symbols, means the symbolic "death of the person". The person who puts on the mask "dies", ceases to exist in the familiar form for others and is "reborn" in a new form. Such self-transformation affects not only a different perception for others, but also self-awareness. The surgical mask, updated during the coronavirus pandemic, is becoming a part of people's lives instead of a medical attribute. Today there is a whole world behind these masks: human health, environmental crisis, identity crisis, protest symbol, and surgical masks exacerbate alienation and create an external standardization and template. We would like this symbolic meaning of confusion and fear, loneliness and isolation, uncertainty about the future to turn into a sign of care and a gesture of community of people.

Bioethics. 2021;14(1):36-38
pages 36-38 views
LEGAL REGULATION OF THE HEALTH RESORT COMPLEX OF THE KRASNODAR TERRITORY IN THE CONDITIONS OF COVID-19
Kozhevnikov L.L., Shchekin G.Y.
Abstract

The article presents an analysis of the regulatory legal acts regulating directly or indirectly the activities of the sanatorium-resort complex of the Krasnodar Region in the conditions of COVID-19. The chronology of the introduction of bans and their gradual lifting within the framework of the activities of the sanatorium-resort complex reflected the all-Russian situation, which in general determined the content of the adopted regulatory legal acts. It was revealed that in the Krasnodar Region, in contrast to the Stavropol Region, where they were also concerned about the situation with COVID-19 and the preservation of the sanatorium complex, there is no approved plan for the phased exit of this complex from the anti-epidemic restrictions regime that may adversely affect the operation of the health resort complex of the Krasnodar Region.

Bioethics. 2021;14(1):39-41
pages 39-41 views
GENETIC TECHNOLOGIES IN THE MODERN WORLD: ESCALATION OF OPPORTUNITIES AND SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES
Basov A.V., А.А. Ruhtin А.А.
Abstract

The article examines the development of genetic science from the moment of its inception to the present state, shows the transformation of ideas about genetics and attitudes towards it during the evolution of public consciousness (from utopianism to alarmism). The modern possibilities of genetic technologies, the prospects of their influence on social structures and on the nature of the person himself are analyzed, the risks and social consequences associated with this process are explicated. The potential of genetic engineering, technologies of "human improvement", genetic testing is considered, its ability to influence the fundamental foundations of human existence, the ability to transform the boundaries between biological and social, nature and culture, is demonstrated. The authors also touch upon the problem of transhumanism, within the framework of which the contradiction between the position of the supporters of the emergence of mankind on a new round of evolution and modern ideas about the natural equality of all people is indicated, the overcoming of which carries ethical, legal and political consequences that are difficult to predict.

Bioethics. 2021;14(1):41-45
pages 41-45 views

Applied Bioethics

EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING A WORKING PROGRAM AND APPROBATION OF THE DISCIPLINE "BASIS OF PHARMACEUTICAL ETHICS AND DEONTOLOGY"
Guryanov P.S., Guryanova M.N.
Abstract

The article discusses the experience of creating the work programs for the disciplines "Bioethics with the basics of deontology" and "Basics of pharmaceutical ethics and deontology" at the Department of organization, economics and history of pharmacy. The relevance of addressing this topic is that in the educational process of training a pharmacist there are no disciplines that give a first-year student an idea of what he will do in his future professional life, what tasks await him, what bioethical problems he will solve in his professional life. When developing of approaches to the creation of educational and methodological complexes, the main tasks of the discipline were formulated: consideration of the main stages of the formation and development of pharmaceutical ethics as an independent discipline; analysis of the main directions of pharmaceutical ethics with the studying of practical issues of the main problematics; developing ideas about the meaning of the activities of a pharmaceutical specialist in the modern pharmaceutical market within the framework of the ethical components of the profession. Approaches are described to the development of modules of the work program, of the choice of topics for classes and of the filling of the block "Students' independent work". A list of students' practical skills is offered: annotation and abstracting, compilation of grouping tables; application of methods of analysis in the study of ethical and deontological problems; conducting discussions

and polemics; solving of situational problems in professional pharmaceutical activity from the standpoint of pharmaceutical ethics and deontology. It is concluded that it is possible to use the experience of the Perm State Pharmaceutical Academy in the development of work programs for the discipline "Basics of Pharmaceutical Ethics and Deontology" by other universities.

Bioethics. 2021;14(1):46-51
pages 46-51 views
THE DISTANCE EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES IMPLEMENTATION IN THE HIGHER SCHOOLS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS
Mandrikov V.B., Vakalova L.G., Zubarev Y.A., Gorbacheva V.V.
Abstract

The models used for the application of distance learning technologies assume different degrees of direct control of the educational process by the teacher, as well as the degrees of interaction and the presence of direct contact between the teacher and the student. Not all models, unlike the traditional training system, allow teachers and educational institutions to retain the functions of full management of the educational process. The factor of personal communication is disappearing which means we can’t talk about the education of a moral attitude to a healthy lifestyle. The search for new educational teaching methods in a mixed format is carried out, the role of the teacher's personality in such a model is discussed.

Bioethics. 2021;14(1):52-55
pages 52-55 views
INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS AT RUSSIAN MEDICAL SCHOOL: THE ETHICS OF COMMUNICATION BEFORE AND DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC
Alshuk N.A.
Abstract

The development of ethical standards for future doctors is one of the main goals of higher medical education. It is especially important for students from different countries studying together. But if in ordinary times the determinants of moral relationships are obvious and successfully implemented, in the "Covid era", when many international students were isolated from each other and from the university due to the closed borders, self-isolation, quarantine and switched to distance learning, it became extremely difficult to solve the problem of ethical meaning of communication [1]. In order to identify the main directions of work in this area, we

applied the focus group method, inviting as experts not those students who are studying at the university now, but our international graduates from different years and those who worked with them, so that they could compare the former and the current, not yet fully formed, models of higher medical education.

Bioethics. 2021;14(1):55-58
pages 55-58 views
WELL-BEING OF MEDICAL WORKERS DURING A PANDEMIC: ETHICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
Serova I.A., Yagodina A.U., Kostenko O.A.
Abstract

The article presents a reflexive technology for conducting a survey among residents on the problem of health of medical workers during pandemic. Content analysis of reminiscences about the peculiarities of providing medical care during pandemic of coronavirus showed the need for the early implementation of rapid testing for SARS-cov-2 before personnel in order to stop the spread of infection by medical workers. There is a clear need to analyze the effectiveness of ways of dividing contagious patient groups from other patients in primary medical care. The return to the workplace of doctors after a coronavirus infection is connected with their preliminary examination and rehabilitation – it is a thesis for current human rights issues.

Bioethics. 2021;14(1):59-62
pages 59-62 views

Events

MEETING OF HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS OF SOCIAL HUMANITARIAN DISCIPLINES OF MEDICAL UNIVERSITIES IN RUSSIA
Pronin M.A., Sedova N.N., Petrov A.V.
Abstract

The extremely unfavorable situation in the system of medical humanitaristics prompted teachers of the social and humanitarian sciences of medical universities in Russia to unite their efforts to provide humanitarian support for higher and secondary medical education. The article provides information about the meeting of the heads of the departments of socio-humanitarian disciplines held this year and the decisions made. Three key issues are considered: forms of association, improving the educational process and changing the criteria for the effectiveness of teachers of the humanitarian sciences. Attention is drawn to the fact that it is necessary to involve teachers of medical disciplines in the process of modernization of medical humanitaristics.

Bioethics. 2021;14(1):63-65
pages 63-65 views

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