Vol 9, No 1 (2016)

Articles
A New textbook on Bioethics
Petrov V.I.
Abstract
The article provided information on the appearance of a new modern textbook on bioethics catering for students of medical schools published by the KnoRus Publishing House (Moscow). This event is of great importance for the Bioethics journal as the textbook includes the topics discussed by the journal authors. It also recommends the best articles to be studied by students. The textbook is practical realization of the teamwork of the editorial staff as well as numerous bioethics enthusiasts, the authors of the journal.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):5-5
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ETHICAL REFLECTION OF BIOCAPITALISM (ACTUAL CONTROVERSY OF CULTURE)
Smirnov K.S., Petrov K.A.
Abstract
In article it is showed the arised disagreement regarding human in modern culture. On the one hand one can see the new phase in the dynamics of modern capitalism, that is biocapitalism. The last is the total capitalism, which is reducing human to the so - called human capital. It is assuming the transformation of human in entrepreneur - of - the - self, whose logics of activity is yielding completely to the all - embracing motion of capital. The result is the new form of total human dependence, which has got disastrous consequences. On the other hand the origin of bioethics is making it possible to indicate new vision of human within the framework of the integral socially - anthropological theory of justice. From this point of view bioethics is interpreted as perspective political and educational institution, which is giving possibility for the real improvement of human and making premises of essentially other type of historical being.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):6-10
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INTEGRITY: PERSONAL
Davtyan S., Khachatryan M.
Abstract
In the given article we analyze the problem of Personal integrity which is a central notion of the modern Bioethics. The vocabulary for designation it has different connotation in law, in philosophy and in physiology. Actually many national, regional and international bioethical and legal documents provides and protect personal integrity, but its factual protection remain unsatisfied.In the article we analyzed also the types of personal integrity (physical, mental), as well the problems of autonomy, responsibility, violations, human vulnerability, compulsory treatment.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):10-13
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THE CONTROVERSY OVER THE NEUROLOGICAL CRITERION IN CONTEMPORARY CHRISTIAN BIOETHICS
Volkov A.V.
Abstract
The rapid development of medical technologies are foregrounded reflection on fundamental philosophical themes, and especially the theme of death. The relationship between Christian philosophy and the so - called «brain death» or neurological criteria is under investigation. The author focuses on the specifics of certitude that underlies the Christian interpretation of neurological criteria. It deals with the connections of neurological criterion to one of the main notion of the Christian philosophy of the rational soul as the form of the body. Having considered the different points of view, the position of proponents of neurological criteria is found to provide good philosophical and ethical grounds.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):13-19
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EARLY MOTHERHOOD. THE CONCEPT OF GOOD BY E. PELLEGRINO
Reymer E.A.
Abstract
The article explores the model of patient ’s good by E. Pellegrino in the work with teenage mothers in the field of medical - social work. The patient’s good is viewed as a hierarchical structure based on four levels of human existence. It includes the medical good, personal good, human good, and spiritual good. A medical good is aimed at maintaining the physical health for teenage mothers. A personal good is unique to every teenage mother - this is a good, that is defined by a patient himself, his personal preferences, personal choices, values. A human good is a good of teenage mothers as a representative of the human race. A spiritual good represents the highest level of a good in the interaction between a doctor, a social worker and a teenage mother. A spiritual good is provided by three lower levels of a good. A good as integrity is a goal of the professional activity connected with the rendering help for people (medicine, social work, pedagogy, clinical psychology).
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):19-20
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VALUE OF GENDER’S RATIO FOR INTEGRITY ETHICAL AND SCIENTIFIC STANDARDS IN CLINICAL TRIALS
Kubar O.I.
Abstract
This article has stressed on actual problem to take into consideration the gender's ratio in clinical trials for following the ethical principles and maintain data quality. It is shown that the essential different in medications activity are depended from gender factors. Bioethical and gender indexes have been companied at the different phases of planning the study, selecting the participants and conducting clinical trials. In article is presented that the data of gender's ratio in R&D of medications dose should be available and the evaluation of pharmacological features of drug necessary to make in clinical trials where gender balance of participants take place. All potential problems of gender balance connected with cultural, religion and social - economic factors. There are the specific of gender's behavior for different groups of participants what influence on following ethical standards in the process of obtaining and documenting informed consent. Subject protection and the collecting of relative data requires the transparency of gender's ratio concerning with trial's participants.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):21-24
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REALIZATION OF INFORMED CONSENT AS ONE OF PATIENT RIGHTS: CURRENT SITUATION IN AZERBAIJAN
Rustamova F.A., Mammadov V.G., Munir K.M.
Abstract
Azerbaijan is a country in which the law is based on democratic principles. The mentioned principles are lying in the basis of the national healthcare law. Democratic values, such as respect for human rights and freedoms, human dignity, as well as universal bioethical principles that are widely implemented in national law, create conditions for implementation of patient's rights. The basic law governing the doctor - patient relationship - "Law on Protection of health of population in Azerbaijan” reflects the basic patients' rights and obligations of doctors and medical institutions. Informed consent, which is a key component of patient rights, is also reflected, however, to date, a significant drawback of the Azerbaijan medical legislation is described in the article in this field. For example, at the moment there is no single standardized informed consent form in the different country’s medical institutions. In the absence of such legally approved standards for informed consent form, public and private health care institutions provide such forms individually, which sometimes can differ significantly. At the moment, one of the important directions in the field of healthcare is its improvement in accordance with international standards. The authors also analyzed the main provisions of medical law of Azerbaijan and identified the main trends of its further development.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):24-29
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ETHICAL PROBLEMS OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS: VALUE ORIENTATIONS OF THE FUTURE DOCTOR
Svetlichnaya T.G., Stepanov E.S.
Abstract
The article provides results of the comparative analysis of the initial moral views of first and second year students of the faculty of General medicine of the Northern State Medical University (Arkhangelsk) before and after passing "'Bioethics" discipline. The research of the state and the dynamics of the moral views of students indicates that they possess a certain degree of development and relative semantic stability in time. Mastering of educational material of "Bioethics" discipline became the reason for changing the 4 out of 17 moral characteristics to be studied. These characteristics can be described as intrinsic transformation of key representations concerning the modern realities of the interaction of religion, morality, medicine and assessment of the impact of media on morality of Russian society. Students became 1.3 times less likely to consider that religion and morality are not linked with each other (37,1 % and 48,0 % accordingly). At the same time there was a 1.8 increase in the percentage of persons recognizing the influence of religious views supported by medical workers on the provision of related services (18,3 % and 10,3 % accordingly), a 2,3 increase was registered in the necessity of the interference of religion in medicine (10,3 % and 4,4 % accordingly) and 1,4 increase was noted in the number of surveyed who expanded media in Russian society propaganda of consumption and hedonistic values (61,5 %o and 45,6 %, accordingly). The analysis of the received experimental training data allows us to consider the initial state and the dynamics of the moral views of students as a sufficient basis for successful and targeted development of bioethical outlook among future doctors.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):29-34
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BIOETHICAL CONTENT OF CURRENT STUDIES ON PROFESSIOGENESIS PROBLEMS IN MEDICINE
Donika A.D., Chernyshkova E.V., Andriyanova E.A.
Abstract
Contemporary studies of the professionalization phenomenon in medicine focus on socio-psychological determinants of professional growth in dynamics of personal socialization. Since personalized and stratified medicine has become a part of medical sciences, whereas biotechnologies in treatment of socially important diseases have started developing within the interdisciplinary area of medicine, biology (genetics) and chemistry, international ethical conflicts are inevitable. Hence modern research trend of professionalization in medicine is its bioethical content. The analysis of contemporary studies carried out within the interdisciplinary area of sociology of medicine allowed us to conclude that on the whole Russian methodology in the studies is based on classical conceptualization of profession and tends to continental (European) approach to the concepts of profession and professionalism, professional identity, career trajectory, professional training and cultural competences being kept as subjects of research. The authors have focused on such socially important phenomena of medical specialists' professionalization as reproduction of scientific capability, socially oriented management in medicine, professional deformation and deprofessionalization. The results of authorial initiative studies have proved negative tendency to further development of medical specialists' social deprivation in biomedical sciences and scientific interest gain to bioethical aspects of professionalization in medicine.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):34-38
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THE BIOETHICAL BASIS OF CLINICAL ENGINEERING
Guschin A.V.
Abstract
This is an attempt to analyze the phenomenon of a clinical engineering and clinical engineer's position in terms of the norms and principles of bioethics. There is proved the presence of feedback in the bioethical regulation of development, testing and maintenance of biomedical devices, and the importance in this regard, the institute of clinical engineering. It was found that the clinical engineer is a translator of a competences, capable to a comprehensive, summary analysis of the technical and clinical incidents in the operation of medical equipment with the construction of generalizing conclusions that are suitable for consideration from the standpoint of bioethics, and to the implementation of formalized and non - formalized regulations, standards and elements of a clinical experience in the development phase of new types of biomedical equipment and materials.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):38-42
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BIOETHICAL ASPECTS OF MEDICAL DISCOURSE
Zhura V.V., Rudova Y.V.
Abstract
There has been insufficient research into the problems of institutional interaction of the participants of health care provision sphere which should be conceptualized from the biomedical paradigm perspective. The article aimed to reveal bioethical aspects of medical discourse. The authors substantiated their understanding of medical discourse and presented its genre typology. The genre of clinicopathological conferences was explored. This type of medical discourse was found to be the concentrated embodiment of the biomedical perspective of conceptualizing health reality. Alongside with the biomedical approach, bioethical principles of considering and presenting discoursive medical knowledge were employed by the participants of clinicopathological conferences. The ethical and axiological aspects of the discourse under study were represented by various ways of verbal expression of its personalized nature, its values and types of reasoning.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):42-46
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INTERPRETATION OF THE AVAILABILITY OF MEDICAL CARE FOR PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PRINCIPLE OF JUSTICE
Zhuzhlova N.Y., Krom I.L., Sazanova G.Y.
Abstract
Conflict is an important aspect in the practice of emergency medicine. Successful conflict resolution in emergency medicine requires immediate intervention. As ethical issues are commonly integral to these conflicts, it is advisable to describe them in terms of rationality and to use a conventional, bioethical approach to resolution. This involves the case - study method, a well - known sociological research approach. The article provides examples of the application of this approach to emergency medicine.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):46-49
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THE USE OF THE CASE - STUDY METHOD FOR CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN EMERGENCY MEDICINE
Grebennikova E.N., Ayvazyan S.H.
Abstract
Conflict is an important aspect in the practice of emergency medicine. Successful conflict resolution in emergency medicine requires immediate intervention. As ethical issues are commonly integral to these conflicts, it is advisable to describe them in terms of rationality and to use a conventional, bioethical approach to resolution. This involves the case - study method, a well - known sociological research approach. The article provides examples of the application of this approach to emergency medicine.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):49-52
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UNSOLVED ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF THE INVOLUNTARY PSYCHIATRIC CARE
Orudjev N.Y., Poplavskaya O.V., Ioannidi D.A.
Abstract
As the mental disorders can violate the social functioning of the individual, purposiveness of behavior, the ability of critical evaluation of their condition and making correct decisions, the situation becomes a "problem” when a patient refuses treatment. In psychiatric practice, it can happen when the patient's ability to understand the information, percept it efficiently, and make an informed decision causes doubt, it actualizes the problem of deteriorating mental state of a person suffering from a mental disorder, but the legal basis in involuntary psychiatric care is not sufficient. In order to study the complementarity of juridical, clinical and ethical regulators of psychiatric service 's work by means of case study we analyzed and researched 150 medical outpatient department cards of the patients which are provided with specialized psychiatric aid in outpatient hospital. The article describes typical cases when patients refuse meal thus showing inefficiency of juridical regulators, concerning psychiatric service. Therefore, there is a necessity of refining the law, concerning the reasons of involuntary hospitalization and renunciation while providing psychiatric aid.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):52-56
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PATIENT COMPLIANCE IN DENTISTRY
Firsova I.V., Makedonova Y.A., Guba T.I.
Abstract
The article substantiates importance of information in effective therapeutic alliance of a physician and their patient illustrated by dental practice. The aim of the article was to study the role of competencies in creating compliant behavior of the dental patient. Material and methods: A group of 800 people were offered a questionnaire, containing both alternative questions which required choosing only one option and “menu-questions" which offered a variety of answers with a possibility to choose a few ones. It was emphasized how important it is for the patient to understand the main point of medical treatment and the physician's role in creating compliant behavior. Result. On the basis of the data obtained it should be noted that of all people questioned only a quarter of the respondents are able to associate successful medical treatment with strict following of instructions. Conclusions. Thus, sociological study showed implicit correlation between causes and compliance personification.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):57-59
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THE EXPERT OPINION ON AN ISSUE AND WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE DENTAL IMPLANT TREATMENT IN NATIONAL DENTISTRY (ON MATERIALS OF A FOCUS GROUP)
Sedova N.N., Lukyanenko A.A., Kazantseva N.N.
Abstract
A focus group (26.11.2015) was conducted to find out an opinion of experts on an issue of the dental implant treatment in national dentistry, the attitude of professionals and patients to this treatment method. The focus group was conducted in the Department of ethical, legal and sociological examination in medicine of the Volgograd Medical Scientific Centre. Data about the positive experts' attitude towards the implementation of personalised medicine in the dental practice, their solicitude by participation of incompetent specialists, fundamental importance of patient 's compliance and establishment of confidential patient - doctor relations have been obtained.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):59-62
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THE ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSION: ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF CHILDREN’S VACCINATION AGAINST INFLUENZA
Nevinskij A.B., Kramar L.V., Navrotskiy B.A.
Abstract
There was conducted the Round table discussion of the ethical problems children 's vaccination against vaccination in the context of a large industrial city at the premises of the journal “Bioethics" with the participation of the editorial office of the journal “Sociology of city". Experts were introducing diverse opinions on the subject. Medial community representatives were speaking with a single voice in favor of vaccination, parents were not so much sure about it. The article contains the overall results of the discussion.
Bioethics. 2016;9(1):62-64
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PUBLICATION ETHICS OF THE JOURNAL
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Bioethics. 2016;9(1):65
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PAPER SUBMISSION GUIDELINES
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Bioethics. 2016;9(1):65-65
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