Vol 10, No 2 (2017)

Articles
We do not say Goodbye. Dedicated to the memory of B.G. Yudin
Petrov V.I.
Abstract
Boris Grigorievich Yudin died on August 6, 2017. Words alone cannot express the profound sadness we feel for the loss of B.G. Yudin. His death is a great loss. We have lost the founder of Russian bioethics. As we all know, the rise of bioethics in Russia is linked with the works of B.G. Yudin who put forward, inspired and implemented new ideas for Russian bioethics. We have lost a great humanist. Boris Grigorievich was a rare individual whose lifestyle was most consistent with his scientific views. He advocated humanistic ideas, provided insights into the good, proved the uniqueness of every individual and lived in accordance with these principles. Every person who ever met B.G. Yudin could rely on him for assitance, support and could feel their own unique identity. The most attractive thing about B.G. Yudin was that he treated all people with significance. It is a rare quality in people - to love other people the way you love yourself - and B.G. Yudin loved all people, every person even more than himself.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):5-5
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There are prophets in our Fatherland!
Kubar O.I.
Abstract
Long work in a prestigious international organizations allowed us to see how much energy, intelligence, initiative put Boris G. Yudin in Russian bioethics was well represented in the world, in Russia was opened access to the latest advances in the field of bioethics in other countries.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):5-6
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To the memory of Boris Yudin - a scientist and a teacher
Belyaletdinov R.R.
Abstract
The article is dedicated to the memory of Doctor of Philosophy, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Boris G. Yudin., a prominent Russian scientist and philosopher who had long been developing bioethics and the ethics of science in Russia. The article describes B.G. Yudin’s contribution to Russian bioethics and the ethics of science.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):6-6
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Thinking about the future. To the Memory of Boris G. Yudin
Sedova N.N., Basov A.V., Kostenko O.V., Rukhtin A.A., Chebotareva O.A.
Abstract
The writers of this article all have one thing in common: they all were influenced and inspired by the works and meetings with Boris G. Yudin. He used to care about and teach his younger colleagues. He was so clever, erudite and friendly that the desire to solve bioethical issues every day arose in every person after meeting him. Our main purpose now is to save the priceless heritage of Boris Grigorievich Yudin and to continue his glorious work. In the article the writers recall starting their careers in bioethics and, based on the ideas suggested by B.G. Yudin, set goals for their future work in the field of bioethics.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):7-8
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Philosophy and bioethics in Boris Yudin’s creativity
Tishchenko P.D.
Abstract
Boris Grigorievich Yudin is a founder of Russian bioethics. The rise of bioethics in Russia is linked with his works. B.G. Yudin did not belong exclusively to any one philosophical school. He addressed such issues as solving the controversy between a person as a physical and a technical phenomenon. Therefore, it is necessary to provide moral insights into the relationship between physical and technical aspects in a human being. It is moral that can help gain balance between physical and technical in a human being. B.G. Yudin defined bioethics as a discipline whose purpose is to preserve human identity as a biotechnical artifact.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):9-11
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The concept of border zones of human existence suggested by B.G. Yudin and the problem of human enhancement
Grebenshchikova E.G., Belyaletdinov R.R., Kozhevnikova M., Shevchenko S.Y.
Abstract
The article is dedicated to the memory of the leader of bioethical movement in Russia, Doctor of Philosophy, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor B.G. Yudin. The article reveals the heuristic potential of the concept of border zones of human existence for the development of human enhancement problems. These problems had been the focus of B.G. Yudin’s studies over the past years. The article covers both new ideas and heatedly discussed topics. We suggest that the immense creative heritage of B.G. Yudin will be used to give birth to new ideas.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):12-16
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Design of human as test subject
Popova O.V.
Abstract
The article discusses ethical and anthropological problems of human design. Based on the ideas suggested by B.G. Yudin, we reviewed a number of types of biotechnological design and described ontological characteristics and linguistic mode of the design process. We used the "logs" bioethical incidence to describe the process of transformation of a person into a test subject (the concept suggested by B.G. Yudin). We found that biomedical investigation involving human subjects seems to be a process of gradual changes in human characteristics. We conclude that researchers regard human subjects as bearers of certain names, personal characteristics, physical qualities, etc. and equal them with research objects.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):17-21
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Subcultures as a form of social adaptation to the possibilities of human enhancement within the information society
Lapshin V.A.
Abstract
We take a socio-philosophical approach to explore the relationship between technogenic and cultural changes resulting in improvements in the human body and to describe the ability of society to adapt to these changes. We define young people as one of the sources of sociocultural changes and they also represent the most adaptive part of the society. We conclude that within the information society young people can build effective adaptation models through the mechanism of social practices and subcultures. The article reviews adaptation and socio-cultural functions of youth subcultures.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):22-25
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Bioethical principle of justness and international relationships
Tabatadze G.S., Bychkova O.I., Golitsyna O.U.
Abstract
The article explores one of the main bioethical principles, the principle of justness. It has different meanings in various life areas. The article discusses one of the most important domains of social relationships, international relationships. Bioethics allows us to take a new look at these relationships. It emphasizes the fundamentals of the actual existence of a human being and the mankind, the problems of improved survival and quality of life under contemporary circumstances of wars, violence, terrorism, and economic confrontation. The supreme value of bioethics is life, and in relation to our research it is the human life and the security of the world community. The current crisis in international relationships clearly demonstrates that it is connected with the depreciation of values, principles, forms and mechanisms of implementing international relationships. It is obvious that international relationships need to be reevaluated to transmit from the pursuit of national interests to the security interest of a nation. Neither politics nor economics but bioethics can provide us clear worldview attitudes and values for comprehension of ethnocultural diversity as the essence and the only form of human existence. We reveal some of the implications for implementation of the principle of justness in international relationships.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):26-30
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Compliance mechanisms and conditions available in Russia to ensure adherence to ethical guidelines
Kubar O.I.
Abstract
This article has summarised the compliance mechanisms which are available in Russia to use as tools to ensure adherence to ethical guidelines. The complex of mechanisms is based on a well-developed legislative system, appropriate administrative procedures and an independent monitoring agency. Important elements of the compliance mechanisms are based on access to education and training for members of ethics committees as well as other specialists who are involved in the process of the appropriate functioning of the ethical review system. The role of collaboration with international organizations holding similar responsibilities has been highlighted.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):31-33
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On pluralistic space of bioethical knowledge
Siluyanova I.V.
Abstract
The article postulates that modern bioethical knowledge is of pluralistic nature. Various ethical and axiological standpoints are conditionally designated as conservative and liberal forms of bioethics. The conservative branch of bioethics in Russia was developing as opposition to various forms of liberal consciousness. The article described the conservative approach to the solution of bioethical problems. It was exemplified by the theoretical and practical work of the Church-Public Council on Biomedical Ethics of the Moscow Patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church. The article showed the role of B.G. Yudin in the development and popularization of the views of conservative bioethics.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):34-36
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Ethics of digital biology: renaissance of naturalism
Tiras K.P., Lesovichenko A.M., Kozhevnikova M.
Abstract
The work analyzes revolutionary changes in the ethics of biological and biomedical research which followed the advent of digital methods making it possible to exercise lifetime (noninvasive) control of biological processes. This led to the development of a new technological mode in biology and medicine. At the same time, the role of the human experimenter, who must ensure adequate conditions for conducting experiments with living objects radically changes. They are expected to have scientific intuition, which requires the development of their psycho-physiological abilities. To solve this problem, humanitarian educational technologies should be incorporated in the process of natural science (biology) education
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):37-42
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Ethical principles of V.F. Voyno-Yasenetsky in the context of personal education philosophy
Ditkovskaia I.E.
Abstract
B.G. Yudin's activities in the problem fields of bioethics research have been stimulating discussions among representatives of various sciences, doctors, lawyers, politicians, and clergymen. His scientific ideas about the principles, rules, and problems of bioethics are historically closely connected with the views of outstanding representatives of Russian medicine. They resonate with the ethical principles of his domestic contemporaries, and they are the basis for studying the creative heritage of those healers. This article analyzed the ethical principles of V.F. Voyno-Yasenetsky, an outstanding national humanist, scientist, surgeon, archbishop, whose work focused on a number of bioethical problems arising in the fields of transplantology, oncology, surgery, gynecology, ophthalmology, doctor-patient relationships, and doctor-paramedical personnel interaction. The influence of his religious views on the problems of bioethics was also analyzed.. The ethical principles of V.F. Voyno-Yasenetsky developed in the difficult conditions of tragic political events, repressions, during the Great Patriotic War. During this period V.F. Voyno-Yasenetsky was actively involved in practical medical and scientific work, at the same time performing the activities of the clergyman. One of the problems of modern domestic medicine is that it develops as a multibranch system, seemingly aimed to study humans, but it tends to ignore the personality of the patient as an individual identity due to progressing schematism of thinking. It seems to be a sign of a decreased value of the art of healing. The solution of the problem requires a philosophical reflection in the value and purpose, procedural, outcome contexts. A convincing example of such a solution is the activity and creative work of the outstanding domestic surgeon, the archbishop V.F. Voyno-Yasenetsky, whose ethical principles are based on the philosophy of personal education and determined the scope and efficacy of his activities: medical, scientific, educational, administrative and organizational fields.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):43-45
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Professionally important notions in the doctor-patient communication
Cheremushnikova I.K., Petrov A.V., Chernysheva I.V.
Abstract
Bioethics does not only aim to solve the practical problems, related to the development of biomedical technologies and the study of the ethical aspects of the doctor-patient communication, but also to search for the cultural grounds of these relations. The contemporary situation in medicine and Public Health, which both try to develop the most effective, socially just and ethically acceptable models of doctor-patient interaction make this research urgent and relevant. The authors rest on the methodological principle, according to which medicine is the integral part of culture, and includes not only medical knowledge and methods of care, but also the descriptive models of doctor-patient relationship. The behavior of doctors, even if they do not realize this, is determined by ideological models, which, in their turn, form professionally important thinking patterns. Apparently, perpetual questions of medicine such as: what should treatment focus on - a disease or a patient; is the development of medical technologies an absolute good; can clinical experience and evidence-based medicine be partners; are the skills of effective communication with patients still important or out-dated, etc. -cannot be solved beyond historical and cultural context.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):46-49
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Medicalizaition as a risk factor of palliative care institutionalization in Russia
Krom I.L., Yerugina M.V., Andriyanova E.A., Shmerkevich A.B.
Abstract
Based on the performed functions, four sub-institutions have been distinguished by the authors in the system of the Russian Institute of Health, which is one of the basic social institutions. The role of palliative care in health care makes it possible to determine its status as sub-institutional. The subinstitute is subordinate to the general purpose of the institution and ensures the implementation of one of the functions. The authors discussed the medicalization of palliative care in the perspective of dysfunctional practices of the subinstitute which is now forming in Russia. The risk of medicalization of palliative care for patients with chronic diseases leading to a decrease in the functional effectiveness of the palliative care sub-institution, is caused by inadequate medical care. The articles provided evidence which proves the danger of medicalization of palliative care for patients with chronic, life-threatening diseases. According to the functions they implement, the four sub-institutions are distinguished by the authors in the system of the Russian Institute of Health, which is one of the basic social institutions. The role of palliative care in the institution of health make it possible to determine its status as a sub-institutional. The sub-institute is subordinated to the general purpose of the institution and ensures the implementation of one of the functions.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):50-52
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Some ethical and legal conflicts of psychological services at the university
Delarue V.V., Kondrat'ev G.V., Navrotskaya Y.S.
Abstract
Today, the psychological service, which focuses on two main tasks - teaching psychology to students and providing psychological support to students and teachers is available. No doubt, students and teachers are in urgent need of psychological support which, as a rule, is provided by psychologists belonging to the university teaching staff. It causes a number of ethical and legal conflicts (associated, primarily, with the corruption risks and the failure to observe the principle of confidentiality). The article made a conclusion that psychological care should be rendered by independent psychologists, not engaged in university teaching activities.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):53-54
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Anthropology of the caesarean sections
Zharkin N.A., Semikhova T.G.
Abstract
The article explored the problem of high frequency of caesarean sections and its impact on human evolution. Both medical and moral causes of this global phenomenon were discussed. Short-term and long-term negative consequences, which people born by caesarean section may face. The article concluded that, an unreasonable increase in the level of operative delivery results in a perinatal trauma, which is a natural consequence of the caesarean section, and tends to become an anthropological sign of the future generation. To improve this dangerous situation, Christian worldview aiming to preserve and strengthen family values as the basis for the nation’s reproduction should be reconstructed.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):55-59
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Current problem fields in bioethics research
Donika A.D., Shchekin G.Y., Shestakova I.V.
Abstract
The article presents the results of the analysis of current research in the field of Bioethics. The materials of international conferences and congresses on Bioethics, Medical ethics and Medical law were analyzed. The 12th International Conference on Bioethics, Medical Ethics and Medical Law (Limassol, 21-23 March 2017) is of crucial importance for determining the trends of bioethical research. The main directions of the conference were as follows: Education in the field of bioethics, Ethical committees, Biomedical research and experiments, Forensic medicine, Law and ethics. The ethical problems of medical tourism, which were also discussed at the All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference with attended by international researchers "Modern Tourism in Healthcare and Health Care" (Pyatigorsk, May 26-27, 2017) were of particular interest at the conference. Another milestone event for the development of bioethical research was the 23rd International Congress on Medical Law organized by the World Association of Medical Law (Baku, Azerbaijan, July 2017). The congress was held under the title "Medical Law, Bioethics and Multiculturalism" and included three problem areas: Bioethics and Medical Legal Education, Bioethics and Religion, Multiculturalism - Challenges of Medical Law and Legal Medicine in the 21st century. The involvement of the student community in scientific research is of great importance for the integration of the basic values of bioethics. In this regard, the World Bioethics Days organized by the International Network of Bioethics Chairs of UNESCO, which have been organized since 2016, are of great value.
Bioethics. 2017;10(2):60-62
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PUBLICATION ETHICS OF THE JOURNAL
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Bioethics. 2017;10(2):63-63
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PAPER SUBMISSION GUIDELINES
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Bioethics. 2017;10(2):63-64
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