Vol 9, No 2 (2016)

Articles

The academician of Russian Academy of Science V.Petrov World bioethics day

PETROV V.I.

Abstract

The article presents the history of celebrating the WORLD BIOETHICS DAY. It provides the general description of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the main document, which regulates the activities of the International Network of the UNESCO Chairs of bioethics -. The article also reviews the activities of the Volgograd Medical University in the sphere of bioethics and summarizes the results of the Bioethics Journal activities.
Bioethics. 2016;9(2):5-5
pages 5-5 views

Ethical portrait " HOMO PERFECTUS”: from bioethics to technoetic

Sedova N.N.

Abstract

This article makes explicit the discrepancy between the original term "human enhancement” and its Russian translation. "Enhancement” is interpreted as improvement and not perfection. At the same time, the operational content of the term "perfection " makes it possible to overcome the numerous ethical issues of the use of “human enhancement" technologies highlighted in the scientific literature. Apparent relativism of the term "improvement" hinders the generation of quantitative and qualitative evidence of perfection. "Human enhancement" technologies regarded as human perfection technologies result _ from the evolution of all the previous and current anthropic technologies, but there is an extent to which they can be applied after which a person can acquire a new quality. The moral status of the "Homo Perfectos" is very important for bioethics. Obviously, having more features of a technogenic species than those of a biospecies, it will create and share a new system of moral values, in which the technical "life support system" would represent the major value, and the preservation of natural features will be of applied value. This can be interpreted as the improvement from the viewpoint of Homo Perfectus, and as degradation from the standpoint of modern bioethics. The alternative may be seen as bioimprovement, i.e. the implementation of the natural program of self-development of the living. But mankind does not yet have sufficient knowledge, while commercial interests demand accelerated advancement of technology, rather than fundamental science.
Bioethics. 2016;9(2):6-9
pages 6-9 views

How does political reflection determine the choice of methods in bioethics

Petrov K.A.

Abstract

Article analyzes the interrelation of bioethics and politics methods.. Bioethics does not only have an impact on social processes through the network of bioethics committees, but is also affected by politics. This relationship is reflected in the discussion of bioethics methods. The current policies of the modern world account for the failure to create a single system of bioethics methods. The author analyzed the main bioethics methods and highlighted the limitations of Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress’s principalism. The weak point of their theory is insufficient consideration of the factors, which determine the conditions of medical and research activities In conclusion, the author substantiates the need for new bioethics methodology, which would consider situational and conventional ethical principles.
Bioethics. 2016;9(2):10-13
pages 10-13 views

Is the legal norm of human priority related to the moral principle of the prevailing interests of the patient?

Siluyanova I.V.

Abstract

В статье анализируется связь трех принципов: морального принципа благодеяния(Beneficence), юридической нормы приоритета человека над интересами общества и науки, принципом Гиппократа о приоритете пациента во взаимоотношениях врач/пациент. Автор выявляет единство мировоззренческих оснований этих принципов на примере подвига доктора Е. С. Боткина, канонизированного РПЦ в 2016 году.
Bioethics. 2016;9(2):14-15
pages 14-15 views

Bioethical problems of medicine in tragedy of the reproductive choice

Zharkin N.A., Semikhova T.G.

Abstract

Bioethical problems of the physician- patient relations in regard to the issues of reproductive situations are discussed. They are most pressing in case of abortion and Cesarean section with no medical indications. This problem is particularly urgent in the present situation when the State Duma is debating a draft law on banning abortion. But another urgent problem has emerged- the practice of performing a caesarean section without medical indications, while the genesis of the women ’s attitude to both events is similar nature. This article argued that successful prevention of such events depends on the physician’s philosophy and may be achieved by using the convictions based on the Russian philosophy traditions.
Bioethics. 2016;9(2):16-19
pages 16-19 views

Human evolution as a biomedical problem

Gapanovich S.O.

Abstract

In the second half of the twentieth century many anthropologists shared a view that biological evolution of a modern human had completed, since biology adaptogenesis had been replaced with social adaptogenesis. The up-to-date data, obtained in genetics and a number of other specilaities, require such views should be revised and updated. From the evolutionary standpoint, some human behavior strategies, which originally used to be adaptive and contributed to human survival in the conditions of contemporary global civilization, are getting less adaptive or maladaptive. To successfully address the problems facing mankind it is necessary to consider them from the standpoint of bioethics.
Bioethics. 2016;9(2):20-23
pages 20-23 views

Religious consciousness as an ethical regulator of a professional behavior of future doctors

Svetlichnaya T.G., Stepanov E.S.

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of religious consciousness on the moral and professional behavior of future doctors. The comparative analysis of moral and bioethical perceptions of students with either religious (87,6 %) or atheistic (12,4 %) world outlook has revealed a statistically significant difference in 8 of l6 variables (characterizing the moral condition of students), and in 7 variables of 19 (characterizing bioethical representation of students). These differences were established in 3 of 7 biomedical technologies studied: new reproductive technologies (in vitro fertilization), abortion, and end-of-life issues (euthanasia). It has been shown that the attitude of religiously conscious medical students towards biomedical technologies is morally grounded, based on moral value and moral sense. We consider that religious consciousness contributes to a better understanding of bioethical dilemmas by medical students as well as to the development of their personal responsibility in case of medical interventions influencing human life and death. The obtained findings suggest that religious consciousness of medical students may help them determine the standards of their conduct and competence expected of the members of medical profession.
Bioethics. 2016;9(2):24-27
pages 24-27 views

Рroblem of establishing a doctor and patient partnership: bioethical approach

Gamova I.V.

Abstract

The article discussed the problem of establishing a partnership between the physician and the patient with a chronic disease as an optimal model of their interaction. The urgency of the problem stems from the need to improve the quality of care, particularly for patients with a chronic pathology, making up the majority of the patient groups. The article drew upon the author's medical and sociological research of interaction between professional physicians and patients with bronchial asthma. The selection of the nosology group was due to the chronic course of the disease, as well as significant stratification of the patients’ sampling which made it possible to use a multifactor approach to its assessment (age, sex, social status, etc.). As a tool for establishing a partnership between doctors and patients with asthma we planned to use the basic principles of bioethics set forth in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UNESCO. 2005). The article showed the features of the physician-patient interaction taking into account their age, cultural values, religious affiliation. The author showed the role of ethics committees for the prevention and resolution of conflicts between doctors and patients with a chronic pathology beyond the scope of the legal field.
Bioethics. 2016;9(2):28-32
pages 28-32 views

Professional development and adaptation of novice surgeons: opportunities and risks

Bykov A.V., Myakonkiy R.V., Tabatadze G.S.

Abstract

A roundtable discussion on «The entrance of surgeons into the specialty and their adapting to a new job» was held by the editorial Board of Bioethics journal. The major topics covered in the discussion were professional development of beginning surgeons, the relationship between experienced surgeons and novices. The participants of the roundtable were unanimous on the need for a series of measures aimed at providing more opportunities for the beginning surgeons and decreasing the effects of social risks associated with their _ job.
Bioethics. 2016;9(2):33-38
pages 33-38 views

Ethical content of social maladjustment in retired athletes

Fedotova I.V., Statsenko M.E., Sukhoruchko M.A.

Abstract

The article reviews ethical behavior of retired athletes in post-sports life. We analyzed the predictors of social maladjustment in elite athletes in post-sports period and identified ethical aspects of their negative behaviour. We studied the likelihood of unethical behavior which include irresponsibility, ignoring and breaking social norms, rules and responsibilities, having difficulty maintaining stable relationships, aggression and violent behavior, lacking any true sense of guilt, inability to learn lessons through failure, and a tendency to blame others or to offer plausible rationalizations for the behavior bringing them into conflict with society. We conclude that a post-sports adjustment program must consider the ethical issues of a new daily routine for retired athletes.
Bioethics. 2016;9(2):39-41
pages 39-41 views

Diabetes mellitus: socio-ethical aspects and issues

Farber E.V., Sergeev Y.D., Shurupova R.V.

Abstract

The article describes the directions and reasons for research in diabetes mellitus. Despite great advances in diagnosing and treating this endocrine disorder, the number of patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus is increasing every year. This has become a matter of great concern not only for many countries, medical and patient organizations and associations, but also for the entire world community, encompassing non-medical researchers. Diabetes mellitus has significant social implications, thus causing great costs to the economy in many countries. Therefore, more money is invested now in prevention of diabetes through diabetes-screening programs which include medical examinations and identifying patients who do not know they have it. Interdisciplinary studies in the fields of medicine, bioethics, law, sociology, etc. focus on the doctor-patient relationships and diabetes mellitus. The article provides examples of a range of approaches to the doctor-patient relationships and analyzes their positive and negative aspects. In addition to this, the article reviews recent projects that evaluate personalized prevention of diabetes mellitus and describes the risk factors for developing diabetes (except hereditary factors).
Bioethics. 2016;9(2):42-44
pages 42-44 views

On non-disclosure of hiv-positive status

Chernyavskaya O.A., Ioannidi E.A., Frolova A.S.

Abstract

In many cases, people do not disclose their HIV-positive status because of fear of being rejected by society. This can have both positive and negative effects. Between 2012-2014 we performed an anonymous survey of 187 HIV-positive patients and individual interviews of 52 HIV-positive patients in the Volgograd regional center for prevention and treatment of AIDS and infectious diseases and the Volgograd regional clinical hospital for infectious diseases №1 to evaluate and describe the influence of disclosing HIV-positive status on the doctor-patient relationship and interactions of patients and their families. We analyzed the frequencies of responses to the questions posed in the questionnaire (expressed as a percentage) and for interview questions to conclude that the doctor-patient relationship and interactions of patients and their families correlate with decision-making about disclosure of HIV-positive status. Disclosure of HIV infection to the family members was associated with high levels of interaction; however, disclosure of HIV infection to health professionals was associated with low levels of interaction (unfriendly attitudes, lack of confidentiality). The article describes the motives which guide decision-making about disclosure of HIV-positive status in HIV-positive patients.
Bioethics. 2016;9(2):45-47
pages 45-47 views

The problem of choosing an adequate model of healing in pediatric oncology (a case study)

Gevandova M.G., Priz E.V., Parshin A.S.

Abstract

We examined a total of 234 case histories of children who were treated at Hematology/Oncology Department of Stavropol regional children's clinical hospital over the past 5 years. The cases were classified according to the model of healing used in each particular case because the model can truly reflect effectiveness/ineffectiveness of the relationship between healthcare workers and the parents of child patients. The article presents 2 types of the relationship: the first type describes ineffective interaction, while the second one describes an effective one. We review the evidence linking the type of relationship to clinical findings.
Bioethics. 2016;9(2):48-51
pages 48-51 views

Ethical assessment of the role of a clinical psychologist in a medical setting in Russia (focus group materials)

Petrov A.V., Sidorova D.A., Navrotskaya Y.S.

Abstract

The number of clinical psychologists working in medical settings in Russia is very small although most medical settings must have at least one psychologist on staff. This situation needs to be changed because a clinical psychologist is trained not only to provide psychological support for patients during the treatment process, but also to help create a favorable psychological environment in the medical setting. To seek out the opinions of patients and the experts about the practice of clinical psychology in Russia, a focus group was organized and held by the Volgograd Medical Research Centre. All experts showed positive attitudes towards: a) employing clinical psychologists by medical settings, b) getting patients to adhere to their treatments and ensuring a trusting relationship between doctor and patient, c) improving the efficiency of the medical staff through promoting positive medical practice environment by clinical psychologists.
Bioethics. 2016;9(2):52-55
pages 52-55 views

Human dignity and human rights (celebration of the world bioethics day in the volgograd state medical university)

Donika A.D., Shipunov D.A.

Abstract

The article presents the results of research activities which were undertaken in the Volgograd Medical University to celebrate the World Bioethics Day. The scientific events organized at the Department of Bioethics, Philosophy and Medical Law with a Course of Sociology of Medicine with the participation of the Chair of Ethical, Legal and Sociological Expertise in Medicine under the Volgograd Medical Research Center were dedicated to "Human dignity and human rights". The article provides examples of direct quotes from the essays written by the students of the Volgograd Medical University who were granted awards in the international UNESCO competition. We emphasize the importance of such scientific activities for developing and maintaining doctor’s professional competencies.
Bioethics. 2016;9(2):56-57
pages 56-57 views

PUBLICATION ETHICS OF THE JOURNAL

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Bioethics. 2016;9(2):58-58
pages 58-58 views

PAPER SUBMISSION GUIDELINES

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Bioethics. 2016;9(2):59-60
pages 59-60 views

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