Vol 12, No 2 (2019)

Articles

Once again - on Ethical Committees status

Sedova N.N.

Abstract

Due to new biotechnologies being actively integrated in medicine, their application is becoming an issue of ethical risks. The field of bioethics searches for answers to these questions. This science must perform assessing, explanatory and prognostic functions. These are only special social bodies of ethics regulation - ethics committees - who are able to fulfill these tasks. Though, their status in Russia has not been legitimized yet, there is no single system of such committees organized to the principle of a network or hierarchy. It is important to take theoretical and practical efforts to define and establish the status of ethics committees and actively implement their recommendations.
Bioethics. 2019;12(2):4-5
pages 4-5 views

Semantic algorithms of bioethics

Ageeva N.A., Wiegel N.L., Shapoval G.N.

Abstract

In the article the authors study moral and legal algorithms of bioethics as universal methods of solution of topical problems in the health care system which reflect a wish of citizens to live and act healthily. Specificity of bioethical ideology in the modern health care system consists in the demand to follow the algorithms of preserving life in general, protection of a man and protection of his health from different negative circumstances and deliberate or occasional technological influence. In order to bring to light the ideals and principles of biomedical ethics the authors pay special attention to natural (biological) origin of a man. It is stated that co-evolutional imperative of bioethics is to push scientists-medicals and clinicians to overcoming of social, economic and political conflicts. The article is presented in English that is topical in the context of growing popularity of the Russian higher education among foreign students, as well as the lack of educational literature in foreign languages. The material of the article can be used in designing work programs, lecture and practical courses of «Bioethics».
Bioethics. 2019;12(2):6-11
pages 6-11 views

Christianity and assisted reproductive technologies: the search for moral and ethical foundations

Kiyaschenko L.P., Bronfman S.A., Maylenova F.G.

Abstract

The problems of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) continue to be the subject of both medical, philosophical and ethical, and theological discussions among representatives of different faiths. ART allow us to bring into this world those who are without the help of the latest technologies could not be among us in the situation when the natural way of coming is impossible. But for this medicine uses methods that are alien to the nature of the living and the nature of man as a biological species, in particular. And it should be noted that it is the moral and ethical norms rooted in the religious worldview that are under the greatest pressure from the constantly growing flow of changes in all spheres of life caused by the accelerating scientific and technical progress and especially by the rapid development of biotechnology and especially ART. We can single out the following problems of ART, which, one way or another, consider all confessions. These include, above all, an excess of the resulting embryos; surrogacy; interference with the «fate» of embryos using preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD); insufficient responsibility of medical staff and, as a result, the problem of «authenticity» of genetic material of patients using ART; the use of ART for single women and men, as well as transgender and non-binary people, etc.
Bioethics. 2019;12(2):11-15
pages 11-15 views

Spirituality and moral personal state of a nurse

Svetlichnaya T.G., Schukina E.G., Petrova I.A.

Abstract

The article presents the results of the research in spirituality and the moral personal state of a nurse as a condition for the formation of partnership relations in the medicine in dyads, these being: a) a nurse - a patient, b) a nurse - a doctor, and c) a nurse - to another nurse. The received data allowed to ascertain that nurses are mature, spiritually developed personalities. They feel themselves belonging to the Orthodox culture (87,2 %) and admit the necessity of preserving the traditional religious values in Russia (86,5 %). However, 23,3 % of the nurses consider medicine being beyond moral, and 6,3 % - even contradicting it. The possibility of interference of religion into medicine is allowed for by a very small number (6,6 %) of nurses. Keeping up with the high spiritual and moral culture as a condition of formation of bioethical outlook in the epoch of digital medicine demands a continuous study of biomedical ethics at all stages of professional training of nurse personnel.
Bioethics. 2019;12(2):15-18
pages 15-18 views

Ethics of time management in the conditions of modern domestic health care system

Ditkovskaia I.E.

Abstract

The health care system in the present conditions of its reform, the interaction of science, education and practice of medicine, business, public authorities, requires effective management. This is due to the development of the current stage of time management, one of the most important tasks is the desire to improve their own efficiency, rapid achievement of their objectives, provide career growth. However, due to inattention to the best historical traditions of Russian medicine and medical education a trend of depreciation of the spiritual component of healing is revealed. In this regard, it is necessary to understand the ethical problems of time management. The solution of these problems requires the revival of the moral and ethical traditions of domestic healing, the restoration of the humanization of the profession. Approaches to this are seen in changing the organization and content of higher medical education.
Bioethics. 2019;12(2):19-25
pages 19-25 views

National pecularities of teaching bioethics in the medical university

Shkarin V.V., Donika A.D., Reymer M.V.

Abstract

The article discusses the problem of the demand for bioethical education for medical students. This problem is connected with the negative tendency to curriculum reduction of humanitarian disciplines. This point of view appeals to the strengthening of the professional component that determines the profile competencies of a specialist. In particular, it is proposed to reduce the teaching time for bioethics in medical higher schools for its use in teaching operational techniques, so-called practical skills. As an opposing point of view, the analysis of the fragment of the bioethics course developed by UNESCO on the issue of providing medical care to under-age patients in the field of cosmetic surgery is proposed. Students are shown the complexity of an ethical solution, seemingly formally resolved by the rules of the law of the problem. The very process of discussion, the discussions that arise, the decision of the judge convince future doctors of the ambiguity of ethical decisions making, as well as the ambiguity of ethical content of the legal norms in the field of health. This problem raises a number of other ethical dilemmas, initiating students' interest in the ethical side of professional activity. The results of sociological research of students of medical higher school [n = 92, average age (19,2 ± 1,01) years] are presented in the article. Despite the fact that 54,3 % of respondents believe that a 15-year-old patient cannot give consent to cosmetic surgery alone, 27,5 % of students found it difficult to answer, just doubting the possibility to make adequate decision at the age of 15. The data obtained demonstrate the general ethical problems raised by the proposed case in the UNESCO bioethics course. Despite possible discrepancies in the legal norms of national laws, cultural, confessional or atheistic peculiarities of countries, the ethical problems of professional activity are of a general nature.
Bioethics. 2019;12(2):25-30
pages 25-30 views

Cryonics: legal and ethical aspects

Erte L.A., Efimkova K.S.

Abstract

The article is focused on cryonics as a field of scientific and practical activity dealing with freezing humans and aiming to resuscitate them in the future through applied technology. This article discusses organizational problems relating to activity of cryonics companies on global market. It also shows legal issues of cryonics with absence of legislation that regulates only terms and conditions of cryopreservation companies. Then, it shows ethical aspect of cryonics, arguments of supporters and opponents of cryonics. The article offers means and methods of solving immediate problems relating to cryopreservation of humans, activity of cryonics companies and little awareness of cryonics ideas in modern society.
Bioethics. 2019;12(2):30-36
pages 30-36 views

Medical education personalized system development and implementation results at Volgograd state medical university

Vorobyov A.A., Litvina E.V., Mashlykin A.A.

Abstract

Personalization of the educational process in a medical university is one of the necessary conditions for the professional medical personnel successful training. The article presents 7 years of experience in the discipline «Manual Skills and Clinical Anatomy Course» teaching at the Department of Operative Surgery and Topographic Anatomy of the Volgograd State Medical University and 10 years of experience at the students’ Surgery Club of the Volgograd State Medical University, which applied a personalized education system for future surgeons. The expediency of the discipline «Manual Skills and Clinical Anatomy» at a medical university, as part of a personalized medical education, has been proved. Currently, this discipline has been introduced in 27 medical universities of Russia. The results of the Surgical Club of Volgograd State Medical University, as a prototype of an innovative student medical professional community, demonstrated the successful results of the proposed system of personalized medical education at the stage of education at a university, postgraduate education and in the professional work of a surgeon.
Bioethics. 2019;12(2):37-43
pages 37-43 views

Results of the social research of the relationship of students of the medical university to obtained education

Shagina I.R., Smahtina T.A., Kubekova A.S.

Abstract

The article examines the attitude of students of a medical higher education institution to the education they receive. On the basis of the Astrakhan State Medical University, a sociological study was conducted among the fifth and sixth year students of the medical, pediatric, dental, medical and preventive faculties. The designated category of students answered the questions of the questionnaire («Attitude of students of the Astrakhan State Medical University to the education they receive»). The study examined and tested two groups - young men and women of graduating courses of medical high school, their attitude to the education received at the university was determined, a sociological survey was conducted using an author's questionnaire consisting of 15 questions. The study examined the motives for choosing this profession among medical university students, as well as the prospects for continuing to stay in the health care system after graduation, and what are the reasons for the lack of desire for graduates of a medical university to work in health care institutions. In the course of the study, the tendencies towards the leakage of personnel were determined based on the results of the survey. It was determined the relationship to the education received.
Bioethics. 2019;12(2):44-46
pages 44-46 views

Ethical problems of preparing clinical psychologists in the context of their internet use for psychological diagnosis and correction

Delarue V.V., Kondratyev G.V., Navrotskaya Y.S., Guba T.I.

Abstract

In the article ethical problems of students training as future clinical psychologists are considered within the context of using the Internet for psychological diagnosis and correction. It was shown that this practice supposes a number of psychological-pedagogical but also ethical problems which are not sufficiently dealt with in domestic publications. It was concluded that psychological-pedagogical diagnosis and correction with the Internet by practicing (including clinical/medical) psychologists will be more widely used. For this reason students should have some knowledge of ethics and specific character of Internet technologies application in this field. This knowledge may be obtained within the frames of the corresponding elective courses in the 5th year (the 10th term) and earlier application of these Internet technologies is not advisable.
Bioethics. 2019;12(2):46-49
pages 46-49 views

Principles of "4p medicine" in occupational hygiene: ethical problems (on the example of "machine tool operator in metalworking")

Latyshevskaya N.I., Alborova M.A., Shestopalova E.L.

Abstract

According to studies carried out in recent years, an absolutely new model of health care is becoming more common -the so-called 4P medicine, the medicine of the future. It is based on 4 fundamental principles: Personalization, Prediction, Prevention and Participation. This model is a priority for the entire healthcare system of our country, which includes such branch of preventive medicine as occupational hygiene. At the same time, the principles of «4P Medicine» in occupational hygiene are difficult to achieve due to the complex of ethical problems. The necessity of new methods and regulations's development for governing such research in the conditions of real production is revealed.
Bioethics. 2019;12(2):50-52
pages 50-52 views

Application of the integrated approach to the ethics of radiological protection

Podzolkova N.A., Denisova A.A.

Abstract

The main objective of this study is to continue an open dialogue between representatives of the nuclear industry and the interested public concerned about the ethics of decision-making in nuclear energy. The authors consider these problems from the perspective of integral philosophy differentiating levels of consciousness. The study consists of two parts. The first one described in this paperis aimed to analyse ethical platforms of radiological protection and the principles of biomedical ethics using the level approach. The summary table of ethical correlates of radiation safety and principles of bioethics is presented.
Bioethics. 2019;12(2):53-58
pages 53-58 views

The formation of ethical principles in students at the department for therapeutic dentistry, Volgograd State Medical University

Piterskaya N.V., Starikova I.V., Radyshevskaya T.N.

Abstract

Teaching students the principles of ethics is a key element in shaping the future of the doctor, because the profession of a doctor requires a serious attitude to the performance of their professional duties, an attentive, kind attitude to patients. The Department of Therapeutic Dentistry of VolgGMU has accumulated extensive experience in the formation of ethical principles among students. The article focuses on the main areas of this work: active and interactive teaching methods, engaging students in practical work, etc. The personal example and professionalism of the teacher help the communication and the ability to properly build a dialogue with the patient, form the student's sense of confidence in the implementation of medical actions. The future doctor should be able to analyze their work, properly evaluate and be responsible for the quality of the work performed. The formation of a highly educated, harmonious personality of a doctor depends on the level of his professional training, qualifications, and the use of deontological principles in his work.
Bioethics. 2019;12(2):58-60
pages 58-60 views

PUBLICATION ETHICS OF THE JOURNAL

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Bioethics. 2019;12(2):61-61
pages 61-61 views

PAPER SUBMISSION GUIDELINES

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Bioethics. 2019;12(2):61-63
pages 61-63 views

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