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Vol 4, No 3 (2017)

Original papers
HISTORY AND PRINCIPLES OF ULTRASOUND DIAGNOSIS OF TUMORS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Vostrov A.N., Kazakevich V.I., Mitina L.A., Stepanov S.O., Guts O.V., Novikova E.G., Mukhtarullina S.V.
Abstract
The lecture is devoted to topical issues of ultrasonic diagnostics in oncogynecology. The stages of the development of the ultrasound method in oncogynecology, the possibility of the method in the diagnosis of cervical cancer, uterine cancer and ovarian cancer are denoted. The possibilities and disadvantages of the method in the assessment of the prevalence of the tumor process are estimated.
V.F.Snegirev Archives of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2017;4(3):116-123
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GENITAL HERPES AND PREGNANCY
Belova A.V., Astsaturova O.R., Naumenko N.S., Nikonov A.P.
Abstract
Herpes simplex virus of two types - HSV-1 and HSV-2, which can manifest as a primary and recurrent infection is the etiological factor of genital herpes. Herpes simplex virus is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, in connection with which there is an increase in physical and psychological morbidity, which often remains an underestimated medical problem. With the vertical transmission of HSV during labor, diseases that are dangerous to the life and health in newborns can occur. Pregnant women with a primary infection of genital herpes belong to the high-risk group for the transmission of HSV to the newborn. Prophylaxis and prevention of vertical transmission of HSV are implemented in three directions: prevention of the recurrence of maternal genital HSV infection; prevention of transmission of the virus during pregnancy and childbirth; puerperal prophylaxis of the disease in a neonate infant born of a mother belonging to a high-risk group. This review focuses on such important aspects as laboratory diagnosis of HSV, antiviral therapy and prevention of viral infection during pregnancy, delivery and in the early neonatal period.
V.F.Snegirev Archives of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2017;4(3):124-130
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INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF ANTIBODIES TO THYROPEROXIDASE AND THYREOGLOBULIN AND THE SYSTEM OF HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN AND THEIR ROLE IN MISCARRIAGE
Movsesyan M.K., Torosyan A.O.
Abstract
In a review there is provided information concerning the relationship between thyroid autoimmune disorders and miscarriage. In the presence of antibodies to thyroid peroxidase (AT-TPO) in the female patient, the incidence rate of miscarriage was established to increase twice if compared to that in negative indices of AT-TPO. There are considered various pathogenetic theories of the impact of AT-TPO and antibodies to thyroglobulin on the features of the course of pregnancy.
V.F.Snegirev Archives of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2017;4(3):131-136
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OXIDATIVE STRESS IN THE FOLLICULA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE EXTRACORPORAL FERTILIZATION: THE STATE OF THE PROBLEM
Shestakova M.A., Kiseleva M.V., Proskurnina E.V.
Abstract
Free radical reactions are aconcurrent part of the homeostasis of any system, including reproductive one. The imbalance of free radical production systems and antioxidants leads to pathological consequences, known as oxidative stress. In recent years, there have been actively executed successful studies, in which attempts are made to identify the impact of local oxidative stress in the follicle on the quality of the embryo and the outcome of «in vitro fertilization» (IVF). Despite both the inadequacy of data and the difficulty of comparing them, free radicals and the state of the antioxidant system of the follicular fluid have been proven to have a significant effect on oocyte and embryo development in subsequent IVF.
V.F.Snegirev Archives of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2017;4(3):137-144
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PODOCYTURIA AS A MARKER FOR PREECLAMPSIA
Murashko A.V., Faizullin L.Z., Murashko A.A.
Abstract
The role of kidneys in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia is still a matter of debate. There is strong evidence that a disturbance in the function of normal kidney due to the loss of podocytes is the main cause of the development of proteinuria and hypertension. The release of podocytes, podocytic proteins and podocytic matrix ribonucleic acid (mRNA) can both be used for the diagnostics of preeclampsia and serve as a marker of the active disease of the kidney. The performed in this review analysis of publications showed that podocytes and podocytic proteins can be detected long before the appearance of proteinuria and hypertension, which makes them promising markers for the early diagnosis of preeclampsia. Measurement of the concentration of nephrin and its mRNA allows both assess the risk of development of preeclampsia and make the differential diagnosis between preeclampsia and gestational hypertension with a sufficiently high efficiency already in the second trimester of pregnancy, long before the appearance of the main signs of the disease.
V.F.Snegirev Archives of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2017;4(3):145-148
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POSSIBILITIES FOR PREGNANCIES AND DELIVERIES IN SUCCESSION TO THE TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER
Zikiryakhodzhaev A.D., Novikova O.V., Rasskazova E.A.
Abstract
In the article there is presented information about 9 patients of young age who delivered a child after the treatment in the P.A. Herzen Moscow Research Oncological Institute for malignant breast neoplasms. Oncological aspects of the treatment in patients, data on subsequent pregnancy and lactation were analyzed in detail. The length of the follow-up period for patients and children amounted to 12 to 84 months. Only one (11.1%) of the nine patients had breast cancer progression after delivery in the form of a metastatic ovarian lesion. Dynamic following up this group of patients is carried out.
V.F.Snegirev Archives of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2017;4(3):149-153
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RISK FACTORS OF DISTROPHIC DISEASES OF VULVAE: CLINICAL-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
Porsokhonova D.F., Rakhmatullaeva S.N., Yakubovich A.I., Novoselov V.S., Novoselov A.V., Kaptil’nyy V.A., Sosnova E.A.
Abstract
The results of epidemiological studies of risk factors for the development of dystrophic diseases of the vulva (DDV) in women of reproductive and perimenopausal age are presented. Authors executed the testing of DDV patients according to specially developed questions of the questionnaire, aimed at the obtaining of the most complete information about the lifestyle of patients, social and medical factors, possibly contributing to the occurrence and formation of DDV. Also, the authors performed an examination of patients for the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and urogenital infections in order to clarify the infectious factor in the genesis of dystrophy of the vulva. Direct and indirect factors that contribute to the formation of dystrophic diseases of the vulva in women are established to be as follows: perimenopausal age; endocrine diseases; emotional stress of a social character; more than 3 pregnancies in anamnesis; presence of STIs (herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus) and inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs; presence of Candida fungi, Ureaplasma urealyticum bacteria, human papillomavirus - HPV 16/18, HPV 31/33 and some other infections on the background of DDV; lack of information about the disease; discharge from the genital tract; lack of treatment-effect; inappropriate treatment. The identified factors should be taken into account in the development of therapeutic and preventive measures in relation to DDV in women.
V.F.Snegirev Archives of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2017;4(3):154-158
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ANTIOXIDANT STATUS OF THE FOLLICULAR LIQUID AND ITS RELATION WITH THE QUALITY OF EMBRYON IN INFERTILITY PATIENTS PASSING THROUGH THE PROCEDURE OF EXTRACORPORAL FERTILIZATION
Proskurnina E.V., Shestakova M.A., Rabadanova A.K., Sozarukova M.M., Shalina R.I.
Abstract
The aim of the study is to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the follicular fluid with a new chemiluminescent method in women with a reduced ovarian reserve and tubal factor of the infertility, undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure, and to compare the obtained data with embryo quality. Material and methods. Samples of the follicular fluid were obtained during oocyte sampling in 16 women with a reduced ovarian reserve and 16 women with a tubal peritoneal factor of the infertility. Patients in both groups were matched for the age, body mass index and hormonal stimulation protocol (short protocol). The antioxidant activity of the follicular fluid was measured by the method of luminol-activated chemiluminescence using 2,2’-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride as a source of radicals. The total antioxidant activity (AOA) and antioxidant activity due to the action of proteins (AOA-b) were determined. Results. The kinetic curve of chemiluminescence of the follicular fluid is similar in shape to the curve of the antioxidant activity of the blood plasma. As in blood plasma, antioxidant activity is caused by uric acid and proteins - albumins and globulins. As a result of the study, three groups of patients were identified, whose AOA significantly differed: patients with low embryo quality and decreased antioxidant activity, AOA 11.4 ± 2.5 mM ascorbate (n = 16); patients with a good quality embryo, AOA 21.4 ± 3.8 mM (n = 10); patients with a low embryo quality and an elevated AOA of 33.7 ± 2.9 mM (n = 6). Conclusions. Based on the comparison of AOA (in ascorbate units) with the quality of the embryo, three areas can be proposed: 1) a zone of reduced antioxidant activity (less than 15 μM, oxidative stress) - these patients had embryos of poor quality; 2) the zone of normal AOA (15-30 μM) - the patients received good quality embryos; 3) zone of increased AOA (more than 30 μM, antioxidant stress) - embryos of poor quality. Thus, it can be assumed that optimal development of embryos in the follicle requires the optimal value of antioxidant activity, since both its reduction (oxidative stress) and increase (antioxidant stress) adversely affect the quality of the embryo and the outcome of IVF. These data correspond to the modern concept that optimal development of the oocyte requires an optimal level of production of reactive oxygen species.
V.F.Snegirev Archives of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2017;4(3):159-163
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METHODOLOGY OF SAMPLING OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS FOR MICROSCOPIC METHOD OF RESEARCH IN THE OBSTETRIC-GYNECOLOGICAL PRACTICE
Kaptil’nyy V.A.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the microscopic method of research in modern obstetrical and gynecological practice. Special attention is paid to the value of the method, the diagnostic significance of the results of the examination. There is described the preparation for the study, the purpose and methodology of the exercise. The attached photos show in detail all the stages of sampling a free discharge from the urogenital tract.
V.F.Snegirev Archives of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2017;4(3):164-168
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