Fragments of Dhāraõī Blockprints from Khara-Khoto (Serindian Fund of IOM, RAS) With Appendix by Alla Sizova

Abstract


The paper focuses on a blockprinted dhāraõī from Khara-Khoto belonging to the group of unidentified and unpublished fragments in the Serindian Fund of the IOM, RAS. The characters used in the text of the print have much in common with the pāla script that was widespread in the North-Eastern India and associated with the Pala Empire. The print exists in several fragments. Judging by the content, it comprised two independent parts. Their relationship to each other, as well as the total number of pages, remain unknown. The first block of text has survived in its entirety. It has five lines of text. The first four lines are a triple repetition of the Akùobhya Buddha Dhàraõã. The fifth line consists of five bija mantras and the well-known “Buddhist creed”, the Ye dharmà mantra. Only half of the second block of text has survived but still it can be identified and is presumed to be the målamantra, hçdaya and upahçdaya from the Bodhigarbhàlaïkàralakùa dhàraõã. Part of the print is also half of an engraved image. Features of the image and its stylistic peculiarities make it very similar to the printed engravings in the Tangut and Dunhuang collections. It is assumed that the entire blockprint could have been a compilation of selected prayers used in common Buddhist ritual practice. The type of paper, image and script suggest a date for the blockprint around the 12th c.
 
 

Full Text

Olga Lundysheva Fragments of Dhāraõī Blockprints from Khara-Khoto (Serindian Fund of IOM, RAS) With Appendix by Alla Sizova Abstract: The paper focuses on a blockprinted dhāraõī from Khara-Khoto belonging to the group of unidentified and unpublished fragments in the Serindian Fund of the IOM, RAS. The characters used in the text of the print have much in common with the pāla script that was widespread in the North-Eastern India and associated with the Pala Empire. The print exists in several fragments. Judging by the content, it comprised two independent parts. Their relationship to each other, as well as the total number of pages, remain unknown. The first block of text has survived in its entirety. It has five lines of text. The first four lines are a triple repetition of the Akùobhya Buddha Dhàraõã. The fifth line consists of five bija mantras and the well-known “Buddhist creed”, the Ye dharmà mantra. Only half of the second block of text has survived but still it can be identified and is presumed to be the målamantra, hçdaya and upahçdaya from the Bodhigarbhàlaïkàralakùa dhàraõã. Part of the print is also half of an engraved image. Features of the image and its stylistic peculiarities make it very similar to the printed engravings in the Tangut and Dunhuang collections. It is assumed that the entire blockprint could have been a compilation of selected prayers used in common Buddhist ritual practice. The type of paper, image and script suggest a date for the blockprint around the 12th c. Key words: IOM collection, editions, Indian paleography, Central Asia Buddhism, Sanskrit blockprint, dhàraõã, Khara-Khoto Origin of the fragments The fragments of blockprinted dhāraõī (4+4) were kept among the unrecorded Khara-Khoto materials from Piotr Kozlov's Mongolia and Sichuan expedition of 1907-09 and were assigned shelf numbers SI 6575 and SI 6576 in the Serindian Fund IOM, RAS in February 2014. They were enclosed in a large-format light brown envelope.1 The envelope was marked © Olga Vladimirovna Lundysheva, Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences © Alla Alekseevna Sizova, Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences 1 Beside these, the envelope also contained materials that, on 9 September 2014, were allotted shelf numbers SI 6578 and SI 6579 (SI 6578, inv. No. 6634. A small fragment of “Ind. coll[47]. Kh-Kh”[48] (in blue pencil; possibly Evgenii Kychanov's handwriting) and “Ind. coll.”[49] (graphite pencil, unidentified handwriting) and carried two brief notes: “Envelope was found in Tangut collection, box T No. 190, 26 May 59”[50] and “Envelope with fragm[ents] of Tibetan m[anuscript]s”[51] (both inscriptions in graphite pencil, Kychanov's handwriting). Obviously, the envelope bears no relationship to either inv. No. 90 of the Tangut collection, which is considered missing,[52] or shelf number Tang. 190 that was given to the corresponding item in the Tangut collection much later than 1959. The collection of manuscripts and documents at IOM, RAS still includes two boxes of unidentified Tangut materials marked “T 12” and “Т 214”. We presume that E.I. Kychanov discovered the envelope in question on 26 May 1959 in a similar box marked “Т 190”. Description of Fragments SI 6575,[53] inv. No. 6631. Blockprint. The text is contained within a double frame, the outside line thicker than the inside one. Concertina binding type: After restoration all four fragments have been combined on one leaf 27.7×9.7 cm. Single sided. 9 horizontal lines. Vergé paper with faintly visible lines (approx. 7 per cm), thin, smooth, light, almost white. SI 6576, inv. No. 6632. Blockprint. Concertina[54] binding type: 4 separate parts. Two of the parts are combined on one leaf (text on one side, 5 horizontal lines); another part is half of a text (text on one side, 6 horizontal lines); the last part is half of an engraving. The parts with text contain decorative images of four stupas in each of five lines. The size of each part is 19.5×9.2 cm. Vergé paper with faintly visible lines (approx. 7 per cm), thin, smooth, brownish-grey. printed text serving as part of an image of Ushnishavijaya with dhāraõi text (an example of the same image is in the State Hermitage Tangut collection under shelf number H-2536, cf.: SAMOSYUK 2006. Currently under restoration. SI 6579, inv. No. 6635. Part of a paper-bound Tibetan manuscript book. Currently under restoration), as well as three sheets of recent paper that were most probably inserted by a researcher interested in the manuscript. These sheets bear various Buddhist images as well as a prayer in the Tibetan language. Pl. 1 - Fragments 1 and 2 of the blockprint SI 6576, inv. No. 6632. (Serindian Fund of the IOM, RAS): Akùobhya (= Mitrugpa dhàraõã) *3; bija-mantras; ye dharmà. The blockprint is most likely a local Tangut production.[55] This hypothesis is also supported by the type of material the text is printed on - vergé paper with approximately 7 lines per cm.[56] Paper is thin, smooth, brownish-grey, that places it in the most widespread VIII type12 of “popular and cheap”13 paper. Pl. 2 - Fragment 3 of the blockprint Pl. 3 - Fragment 4 of the blockprint SI 6576, inv. No. 6632. SI 6576, inv. No. 6632. (Serindian Fund of the IOM, RAS): (SerindianFund of IOM, RAS): the right side målamantra from Bodhigarbhàlaïkàralakùa of the engraving. dhàraõã, hçdaya, upahçdaya. The full text block is enclosed within a double rectangular frame. It marks off the upper, right and left margins and separates the text from the decorative stupa-shaped elements. The engraving, like the text block, is placed within a double rectangular frame. The blockprint pages have a bottom border marking off the lower page margin. It consists of two black ink lines, one thin, one thick. The total height of the frame between upper and lower margins is 16 cm. The height of the upper margin is approximately[57] 2.5 cm, that of the lower margin 1.5 cm. The height of the text block, inside the frame, is 4.5 cm. The type of paper, character of the image and particular features of the script make it possible to date the blockprint to approximately the 12th c. Script Type The text is executed in an Indian script,15 of the north-eastern group. The script used in the blockprints is rather distinctive, it is known from numerous epigraphic monuments and manuscripts16 and has been identified by researchers as separate script type, without, however, a consistent term having emerged by which to name it. It has been referred to as pàla script, gauóã 15 See the Appendix by Alla Sizova. It was made for the fragment SI 6575. The scripts used in the blockprints SI 6575 and SI 6576 are almost identical. 16 In the British Museum (according to data found on the Museum website): Museum shelf number 1967, 1018.2. Copper-plate charter. Plate of hammered copper inscribed with sixteen lines in Sanskrit recording. Inscription Type Nagari. India. Madhya Pradesh, Ujjain, 12th c.: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?a ssetId=230676&objectId=223701&partId=1 Museum shelf number 1880.356 Slab. Inscription. Made of stone (schist). Inscription Type Nagari. India, 10th c.: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?a ssetId=542101&objectId=182051&partId=1 Museum shelf number 1967, 1018.1 Copper-plate charter. Plate of hammered copper inscribed with sixteen lines of Sanskrit recording. Inscription Type Nagari. India. Madhya Pradesh,Ujjain, 1135 A.C.: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?a ssetId=23725&objectId=223702&partId=1 In the collection of Cambridge University (according to the University website): MS Add.1464, 11-12th c. Pàla script: http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/MS-ADD-01464/1 MS Or.142.1, 12th c. Pàla script: http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/MS-OR-00142-00001/1 MS Add.1688, 11th c. Pàla script: http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/MS-ADD-01688/1 MS Or.725.2, 11th c. Kuñila script: http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/MS-OR-00725-00002/1 MS Or.149, 11th c. Kuñila script: http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/view/MS-OR-00149/1 According to BENDALL 1883: MS Add. 866 MS Add. 1686 MS Add. 1693 Yarlung Museum, Tsethang: An illuminated manuscript on Pattra pages. Late 11th c. This manuscript was on display from 19 August to 26 November 2006 during “Tibet - Klöster öffnen ihre Schatzkammern”, an exhibition at the Villa Hügel, Essen. It is catalogued as No. 26, 219-225. http://asianart. com/exhibitions/tibet/7.html Art Institute of Chicago: Buddhist illuminated palm leaf manuscript pages Pala, Eastern India opaque watercolor on palm leaf, 12th c. http://asianart.com/articles/batton/fig02.html script, proto-bengali and even siddham/siddhamàtçkà or kuñila, depending on the chosen paleographic tradition. In several cases it has been called ranjana or lanydza.[58] I have elected to use the term pàla here, as the one most precisely indicating the place and time characteristics of this script type as well as the theme of the text recorded by the script. Description of the Text The text of the preserved part of blockprint consists of two complete independent blocks. The principle and reason behind the connection between the two blocks, as well as the original number of blocks, remain unknown. Obviously, each independent block of text occupied two “pages” of the concertina and was enclosed within a double frame. The first block of text, which is extant in its entirety, consists of five lines of text where first four are a triple repetition of Akùobhya (Mitrugpa)[59] dhàraõã.[60] The fifth line consists of five bija mantras and the well-known Ye dharmà mantra. The second block of text, which features only half of a text unit, consists of the målamantra, hçdaya and upahçdaya (Pl. 1) from the Bodhigarbhàlaïkàralakùa dhàraõã. Transliteration Fully preserved blockprint: (Pl. 1)[61] Akùobhya (= Mitrugpa dhàraõã) *3; bija mantras; ye dharmà. (01) na mo ra tna tra yà ya oü ka õka õi ka õka õi ro ca ni ro ca ni tro сa õi tro сa õi trà sa ni trà sa ni pra ti ha na pra ti ha (02) na sa rva ka rmma pa ra mpa rà õi me svà hà || na mo ra tna tra yà ya oü ka õka õi ka õka õi ro ca ni ro ca ni tro сa õi tro сa õi (03) trà sa ni trà sa ni pra ti ha na pra ti ha na sa rva ka rmma pa ra mpa rà õi me svà hà || na mo ra tna tra yà ya oü ka õka õi ka õka (04) õi ro ca ni ro ca ni tro ca õi tro сa õi trà sa ni trà sa ni pra ti ha na pra ti ha na sa rva ka rmma pa ra mpa rà õi me svà hà || (05) Làü màü pàü tàü khaü || ye dha rmmà he tu pra bha và he tu nte ùà nta thà ga to hya va da tte ùà ñca yo ni ro dha e va mvà dã ma hà ÷ra ma õaþ Half blockprint:[62] the målamantra from the Bodhigarbhàlaïkàralakùa dhàraõã, hçdaya, upahçdaya. (01) na mo bha ga va te vi pu la va da na kà ñca no tkùi pta pra bhà sa:... (02) ta thà ga tà yà rha te sa mya ksa mbu ddhà yà ta dya thà oü bo dhi bo [dhi]... (03) pra ha ra ma hà bo dhi ci tta dha re cu lu cu lu ÷a ta ra smi sa ñco di... (04) sa mi li mi li ga ga na ta le sa rva ta thà ga tà dhi ùñhi te na bha [sta]... (05) ÷o dha ne hu lu hu lu bo dhi mà rga sa mpra sthi te sa rva ta thà ga ta pra [ti]... (06) ya svà hà || oü hu ru hu ru ja ya mu khe svà hà || oü ma õi va jre håü || ... Akùobhya Buddha Dhāraõī This work has been known under several titles. It has been referred to as the dhàraõã or Akùobhya mantra (or Mitrugpa in Tibet version), or, after one of the first words of the text, as the kaõkaõi mantra. Its full title is ârya-sarvakarmàvaraõa-vi÷odhanã-nàma-dhàraõã “The Noble dhàraõã that Thoroughly Removes all Karmic Obscurations”. It has survived down to the present and is commonly used in ritual (Pl. 2). This dhàraõã features widely in the Tibetian canon.[63] Bija Mantras Bija or seed[64] mantras are generally monosyllabic mantras with final nasalization. Each bija mantra has specific meaning or several meanings, it can also be connected with a certain deity, quality or element: làü - seed of the Earth mandala, ràü - seed of the Divine Lotus, khàü - bija mantra of Amoghasiddhi Buddha,[65] etc. Bija mantras not only represent the essence of the “sacred speech” - “vàk÷akti”, but also they are used in various Buddhist tantric practices and rituals, as part of the visualization process. For example: “We imagine that… four petals of the heart chakra are opening clockwise starting from the East, as syllables lam, mam, ram and tam.[66] In turn, they transform into dark blue Dakini in the East, green Lama in the North, red Khandarohi in the West and yellow Rupini in the South”.[67] Or: “In the South-East the white syllable Lam, bija mantra of Lochana, transforms into a black cow, in the South-West the blue syllable Mam, bija mantra of Mamaki, transforms into a red dog, in the North-West the red Ram, bija mantra of Behzarahi, transforms into a white elephant, in the North-East the green Tam, bija mantra of Tara, becomes a green horse”.[68] Bija mantras làü màü pàü tàü khaü, used separately or in combination with other similar elements, form part of many dhàraõã and mantras, both independent and included in various rituals. It is in this exact combination and sequence that they are attested in the Abhidhànottara Tantra (9-10th cc.) in the description of a purifying visualization practice.[69] Ye dharmà Ye dharmà is one of the most common mantras in Buddhist manuscripts and epigraphic texts. It has been regarded as something of a “Buddhist credo”.[70] Actually it is the Pratãtyasamutpàda gàthà from Arya-pratãtyasamutpàda-sutra.30 From the 4-5th cc. onwards it is found across South Asia,31 South-East Asia32 and even Central Asia.33 It has been reproduced on all kinds of material (paper, stone, metal, clay tablets), commonly in Sanskrit or Pali, more rarely in Prakrit.34 The script could be of almost any kind, although various derivatives of Brahmi were most commonly used. This mantra has been inscribed both independently and as a supplement to other Buddhist texts. The combination in one artifact of Ye dharmà mantra and a målamantra has been attested in an inscription on terracotta plate of the 7th-9th cc. from Nalanda. The interesting coincidence is that the “credo” line comes right after the målamantra from the Bodhigarbhàlaïkàralakùa dhàraõã,35 the text of which is also present in blockprint SI 6576. Bodhigarbhàlaïkàralakùa dhàraõã The text has been identified through SCHOPEN 2005.36 According to this text is a part of the dhàraõã (in the meaning of mantra) referred to as the Bodhigarbhàlaïkàralakùa / Bodhimaõóalalàkùàlaïkàra[71] dhàraõã, which is in turn a fragment of a larger work under the same title (Bodhigarbhàlaïkàralakùa / Bodhimaõóalalàkùàlaïkàra dhàraõã) comprising over 20 separate dhàraõã (mantras).[72] 31 MCAR 2014, 44-46. 32 LK 2014, 59; KYAW 2011, 385-386. 33 SKILLING 2011, 378. 34 SKILLING 2003, 273. 35 SCHOPEN 2005, 333. 36 SCHOPEN 2005, 316-317. In his article, G. Schopen presents the full text39 that reads as follows:40 Oü41 namo bhagavate vipulavadanakàñcanot[73]kùiptaprabhàsaketumårdhane tathàgatàya arhate samyaksaübuddhàya / namo bhagavate ÷ākyamunaye tathàgatàya arhate samyaksaüv[74] uddhàya[75] / tadyathà / bodhi bodhi / bodhini bodhini[76] / sarvatathàgatagocare / dhara dhara / hara hara / prahara prahara / mahàbodhicittadhare / culu culu / ÷atara÷[77] misañcodite / sarvatathàgatàbhiùikte / guõe guõavate / sarvabuddhaguõàvabhàse[78] / mili mili / gaganatale pratiùñhite[79] / sarvatathàgatàdhiùñhite[80] / nabhastale / ÷ame ÷ame / pra÷ame pra÷ame[81] / sarvapàpaü pra÷amane / sarvapàpaü vi÷odhane / hulu hulu / mahà[82]v[83]odhimàrgasaüpratiùñh[84]ite / sarvatathàgatasu[85] pratiùñhite / to contain elements that were not in the Indian original (SCHOPEN 2005, 329-330). There is evidence that a Tibetan translation from a Sanskrit original has been discovered by Cristina Scherrer-Schaub among the manuscripts of Pelliot’s Dunhuang collection (P.T. 555) (SCHOPEN 2005, 339). 39 The text has been reconstructed from the following sources: D1, D2, P1, P2, L, XL, XD, as well as the Sanskrit inscriptions SC and SN. See footnote 37 and 38. The text of the print is almost identical to the Sanskrit texts of dhàraõã (mantras) in SC and SN, with some significant differences (mostly in spelling) from the Tibetan versions. The surviving part of the blockprint has none of the explanatory elements that are present in both Sanskrit and Tibetan versions. It is possible that the full version of the blockprint did not have these parts. The målamantra text could, obviously, have been used independently. At least, that is what G. Schopen concludes, and one cannot but agree with him. Especially since at least one proof of such independent use exists: “Professor G. Fussman informed me about a stamp used to imprint a dhàraõã on a clay bulla. The stamp would have been found in the region of Qunduz, in Bactrian Afganistan. It is inscribed in Brāhmī of the 5th-6th cc. The dhàraõã on this stamp is the målamantra, hçdaya and upahçdaya from the Bodhigarbhàlaïkàralakùa dhàraõã” (SCHOPEN 2005, 338). 40 A cursive font indicates the parts that correspond to the missing section of our print; dis-crepancies between his text and our print are underlined; footnotes indicate similar deviations from the Sanskrit texts of SN and SC. 41 Oü is missing from blockprint SI 6576. ÷uddhe svàhà / (målamantraü[86]) / oü arvatathàgatavyavalokite / jaya svàhà / (hçdayaü[87]) / oü57 huru huru / jayamukhe svàhà / (upahçdayaü[88]) / oü vajràyuùe svàhà[89]/ Judging by the presence of the målamantra text in SC and SN, it was familiar to Buddhists in Orissa no later than the 10th c. and to Nalanda Buddhists in Bihar as early as the 6th-9th cc.60 The geography of the distribution of this text is extremely wide.[90] Beside Eastern India it has been found in Kashmir (7th-8th cc.), Ratnagiri[91] and the Kunduz province of north-eastern Afghanistan (5th-6th cc.).[92] The discovery of blockprint SI 6576 has widened still more the known territory of this text’s use. Description of the Image Only the right half of the engraved image (Pl. 3) has survived as the left side of the page is missing. Apparently the central part of the engraving was occupied by a figure of the Buddha sitting[93] on a patterned elevation. Among the extant details is the radiance around the head and body in the form of divergent rays. The rays around the head are edged with a three line circle. The rays around the body are edged with two suchlike circles. Depicted above the Buddha’s head are divergent rays in shape of bars with flowers and clouds between them. To the left of the Buddha are figures of two bodhisattvas and a standing monk with folded hands. In the lower right corner there is a guard(?) with a sword. In the background there are five more figures (guards? wrathful deities?). The heads of creatures within the Buddha's trail are bordered by circles. The engraving bears no inscriptions or cartouches. This last peculiarity apart, the style and content of the image is highly reminiscent of other engravings from the Tangut and Dunhuang collections.[94] Conclusion As a single whole the blockprint can be characterized as follows. As indicated by Professor Menshikov, the dhàraõã that have been discovered in the region and served as independent incantatory texts, are mostly not fragments of larger Buddhist works but, rather, locally composed texts: “At any rate, it has not been possible to locate specific dhàraõã within canonical sutras and tantric corpus”.[95] In our case we find a common dhàraõã of Sanskrit origin, widespread across a rather large territory and even, like the Kaõkani mantra and Ye dharmà, still widely used in everyday Buddhist practice today. Their combination is most likely of local origin, as the principles of alignment are not quite understandable and, as far as one can judge, do not correspond canonical rules. Quite typical for Khara-Khoto Buddhist (tantric) literature of the 11th-14th cc. are prayer corpora and so called ceremonials67 that include whole collections of mantras and dhàraõã. The content of the blockprint makes it possible to assume that in our case we are dealing with precisely this type of document, i.e., a written record of the verbal content of a ceremony, standard and widespread enough to be richly decorated and reproduced by printing. The fragmentary nature of the extant material does not allow further deductions to be made. References BENDALL, Cecil 1883: Catalogue of the Buddhist Sanskrit Manuscripts in the University Library, Cambridge, with Introductory Notices and Illus. of the Palaeography and Chronology of Nepal and Bengal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EL: Enlightened Living: Teachings of Tibetan Buddhist Masters: Trans. by Tulku Thondup, ed. by Harold Talbot. Hong Kong: Rangjung Yeshe Publications, 2004. GHOSH, A. 1941: “Buddhist Tract in a Stone Inscription in the Cuttack Museum”. Epigraphia Indica 26(4). Delhi: Manager of Publications, 171-174. KELSANG Gyatso Geshe 1991: Guide to Dakini Land: The Highest Yoga Trantra Practice of Buddha Vajrayogini. London: Tharpa Publications (Reprint: Delhi: Motial Banarsidass, 2000). KELSANG Gyatso Geshe 1997: Essence of Vajrayana: The Highest Yoga Tantra Practice of Heruka Body Mandala. London: Tharpa Publications (Reprint: Delhi: Motial Banarsidass, 2000). KYAW Minn Htin 2011: “Early Buddhism in Myanmar: Ye Dhammā Inscriptions from Arakan”. Early Interactions Between South and Southeast Asia: Reflections on Cross-cultural Exchange. Ed. by Pierre-Yves Manguin, A. Mani and Geoff Wade. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 385-406. KYCHANOV E.I. 1999: Katalog tangutskikh buddiiskikh pamiatnikov IV RAN [Catalogue of Tangut Buddhist Monuments of IOS, RAS]. Introduction by Nishida Tatsuo, publication prepared by Arakawa Shintarō. Kyoto: Kyoto University. LK: Lost Kingdoms: Hindu-Buddhist Sculpture of Early Southeast Asia: Exhibition Catalogue. Ed. by J. Guy. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2014. MCAR: Material Culture and Asian Religions: Text, Image, Object: Ed. by B. Fleming and R. Mann. New York: Routledge, 2014. MENSHIKOV L.N. 1961: “Rannepechatnye izdaniia iz Khara-Khoto” [Early printed works from Khara-Khoto]. Kratkie soobshcheniia Instituta narodov Azii [Short reports of the Institute of the Peoples of Asia] 57, Moscow: Izdatel’stvo vostochnoi literatury, 143-149. MENSHIKOV L.N. 1984: Opisanie kitaiskoi chasti kollektsii iz Khara-Khoto [The Chinese part of the Khara Khoto collection]. Moscow: Nauka, GRVL. OWEN, Lisa. 2012: Carving Devotion in the Jain Caves at Ellora. Leiden: Brill. SAMOSYUK K.F. 2006: Buddiiskaia zhivopis’ iz Khara-Khoto XII-XIV vekov. Mezhdu Kitaem i Tibetom (Buddhist painting from Khara-Khoto. 12th-14th cc. Between China and Tibet). St. Petersburg: Izdatel’stvo Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha). SCHOPEN, Gregory 1982: “The Text on the "Dhàraõã Stones from Abhayagiriya": A Minor Contribution to the Study of Mahāyāna Literature in Ceylon”, Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 5(1). Heidelberg, 100-108. SCHOPEN, Gregory 2005: “Bodhigarbhàlaïkàralakùa and Vimaloùõãùa dhàraõãs in Indian inscriptions”. Figments and Fragments of Mahàyàna Buddhism in India: More Collected Papers. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 314-344 (Originally published in Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Sädasiens 29 (1985), 119-149). SKILLING, Peter 2003: “Traces of the Dharma”. Le Bulletin de l'École française d'ExtrèmeOrient (BEFEO) 90, 273-287. SKILLING, Peter 2011: “Buddhism and the Circulation of Ritual in Early Peninsular Southeast Asia”. Early Interactions between South and Southeast Asia: Reflections on Cross-cultural Exchange. Ed. by Pierre-Yves Manguin, A. Mani and Geoff Wade. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 371-384. STCHERBATSKY, Theodore 1923: Central Conception of Buddhism and the Meaning of the Word Dharma. London: Royal Asiatic Society (Reprint: New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 2003). STRAUCH, Ingo 2009: “Two Stamps with the Bodhigarbhàlaïkàralakùa Dhàraõã from Afghanistan and Some Further Remarks on the Classification of Objects with the ye dharmà Formula”. Prajсadhara. Essays on Asian Art History, Epigraphy and Culture in Honour of Gouriswar Bhattacharya. New Delhi: Kaveri Books, 36-56. TERENT’EV-KATANSKY A.P. 1971: “Khudozhestvennoe oformlenie tangutskoi knigi. (Po materialam rukopisnogo fonda LO IVAN SSSR)” [Tangut book ornamentation. (On the basis of materials from the manuscripts collection of the Leningrad Branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies, of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR)]. Pis’mennye pamiatniki Vostoka. Istoriko-filologicheskie issledovaniia [Written monuments of the Orient. Historical and philological researches]. Annual issue 1971. Moscow: Nauka, GRVL, 239-252. TERENT’EV-KATANSKY A.P. 1990: S Vostoka na Zapad. Iz istorii knigi i knigopechataniia v stranakh Tsentral’noi Azii VIII-XIII vv. [From East to West. From the history of books and book-printing in the countries of Central Asia in the 8th-13th cc.]. Moscow: Nauka, GRVL. Electronic resources GRAY, David 2014: Divine Identities: Visualization and Iconography in Tantric Buddhist Sàdhana Practice. Santa Clara University. Mellon Foundation Sawyer Seminar. Emory University; http://arthistory.emory.edu/home/assets/documents/lectures/sawyer_seminar/gray.pdf Appendix Akshara List of the blockprint SI 6575, inv. No. 6631. Serindian Fund of IOM, RAS - a ā i ī u ū ç e ai o au - k kh g gh c j ñ ñ õ t th d dh n p ph b bh m y r l v ś ù s h visarga daõóa anunāsika tāü oü - a ā i ī u ū ç e ai o au kr ks kù jr ñc õk tt tn tr tkù ddh dy nt pt pr mb mp mpr my mv rg rmm rv rh śr ùñh sth sm sv hy

About the authors

Olga Lundysheva

Institiute of Oriental Manuscripts, St.-Petersburg

Author for correspondence.
Email: olgavecholga@gmail.com
SPIN-code: 6621-8995

Russian Federation

Alla Sizova

Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: iom@orientalstudies.ru
SPIN-code: 7705-4735

Russian Federation

References

  1. BENDALL, Cecil 1883: Catalogue of the Buddhist Sanskrit Manuscripts in the University Library, Cambridge, with Introductory Notices and Illus. of the Palaeography and Chronology of Nepal and Bengal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
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