Vol 19, No 7-8 (2019)

Philosophical sciences
The main approaches to the study of communication between the doctor and the patient: the appropriateness of philosophical analysis
Volferts M.V.

The article deals with the studies devoted to the analysis of communication between a doctor and a patient in various fields of sociohumanitarian knowledge (bioethics, psychology, sociology of medicine). The author believe that these approaches are organizing the communication based on the utilitarian ideas excluding it from ontological problematics. The author proposes to turn to existentially oriented philosophical thought to find the most effective communication tools between a doctor and a patient. In particular, the concept of existential communication of K. Jaspers can be such an instrument, revealing this process as a dialogue of existence with existence and pointing to the ontological basis of communication between the doctor and the patient. Thus, the article presents an attempt to justify the feasibility of a philosophical analysis of the relationship between the doctor and the patient.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2019;19(7-8):5-9
The researching of diagnostic’s systems area as the reflection-ontological basis of cognition
Pesotskaya E.N., Inchina V.I., Zorkin M.V., Aksenova S.V.

The concept of a diagnostic system is defined as a basic component of diagnostics, which is a multivariate knowledge of features of personality reflection. Multi-level of communications in the field of diphase procedural interaction of the formed diagnostic systems is proposed to be practically investigated on the basis of a synergistic cognitive model. In the structure of the diagnostic system itself, the phases of procedural interaction are distinguished, where the first one passes before diagnosis and outside its value-reflexive processes, forming against the background of a specific society and system of its medicine as a whole. The second phase involves the activities of a specific professional. The openness of this integrity stems from the phenomenal characteristics of the nature of social systems, the inclusion of individuals and their synergy. The significance of the parametric aspect of communication in complex intersubjective interactions, including network interactions, which influence the transformation of both human nature and society by the type of mutual determination of any nonlinear actions inherent in them initially, is shown.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2019;19(7-8):10-14
The ideological and theoretical genesis of ontognoseology in the concept of “polemical marxism”
Ognev A.N.

The article discusses the ideological and theoretical genesis of the ontogeneological concept of the Soviet marxist philosopher M.A. Lifshits. The connection between “polemical marxism” and the key moments of the development of marxist theory is shown and systemic differences from other editions of marxist doctrine are revealed. The authors made an analysis of the main theoretical foundations of the M.A. Lifshits’s ontognoseology and outlined the direction of its problem potential modern optimization.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2019;19(7-8):15-21
The value-moral meaning of suffering in the metaphysics of all-unity by S.L. Frank
Mochinskaya K.A.

The article examines the value-moral meaning of suffering and its significance in S.L. Frank’s paradigm of metaphysics of all-unity. The problem of suffering at the individual level of human experience is analyzed. The author defines the meaning of suffering in the religious and philosophical views of S.L. Frank and characterizes the ethical aspect of it. The basis of suffering is revealed in the context of its reflection from the point of view of evil and good. The author stresses the positive significance of suffering and reveals the meaning of compassion and its moral component in the aspect of the individual perception of a person. The axiological basis of suffering in S.L. Frank’s philosophical research is described. The present research highlights the essence of suffering in the context of its trials and experiences. A conclusion is drawn as to the importance of suffering in its relationship to the moral improvement of a man.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2019;19(7-8):22-27
The transformation of the value system Kalmyk society
Amykova V.N.

The article considers the factors influencing the change of the value system of society in the process of its development. The author draws a parallel between the traditional and modern systems of values of a separate ethnic group.

The Kalmyks are a small ethnic group, but their cultural and spiritual heritage is rich and multifaceted. The customs and traditions of ancestors still influence the mentality, methods of education of the younger generation, moral guidelines of modern Kalmyks. Nevertheless, de-ethnization, which accelerates the unification of culture, the loss of national features of lifestyle, economic activity, language, is becoming increasingly obvious. Kalmyk society has undergone a significant transformation, there is a shift in emphasis in value orientations: from ethical and altruistic to pragmatic. This fact cannot but cause concern for the future of this distinctive ethnic group.

The main emphasis in the article is on the fact that many crisis phenomena in the life of modern society are caused, first of all, by the loss of certain moral guidelines, following which a person could avoid irreparable social, political and economic losses.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2019;19(7-8):28-31
The role of the multidisciplinary approach in the philosophy of history
Anisimova S.Y., Borisova T.V.

The article discusses the role of the disciplinary approach in the study of historical memory. In the modern research field, the methodological status of an interdisciplinary approach is becoming more and more popular. It is connected with the problems of the new ontology formation, where the general foundations between nature and society are investigated. Many sciences use the of interdisciplinary methodology to understand the interaction of the natural sciences and the humanities. Today, the organization of interdisciplinarity is actively criticized, which does not take into account the interconnection between natural sciences and humanities. The absence of this relationship is manifested in the problems of historical memory. Therefore, the idea is being advanced to justify the fundamental status of historical memory, it is necessary to change the organization of scientific knowledge.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2019;19(7-8):32-36
The partisanism: the foundations social-philosophical analysis
Cherepanov A.Y., Klekovkin A.Y.

Partisanism is a special social phenomenon that occurs in almost any protracted military conflict. Despite the fact that the term partisanism arose in the XVIII century, to this day quite conflicting meanings are invested in its concept, the meaning of which largely depends on the historical period of their use. The realities of the modern world order, which led to the loss of relevance of the classical wars, which in turn led to the destruction of the classical partisans, made even more confusion in the definition of partisanism and the formation of its image. The article is devoted to the socio-philosophical understanding of the image of classical partisanism based on the works of famous researchers of the partisan movement. As a result of the analysis, the main images of guerrilla warfare were revealed, depending on the belonging of the partisan movement participants to regular formations, as well as on the goals and objectives of the partisan war.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2019;19(7-8):37-42
The problems of the folk-art in the information society conditions
Belomoeva O.G., Ledovskih N.P.

The article analyzes the problem of the folk art existence in the culture of the information society context. The paper deals with the specifics of folk art as a type of folk art culture and its role in the formation of professional art and such types of folk art culture as urban folklore, amateurism, amateur performances. The authors shows the transformation of the artistic process in the direction of movement from a centrist, hierarchized art system to a decentralized one, network structure, suggesting the coordinated elements of the system based on the analysis of the features of the information society. The negative and positive conditions affecting the existence of folk art in the framework of the information society are indicated.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2019;19(7-8):44-49
Existential analysis philosophy of art creation
Ledovskih N.P., Belomoeva O.G.

The article is devoted to the principles of existential analysis and the possibility of its application, when we study the art creation. We present the methods of existential analysis: the selection of «semantic matrices», the search for a rational grain, including in a situation of semantic uncertainty, which makes it possible to reveal the embedded meanings in any sign-symbolic systems, to analyze the reality created by a person/society. Existential analysis is particularly productive for the study of artistic creation. The authors demonstrate the possibilities of using existential analysis in the visual arts, tracing the evolution of Christian images. Three images of the Crucifixion are analyzed — Dionysius, Matthias Grunewald and Alain Wilbox paintings from the collection of Robert Harris Rothschild.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2019;19(7-8):50-53
University of the XXI century: philosophy, everyday life, future. To celebrate the 300th anniversary of Immanuel Kant
Burlina E.Y.

In 2024, the 300th anniversary of Immanuel Kant will be celebrated. The Kant society of Germany has already announced the decision to hold the anniversary Kant Congress in Kaliningrad. The jubilee Kantiana brings with it the possibility of promoting not only scientific and pedagogical issues, but also has significant chances of becoming an event that will positively affect the international image of various Russian cities and universities. In connection with future events, the interpretation of the legacies of the great philosopher of the Enlightenment in university audiences of the 21st century is of particular relevance. The author of the article puts forward a new methodological and methodological hypothesis. Presentation of Kant for a modern student audience fits into the chronotope: past-everyday life-future. This matrix affects not only the construction of lectures and seminars within the university. This also refers to the creation of new urban images and communicative spaces: theatrical productions, world exhibitions, city holidays. The author widely quotes famous directors who created actual daily life in their performances or city projects. “Our contemporary Shakespeare”, “Our contemporary Kant” — these are the conditions of modern culture. A similar actualization is seen in innovative educational and methodological texts, in the so-called “Kantian”, on the website of the Kant Baltic Federal University. The article also presents another thematic turn, relevant for modern students of a medical university, in which the author of the article directly teaches. The article claims that Kant’s interpretations of consciousness; space-time; transcendence and transcendence up to certain boundaries diverge from the concepts of modern physiologists and psychiatrists, which does not remove the significance and evidentiary power of the great philosopher of the Enlightenment. Based on the above, the following conclusions are formulated in the article: the modern Kantiana contains a variety of scientific heritage and is rooted in everyday culture. Kant’s legacy is used in university lectures, seminars, and websites, which does not remove the inevitability of expanding the urban Kantian. The strategies of the universities of the 21st century require the actualization of the past and relations with the future of the city. Under these conditions, the anniversary of the great German philosopher I. Kant in the Russian city of Kaliningrad can become another platform for intercultural communication with students from different cities and countries.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2019;19(7-8):54-58

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