Vol 20, No 7-8 (2020)

Philosophical sciences
Human biological age index in a situation of existential uncertainty in the conditions of a surgical department
Borisova T.V., Izmailov E.P.
Abstract

The influence of biological and mental characteristics of age on the personal behavior and adaptation in a surgical department is investigated in a multidisciplinary aspect. The study presented the dynamics of change in attitude towards their age during the day for men and women, depending on specific surgical diseases using the original technique developed by the authors [Russia’s Patent No. 2592358, dated 29.06.2016]. For the first time an index of biological patient’s age in a surgical hospital was determined. Along with medical grounds the article highlights the role of philosophy in analyzing the behavior of a person in an extreme situation.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2020;20(7-8):5-8
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Transformation of historical discourse and the problem of time
Gerasimov O.V.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of the transformation of historical discourse in modern writing of history and its relationship with the problem of historical time. The author shows that since the second half of the 20th century, the representation of the past has been gradually shifting from scientific historiography, as it was formed in the 19th century, to the memory studies. Unlike distancing from the past inherent in historical science, historical memory is characterized by emotional and existential tension, the involvement of the past in the present. This became possible not only as a result of the tragic events of the 20th century, but also due to changes in the temporal regime of modern society. The linear perception of time, peculiar to a modern man, is giving way to “post-historical” time characterized by non-linearity and reversibility, which makes it possible to actualize the past with the help of memorial policy. A change in the historical time perception gives rise to changes in the perception of the past and, as a result, leads to a transformation of historical discourse.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2020;20(7-8):9-13
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Digital society: A sociocultural analysis of the digital footprint
Listvina E.V.
Abstract

The article analyzes the digital footprint as a phenomenon of the emerging digital space and digital society. The purpose of the article is to study the digital footprint as a multi-layered phenomenon with multi-faceted features that manifest themselves in various spheres of life of an individual and society. The author considers three layers that characterize the digital footprint from the standpoint of its impact on the sociocultural component of society, the specifics of its formation, and its impact on the development and existence of the individual in the modern transformational era. The study highlights the positive (related to the possibilities of realizing personal potential) and negative (suggesting a distortion of the socio-cultural space) aspects of the functioning of the digital footprint. Conclusions are made about the need for a philosophical study of the phenomenon of the digital footprint in connection with its increasing importance in the formation of a new volume layer of socio-cultural space that creates qualitatively different forms of social existence.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2020;20(7-8):14-18
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Methodological and socio-philosophical aspects of nomadology: A critical view through the prism of the philosophy of everyday language
Stepanov I.V.
Abstract

The works of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari are known to be the most popular ones in Europe and Russia among the works of post-structuralist philosophers of the second half of the XX century. In a project called nomadology, Deleuze and Guattari attempted to update questions about the relationship between philosophy and science, philosophy and religion, philosophy and politics, politics and war. The article analyzes the ways of setting and solving these issues. The methodological basis of the analysis serves the principles developed by Ludwig Wittgenstein in the framework of the philosophy of everyday language.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2020;20(7-8):19-25
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War is a social phenomenon
Cherepanov A.Y.
Abstract

The article aims to form the idea of war as a social phenomenon. War is a multidimensional phenomenon, each historical epoch leaves its own imprint on the nature of war and its basic attribute properties. The main characteristics of the sociality of war are social conflict, social violence, social space and time of war, rapidly developing scientific and technological progress, and social (collective) interaction. In this regard, the author identifies criteria that indicate that war is one of the most rapidly developing social phenomena.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2020;20(7-8):26-30
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Technology in culture: Embodiment of the divine and transformation of the natural (N.F. Fedorov, P.A. Florensky, F. Dessauer)
Bernyukevich T.V.
Abstract

The relevance of the research topic is related to the most important religious and philosophical concepts of the late 19th — early 20th centuries, in which the mission of technology was defined as a special way of returning to the integrity of being.

The purpose of the article is to consider the ideas of N.F. Fedorov, P.A. Florensky, F. Dessauer on the role of technology in the embodiment of the divine purpose and the transformation of the world.

Comparative approach was used in the study as the main methodological approach. It contributed not only to the disclosure of the features of the authors’ ideas, but also made it possible to draw a conclusion about the general trends in determining the ontological status of technology in the religious and philosophical works of the period under consideration.

In the conclusion of the article, it is noted that the purpose of technology in the concepts of N.F. Fedorov, P.A. Florensky, F. Dessauer is associated with its ability to overcome decay and restore unity: man with God, divine with natural, natural with social, etc. — through culture, understood as human activity, sanctified by the Creator’s purpose.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2020;20(7-8):31-36
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Jihad: From the word to the cultural universal
Kuzmenko N.S.
Abstract

The article analyzes the widespread interpretations of the concept of “jihad” as a holy war, a war with the infidels, as well as lesser known ones — struggle, diligence, effort. Its ambiguity is determined by the impossibility of an unambiguous definition of jihad. The author has made an attempt to reconstruct and group approaches to the definition of jihad, on the basis of which jihad is proposed to be understood as an idea that is implemented in the practices of various levels, depending on the sociocultural context. The connotative constant highlighted by the author in the variety of meanings of jihad — “effort” (“effort in the way”) — is proposed to be recognized as a cultural universal that can be found in different cultures and in practices.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2020;20(7-8):37-43
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Dance of the language: Primordial cultural modalities in the light of metaphor theory
Malyshev V.B.
Abstract

The article analyzes the relationship between the conceptual field of metaphor and the primordial cultural modalities in the context of the problem of transcendent instances. Metaphor, mimesis, and poetry as three types of modeling the reality of culture can be correlated in the plane of language representation of the world. The dance of language is the top species of mimetic evolution, whereas metaphor is the key to understanding the mechanism of mimesis in art and culture (I.-G. Herder, F. Nietzsche). The discourse of the primordial cultural modalities in language is clothed in certain images, in certain mimetic forms, in the dance of language. Metaphor is the key to understanding the primordial cultural modalities. It is in the dance of language which a person finds wholeness of being.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2020;20(7-8):44-48
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Anthropological system of Gregory of Nyssa in the context of the post-non-classical picture of the world
Surovtsev E.N., Pyshkina Y.S.
Abstract

The model of post-nonclassical anthropology is in a state of scientific discussion and has not been developed. At the same time, an appeal to the patristic heritage can become the foundation of post-non-classical anthropology. Since it is the Christian anthropological doctrine that takes into account the dynamic and variable nature of man, his dominant role in the world and the position of a link between everything in the material world and in the spiritual world can be fully correlated with the main ideas of the post-non-classical worldview and become the basis for a detailed study of a new philosophical anthropology.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2020;20(7-8):49-54
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