Vol 21, No 3-4 (2021)

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Full Issue

Philosophical sciences

The concept of “utility” in early utilitarianism XVII–XVIII centuries

Gaparov I.A.

Abstract

The relevance of the research topic is determined by the variety of interpretations of the concept of “utility”, according to which the problems of pleasure, good and happiness are solved. The English utilitarians of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were the first to conduct an in-depth analysis of “utility” and try to find common grounds that constitute this concept. The purpose of the article is to clarify the ways of using the concept of “utility” in the works of J. Berkeley, D. Hume and I. Bentham. The systematization of the views of the New Time, carried out by these thinkers, allowed us to approach the identification of the essence of “utility”. Proportionality and symmetry, the conditions of appointment and adaptation to the needs of man contributed to the removal of the beautiful and moral principles from the useful. The fact that the perfection of a thing is defined as an acceptable purpose for which it was created gave reason to conclude that the concept of “ulitity” in early utilitarianism is revealed through the rationality of goals and means, and the “principle of utility” – through the dependence of individual interests from the level of social welfare.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(3-4):5-12
pages 5-12 views

Formation and principles of social and philosophical understanding of the category “civic consciousness”

Grober E.M.

Abstract

The relevance of the work is due to the need of comprehending the process of formation and content filling of the category of “civic consciousness” in the modern world based on the principles of philosophers’ understanding of the categories “consciousness” and “self-consciousness” in social and humanitarian knowledge. The purpose of the study is to consider certain aspects of civic consciousness not only by revealing its essence, as a modern manifestation of the phenomenon of a person’s awareness of his civic status, but also from the standpoint of the significance of his potential in social and humanitarian knowledge in general. As a methodological basis of the research, we define the humanitarian problematization of the material under study, which provides a philosophical formulation of the research problem, which, in combination with the dialectical method, allows us to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the category of “civic consciousness”. Consideration of the category indicated by us allows us to determine how, through the development of social consciousness, there is an understanding of the events and phenomena occurring in society, as well as the establishment of a person’s place in social and political life and, as a result, self-determination and self-consciousness of a person in society. The plurality of approaches to the study of the formation of civic consciousness allows us to conclude that there is a high need to consider this issue in all historical periods. Based on the formed ideas about self-awareness, we have established the following models of self-awareness of a person and a citizen: “world – man”, “world – man – transformation”, “world 1 – man – transformation – world 2”, “world 1 – man – transformation – world 2 – number – person”. Thus, civic consciousness in the structure of power relations is the subject’s consciousness of his skills and abilities, along with an awareness of the actions performed by the subject in order to be involved in the processes established by the power structures.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(3-4):13-21
pages 13-21 views

Dialectical and activity-based foundations for the modern original definition of science

Sorokin R.V.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the actual problem of uncertainty in science. The work done not only contributes to the removal/solution of this modern problem, but also contributes to the theoretical understanding of the need for qualitative changes in the sphere of scientific activity, the most organic combination of theory with practice to form a new form of science, guaranteed to remove the global dangers and uncertainties of scientific and technological development. The author presents the basis for the formation of a modern, general definition of science, the absence of which indicates the presence of the above problem. The aim of the research is to give a modern general definition of science, making a serious step, if not to the final solution, then to a generally meaningful solution of this problem. In the author’s opinion, all substantive elements necessary for forming a modern general definition of science have already been identified, but they are not structured. The methodological approach has a high importance in solving this problem, and the emphasis should be placed on dialectics, rather than formal logic. In dialectical methodology, it is necessary to refer to the theory of dialectical development from the abstract to the concrete, as well as the general theory of activity. The specificity of science is defined in the consistent disclosure of the content of science as knowledge, as individual-collective, internalist-externalist activity and as a sphere of social life. As a result of the analysis of these aspects the author comes to the initial, general and actual definition of science.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(3-4):22-30
pages 22-30 views

Epistemological status of the narrative in scientific cognition

Yakovlev V.Y.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The article analyzes the role of narrative in scientific cognition.

AIM: The aim of the article is to investigate the epistemological status of the narrative in the process of knowledge production and legitimization.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methodology of the study is based on the semiotic concept of culture in the context of the pragmatic practice of justifying the results of scientific research. Narrative is viewed as a specific way of making sense of the world and a form of human existence in the process of knowledge generation through storytelling. The functions of narrative in the process of cognition are analyzed: generation and comprehension of knowledge, structural organization of cognitive experience, translation of individual cognitive experience into the cultural code of society. The thesis that scientific representations of the object of cognition are secondary to narrative models of understanding in the context of communicative practice of science is discussed.

CONCLUSIONS: Conclusions are made about the necessity of explication in epistemology of value-semantic foundations of pragmatics of scientific knowledge, taking into account which the narrative nature of scientific knowledge should be explicitly presented in the methodological reflection of scientific research.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(3-4):31-38
pages 31-38 views

Relations between a social subject and a social institution: philosophical foundations and public policy practises

Davydov S.V.

Abstract

The article deals with theoretical and applied issues of the development of relationships between social (political) subjects and social (political) institutions. In the philosophical aspect, the author notes the alternativeness of theoretical approaches to understanding the role of man in society, where the idea of “social institution” is opposed by the philosophy of the idea of subjective human activity. In this approach the work of E. Ostrom “Managing the Common. Evolution of institutions of collective activity” is analyzed and the main conclusion is that the relationship between a social (political) subject and an institution develops harmoniously and integrated is rethink. In connection with disagreement with Ostrom’s position of the author of this work in a practical aspect, an analysis of various situations is carried out, which show three types of interaction: 1) a strong social subject – a strong social institution; 2) a weak social institution – a strong social subject; 3) there is a developed social institution, but there is no a social subject. The philosophical analysis allows us to conclude that the sphere of relationships between a social subject and any institution is very heterogeneous. This is most vividly illustrated in the political sphere by the example of city public policy.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(3-4):39-42
pages 39-42 views

Migration factors as a reflection of the state of society (analysis of migration process in the Republic of Crimea)

Dikhtemirov M.S.

Abstract

The author has made an attempt to determine the stimulating and restraining factors influencing both the dynamics and specifics of migration processes on the Crimean Region. The events of the Crimean spring have served as a key trigger of migration both to and from Crimea and in this sense the individual story of a migrating person allows for a deeper understanding of the reasons why people decide to leave Crimea or move to this region. This is the reason for the choice of the case-study method. The author systematizes the factors of migration. First of all, the factors of migration are divided into natural and social. All identified factors are divided into two large groups: stimulating and restraining. Among the stimulating factors natural factors prevail: climate, proximity to the sea, ecology and beautiful landscapes. It is important to note that they are joined by only one socio-cultural factor of migration: mental proximity and assessment of the prospects of the Crimean society in all its dimensions. Also all the stimulating factors are related to the current situation in Crimea. Among the restraining factors of migration the factors of social nature are predominant. They both arise in various spheres of social life and transform them. These include high prices for food, rent and purchase of real estate, services in the commercial sector, as well as sanctions and political and economic isolation. The restraining and stimulating factors of migration processes reflect both the problem areas in society and the directions of development.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(3-4):47-55
pages 47-55 views

A hunam is the body of social being: divercity of collective socio-historical memory frameworks

Dakhin A.V.

Abstract

Reflecting some contemporary trends social environment, the author underlines some of them which have increased the level of memory studies discussion. The paper reflects a trend of the postmodern pluralism field, where the social memory is defined as an object for free constructing. The alternative philosophical approach demands to rethink this pluralism by the decision of methodological choice towards memo philosophy which climes the idea of fundamental mission of social memory for social history and future development.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(3-4):43-46
pages 43-46 views

Medieval religious intellectual culture in the works of V.S. Soloviev

Afanasevsky V.L.

Abstract

The article discusses the views of V.S. Solovyov on the medieval religious worldview. The main problem for historical and historical and philosophical thought at the end of the 19th century was the question of the degree of influence of Christian ideology on the perception of man in the Middle Ages. And since it was V.S. Soloviev who expressed doubts about the absolute significance of the Christian doctrine for the consciousness of medieval Western Europe, Byzantium and Russia, then his constructions are especially interesting. The author proceeds from the assumption that all his reflections can be characterized as Christian utopianism, however, it is presented in the space of liberal teachings of Russia in the second half of the 19th century. Attention is focused on the aspiration of V.S. Solovyov to solve problems through the completeness and purity of the ideal of Christianity. Therefore, the world-historical process itself appears as a condition for the functioning of this ideal. The key point for the Russian philosopher is the conviction that in the Middle Ages pagan elements persist and affect the consciousness of people under the guise of the Christian faith. And this leads to the antinomy of the order of life and the spirit of the Middle Ages. It is this moment that serves as the subject of this article.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(3-4):56-62
pages 56-62 views

The dialectic of purpose and means in the life, work, and worldview of I.A. Dedkov

Zaitsev A.V.

Abstract

The article deals with I.A. Dedkov’s views on the ratio of the goal and the means on the way to the high social ideal. The analysis reveals the humanistic ontology of his worldview. I.A. Dedkov was a convinced anti-Stalinist, a supporter of the 20th Communist Party of the Soviet Union Congress decisions. Throughout his life and creative work, in his letters, diary entries, literary-critical and practical activities he consistently denounced the anti-humanist principle “the end justifies the means”, drawing arguments from the traditions of Russian classical literature and Russian prerevolutionary liberal-oriented philosophy, as well as from the Western European existentialism. This article reveals the latent humanistic-minded intension that existed in the Soviet period in the literary heritage of the critic and journalist I.A. Dedkov. The main methods used by the author in preparing this publication are elements of systematic and comparative (comparative) analysis, biographical, discursive and narrative research methods. The main conclusions from this study are the disclosure of the humanistic nature of I.A. Dedkov’s worldview, sharply different from the amoral methodology of political expediency, which neglects the choice and use of ethically justified and adequate to the goal of its implementation. This position is supported by textual analysis of a number of sources, including Yu.V. Trifonov’s story “Impatience” from the series “Fiery revolutionaries” about the revolutionary folk activist A.I. Zhelyabov. I.A. Dedkov consistently defended his theoretical and ideological postulates based on rejection and rejection of anti-human and inhumane political practices in his literary and journalistic activities, as well as in his personal life, maintaining his devotion to the socialist (communist) ideal in its humanistic (anthropocentric) ideal.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(3-4):63-72
pages 63-72 views

Things in cinema as a phenomenon of cultural reality

Orishchenko S.S.

Abstract

The objects, items, things that are most often used in the film texts of modern Russian cinema require close attention from the film culture point of view. The material world helps to realize the value of an object and its influence on the subject. The attitude to things and objects characterizes modern society from the point of view of order-chaos. Contemporary domestic film texts are interpreted by specialists and spectators, intended for a wide audience of the audience. A person is immersed in a system of symbols, and in cinema he seeks confirmation of this or that “stable element of the virtual world”, which he correlates with his real experience. Things, objects and objects can tell about the main thing, so they cannot be ignored, pass by this or that symbolic object.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(3-4):73-77
pages 73-77 views

Sociocultural determinants of reproductive behaviour of ethnic groups

Pustarnakova A.A.

Abstract

The article is devoted to consideration of sociocultural determinants of reproductive behavior of ethnic groups. Sociocultural determinants are those conditions (circumstances) that affect the nature of reproductive behavior of ethnic groups. These include social, economic and worldview factors. Depending on how the culture of ethnic community changes, the content of these factors changes. The gender and regional dimension is important in this case.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(3-4):78-82
pages 78-82 views

To understanding the effects of conditioning thinking: about new book of Terrence Webster-Doyle

Belkin A.I.

Abstract

Review of the book “Mind Games: towards understanding the nature of prejudice and conflict, or how to learn to live in peace” by Terrence Webster-Doyle. Mind Games: To understand the roots of prejudice and how to learn live peacefully: a scientific and educational publication. T. Webster-Doyle. Samara Cultural Society “Artifact-Cultural Diversity”. Samara: Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 2020. 55 p.

Reviewer considers that T. Webster-Doyle’s book is a brilliant example of how conflicts can be resolved most effectively without theorized distraction. T. Webster-Doyle’s book is small in volume, but very significant in content. The author offers a real program for taming the conflicts and violence that fill the entire human history. Until now, there is a clear lack of research on the universal determinants of the emergence and dynamics of conflict. A paradoxical situation arises when methods of conflict resolution are studied and modified, despite the fact that its initial determinants are not accurately determined. The models of taming conflicts that are being replicated in the social sciences almost do not solve the very problem of overcoming violence in society. Note that T. Webster-Doyle defines her book as the most significant work of her life. The author proposes an original approach to the determination of the conflict and defines the ways of its resolution in direct relationship with the understanding of its determinants. Also, the advantage of the book is a good literary presentation of the material. T. Webster-Doyle views conflict as a phenomenon created by the human mind, which at the same time, in a paradox, is trying to solve a problem “which it itself creates.” This work is devoted to the study of the determinants of conflict, which are considered comprehensively in the relationship of biological and social determinants: as generated by genetically programmed brain programs and at the same time as a function of people’s perception of the world around them and each other. The author notes that the universal basis of biological programming is the general motivation – the desire to survive. Consequently, this work presents a program for resolving the conflict based on a comprehensive consideration of the conflict as a sociobiological phenomenon, which is based on the conditioned thinking of a person (primordial biological protection of his brain). The advantage of the book is its versatility. The author does not just consider the problem of the conflict, its components, the parties to the conflict, conflict genes, the incident, etc. He is looking for an approach that allows you to take a fresh look at this problem and find ways to prevent and destroy the conflict.

Aspirantskiy Vestnik Povolzhiya. 2021;21(3-4):83-88
pages 83-88 views

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