Vol 2, No 4 (2017)

Articles
BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE: FUNDAMENTAL AND CLINICAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLICATION OF THE TECHNOLOGY
Kolsanov A.V., Avdeeva E.V.
Abstract
The article discusses the results of the III International Scientific and Practical Conference "Brain-Computer Interface: Science and Practice. Samara - 2017 ". The review covers the scientific studies dealing with fundamental and applied aspects of brain research and development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) presented at the conference by leading domestic and foreign scientists. Clinical application of BCI is discussed in terms of neurorehabilitation of patients with motor and speech disorders, as well as the possibility of its use in diagnosis and correction of psychiatric diseases and disorders.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2017;2(4):6-12
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BIOPHYSICAL BASES OF GENOME ORGANIZATION
Volobuev A.N., Petrov E.S., Romanchuk N.P.
Abstract
Aim - the analysis of nucleotide sequences of DNA molecules and the bases of the information storage with the help of DNA. Material and methods - the study is based on Markov chain theory and Bayesian Information Criterion. Results. Principles of genetic code construction were investigated. Specific nucleotide sequences were analyzed using Markov chain theory; the method of sequencing nucleotide sequences was described. Conclusion. A nucleotide sequence has certain restrictions associated with complementarity of the bases along DNA chain. These restrictions at the level of triplet sequence can be eliminated by degeneracy of the genetic code.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2017;2(4):13-17
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PREVALENCE OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SYNDROMES IN CORRELATION WITH MAJOR RISK FACTORS FOR CHRONIC NONINFECTIOUS DISEASES AMONG PATIENTS OF THE SAMARA REGION
Krylova I.A., Kupaev V.I., Slobodyanyuk A.L., Nurdina M.S., Borisov O.Y.
Abstract
Aim - to study the prevalence of syndromes of anxiety and depression in correlation with major risk factors (RF) of chronic noninfectious diseases among patients of the Samara region considering themselves healthy. Materials and methods. A comparative population-based cross-sectional study was based on a representative selection of patients (95 people) from the Samara region (rural and urban population) at the age of 19-68 years. Results. The study revealed a significant increase in the rates of fatigue, anxiety and depression in outpatients. The syndrome of anxiety of subclinical level was detected in 35.7% of patients, clinical level - in 23.2% of patients; the syndrome of subclinical depression was revealed in 21.0% of patients, and 4.2% had the clinical level. We discovered the correlation between the syndromes of anxiety and depression and the major RF of chronic noninfectious diseases and patient’s satisfaction with quality of medical care in the clinic. High levels of anxiety were more frequent in men, at older age, and were associated with physical inactivity. Severe depression more often occurred at older age and in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The income level of the patient correlated with the level of stress exposure, physical activity and satisfaction with the work of the policlinics. We did not reveal the relationship between the syndromes of anxiety and/or depression and the level of income, degree of hypertension, social activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index. Conclusion. The results indicate that the presence of the syndromes of anxiety and depression increases the risk of occurrence of other independent risk factors of chronic noninfectious diseases. The identified trends can serve as the basis for targeted screening programs for diagnostics and prevention of chronic noninfectious diseases.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2017;2(4):18-22
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IMPLEMENTATION OF “POINT-OF-CARE TESTING” TECHNOLOGIES IN THE CONDITIONS OF INTENSIVE CARE
Rakhmatullina I.R., Zolotukhin K.N., Samorodov A.V.
Abstract
The analysis in the centralized laboratory is the main model of laboratory diagnosis and monitoring in the conditions of intensive care. However, alternative models of “point-of-care testing” technology are being actively introduced nowadays. This review article presents the analysis of “Point-of-care testing” technologies from the perspective of the intensive care doctor. The main advantages of this monitoring idea include the speed of analysis and the cost of components. Among the disadvantages we can identify ambiguous assessment of the accuracy and objectivity of analyses, additional burden on the staff of resuscitation and intensive care units. Possible ways of resolving disputable issues aimed at improving quality and reproducibility of the analyses are outlined in this work. Despite the fact that currently “Point-of-care testing” technologies cannot replace centralized laboratories, they are steadily occupying a certain niche and are going to play a more important role in diagnosing and monitoring patients in critical condition.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2017;2(4):23-27
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INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY OF SUBCLINICAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS VERIFICATION
Simerzin V.V., Fatenkov O.V., Gagloeva I.V., Galkina M.A., Molchanova Т.E., Yunusova Y.R.
Abstract
This review article presents duplex scanning of carotid arteries as a key and the most informative modern noninvasive innovation technology for diagnostics of subclinical atherosclerosis. It was noted that during primary prophylaxis the values of intima-media complex of these arteries allow performing risk stratification of patients and selection of high-risk patients for aggressive lipid-lowering pharmacotherapy.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2017;2(4):28-35
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IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF THE ORGANIZATION OF TEMPORARY DISABILITY EXAMINATION IN A CITY HOSPITAL
Suslin S.A., Pavlov V.V.
Abstract
Aim - improving the quality of the organization of temporary disability examination (TDE) in a city hospital. Materials and methods. The research focuses on the organization of temporary disability examination in Samara City Hospital No. 10 providing services to the population of Kuibyshevsky district of Samara, which amounts to more than 87 thousand people. The study involved the following research methods: statistical, analytical, expert assessment, organizational modeling. Results. We implemented an organizational model of TDE improvement, which is based on organizational and methodological aspects of TDE development, methodological approaches to the quality control of TDE, indices of efficiency of TDE organization system. Conclusion. Development of an organizational model for the improvement of TDE based at the City general hospital contributes to the timely acceptance of instructive and methodological documents, raising the level of personnel qualification, developing information support for TDE, and providing quality control of TDE. The following results of the implementation of the organizational model for improving the organization of TDE from 2010 to 2015 were obtained: an increase in the quality of TDE; a reduction in the number of all defects per 100 cases of temporary disability - from 257.2 to 111.1; a reduction in the proportion of unreasonably issued sick-leaves from 4.8% to 1.9%; an increase in the integrated assessment of the quality of care in the model of the final results of the TDE service performance in the City general hospital from 0.75 in 2010 to 0.85 in 2015.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2017;2(4):36-40
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ORGANIZATION OF PROPHYLACTIC SCREENING OF PATIENTS WITH ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES
Sharafutdinov M.A., Latypov A.B., Valiev I.R., Potapov S.O., Kulmukhametova N.G.
Abstract
Aim - to substantiate the measures aimed at improvement of the prophylactic screening of patients with oncological diseases, and to estimate the effectiveness of these measures. Materials and methods. The materials of the study were the data of the extracts from medical records (a personal patient’s card from the outpatient department, a control card of the dispensary patient, a questionnaire). The statistical processing of the material was carried out using parametric methods, with the determination of the confidence interval at a probability of 95.0%. Results. The study revealed that the implementation of measures aimed at improving medical care in outpatient settings led to the following results: the proportion of identified diseases in the IV stage of the disease decreased from 20.8% in 2010-2012 to 15.0% in 2013-2015; the one-year mortality rate decreased from 28.1% to 18.3%; the five-year survival rate increased by 5.2%; the number of oncologist’s consultations increased from 3.6 to 6.3%. It was established that those patients who follow doctors’ recommendations, regularly visit oncologists and other medical specialists, attend health schools, and keep a healthy lifestyle in comparison with the patients who do not follow the treatment regimen, consume alcohol, and refused from subsidized pharmaceutical provision less likely have progression of the disease (22.5% and 62.0%), lethal outcome (18.6% and 23.0%), and disability (65.4% and 85.0%). Conclusion. It was established that compliance with the recommendations of doctors and adherence to a healthy lifestyle led to the decrease in the lethality, disability and progression of the oncological disease.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2017;2(4):41-46
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EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN PRETERM INFANTS USING URINARY NGAL BIOMARKER
Aborin S.V., Pechkurov D.V., Zakharova L.I.
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic value of the neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-2 (NGAL) level in urine as an early marker of renal dysfunction in preterm infants with very low and extremely low body weight. Aim - evaluation of diagnostic and prognostic significance of the urinary NGAL level as an early biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI) in preterm infants. Materials and methods. The study included 104 premature babies, 78 of which formed the main group (AKI), and 26 babies - the comparison group (non-AKI). The main criterion for acute kidney injury in neonates according to neonatal classification AKIN (2011) is creatinine level > 1.5 mg/dL at the age of not earlier than 48 hours after birth. Results. The study identified a statistically significant correlation in the level of NGAL in the urine of children from the main and comparison groups. Conclusion. Biomarkers of kidney damage can give more accurate information than creatinine for the early diagnosis of AKI in children. In a comprehensive assessment of a child, it is necessary to take note of the indicators of renal function (creatinine, GFR) and biomarkers of injury (NGAL). This approach will allow performing the diagnostics and therapy of early AKI in children based on structural and functional criteria.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2017;2(4):47-52
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MATHEMATICAL MODELLING IN FORECASTING THE EFFICIENCY OF TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS C IN CHILDREN
Churbakova O.V., Рechkurov D.V.
Abstract
The study developed a model to predict the response to therapy of children with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) based on a system of multivariate analysis. The mathematical model allows timely correction of treatment, significantly increasing the number of early virologic responses and reducing the probability of recurrence of the disease. Aim -optimization of treatment prior to the onset of therapy with subsequent forecasting of the effectiveness of therapy based on multivariate regression analysis. Materials and methods. The study included 116 patients at the age of 3-18 years with CHC in the replicative phase. Children with CHC were divided into 2 groups of 58 patients. Observations in children with CHC were made using clinical, biochemical, immunological and instrumental methods of research, which helped to obtain the most complete information about children with chronic viral hepatitis C. In the course of the conducted multiple regression analysis, we selected the most significant indicators for the establishment of the resulting mathematical model. Results. The method of forecasting response to therapy in chronic hepatitis C in children, developed on the basis of multivariate regression analysis and mathematical modelling of the most important immunological and biochemical parameters, is clinically efficient and justified.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2017;2(4):53-56
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OCCUPATIONAL ASTHMA: DIAGNOSTIC STRATEGY AND ISSUES OF EXPERTISE
Babanov S.A., Budash D.S., Baikova A.G.
Abstract
The review article discusses the issues of epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinic, diagnostics, differential diagnostics, medical and social expertise, prevention of occupational asthma based on the analysis of domestic and foreign research data.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2017;2(4):57-64
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OSTEOPETROSIS AND ENDOPROSTHETICS - CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS
Nikolaev N.S., Borisova L.V., Didichenko S.N., Bezludnaya N.V., Bashkova I.B., Lyubimov E.A.
Abstract
Aim - to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of secondary arthrosis of the coxofemoral joints associated with osteopetrosis using arthroplasty. Materials and methods - clinical observation of two cases of treatment of patients with autosomal dominant form of osteopetrosis who underwent total hip arthroplasty at the Federal State Budgetary Institution Federal Center of Traumatology, Orthopaedics and Endoprosthesis replacement (Cheboksary). Results. We obtained positive results and patient’s satisfaction with the function of prosthetic joints with a follow-up period of 3.5 years. This method of treatment showed its efficacy during the specified follow-up period. Arthroplasty provides relief from pain, improved quality of life and increased mobility of the joint for patients with coxarthrosis associated with osteopetrosis.
Science and Innovations in Medicine. 2017;2(4):65-72
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