Vol 7, No 1 (2016)

Cover Page
Articles
Trends of changing of algal groups in a series of trophic reduction of bog ecosystems (Plesetsk district Arkhangelsk region)
Blagodatnova A.G.
Abstract
Studies were conducted in the Plesetsk district of the Arkhangelsk Oblast in 2006 - 2011. Within the territory, four most characteristic wetland ecosystems were defined, represented by different types: four oligotrophic bogs, of which one is drained and the other two are mesotrophic and eutrophic. 169 species and intraspecific taxa were discovered, including 160 nomenclatural species of algae belonging to 5 divisions, 17 orders, 36 families, 67 genera. The flora is represented by typical divisions of soil algae with the dominance of Chlorophyta , which is typical for soil and climatic conditions of the taiga zone and wetland ecosystems in particular. The correlation between the major taxonomic units of soil algae conforms to the regular patterns of soil structure and climatic conditions of the taiga zone, and their internal organization is structured in accordance with the wetland ecosystem type. The algal flora is characterized by various features: zonal (the prevalence of Chlorophyta ), high-latitude (high position of the division Cyanophyta , a large proportion of single-species families and genera), intrazonal (prevalent multiregional species).
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):5-17
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Some aspects of the use of diatoms in diagnostic of environment
Blagodatnova A.G., Pivovarova G.F., Bagautdinova Z.Z.
Abstract

In the article the question of the possibility of using a unique group of diatoms in the diagnosis of environmental conditions.DiscussedcontroversialviewsontheconceptsofBacillariophytaasphytoliths.Forexample,literature data and own research presents diagnostic possibilities of diatoms: Marking soil formation processes, particularly the process of development of primary substrates, the geographical distribution of diatoms in soils. In particular, the features of the taxonomic composition of diatoms in bogs ecosystems, steppe, taiga and some others. The possibility of using diatoms as biological indicators of current conditions and the reconstruction of paleoecological environment. Includingspecial attention given to the possibilities of diagnostic spaleoecological conditions through modern representatives Bacillariophyta. However, there is still a lot of questions. It is important to accumulate data on the ecological spectrum of species of diatoms, especially environmental preferendum each of them to reliably diagnose the conditions of modern systems and reconstruct paleosoils conditions. What kind of phytocenotic indicators should be used to characterize the type (incidence, activity, ecol-cenotic significance) using the known formulas in the soil algology. To what extent correct this extrapolation? For now are dominated questions, but the prospects of this direction of research question remains.

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):18-26
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Phytoliths of species some genera of the family Cyperaceae
Bobrov A.A., Semenov A.N., Alexeev Y.E.
Abstract
A comparative quantitative analysis of phytoliths complexes 31 species of the family Cyperaceae. The analysis results are statistically processed by methods of cluster analysis and canonical correspondent. Highlighted a statistically significant group of species of sedge form similarity indicator phytoliths. The analysis of phytoliths assemblages vicar sedge species to ascertain the impact of environmental conditions on the process of accumulation of biogenic silica in these plants. In order Systematic sedges and other plants can be used mainly phytoliths specific indicator or form and to a lesser extent their assemblages or phytoliths spectra. Vicar critical types of sedges can be differentiated by their phytoliths spectra as vicar closely related species are often differences in the composition of phytoliths. The results obtained can be used for phylogenetic studies of the family as the sedge and in paleobotany.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):27-33
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Paleosoil algoflora of pleistocene loess-soil series of Ob plateau
Volkova I.N.
Abstract
The study of soil algae and their impact on various environmental factors is one of the current trends in algology. In the course of algological research of paleosol we found 13 species of algae belonging to 3 divisions, 4 orders, 4 classes, 6 families and 10 genera. The greatest number of taxa of different ranks was observed in the division Chlorophyta, accounting for more than half of the entire flora. The ratio of life forms, environmental groups and morphotypes, which are the main characteristics of the spectrum of algal groups, provides an informative image of the phytocoenotic organization. The discovered species of algae аre typical primarily for forest ecosystems.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):34-40
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Phytoliths in soils of hemiboreal dark coniferous forest in southeast of West Siberia
Gavrilov D.A., Loiko S.V.
Abstract
A comparative analysis of phytolith assemblages was conducted in the geochemically conjugate and evolutionary-genetic series of soils of two geomorphological units (the Vasyugan plain and Kolyvan-Tomsk plain) in forest landscapes of the south of West Siberia. Results were processed using Principal Component Analysis. Factors were discovered which influenced soil type and phytocoenotic changes during the second half of the Holocene. Changes of phytocoenoses composition were determined by climatic changes and frequent wildfires. Meadow-bog and meadow soil formation stages were more pronounced and widespread in the soil phytolith assemblages of the Vasyugan plains. Hydromorphic and semihydromorphic soil formation in the Kolyvan-Tomsk plain had a local distribution (only in soils of terrain depressions). In addition, the phytocoenosis of the Kolyvan-Tomsk plain was strongly influenced by fires.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):41-53
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The history of the phytolith investigations in Russia
Golyeva A.A.
Abstract
The article describes the history of the phytolith method in Russia. It is shown that the method began to be used to address fundamental issues of evolution of Сhernozems since 1850, i.e. more than 160 years ago. It is noteworthy that this is one of the first examples of phytolith analysis used for research purposes in the world. Moreover, it is in Russia that this analysis was first used to solve the genetic problems of pedology, back in the days when "soil science" itself was not yet acknowledged as a separate branch of science. Over the past almost 170 years, the development of phytolithology in our country passed through three stages: from isolated research works published at considerable intervals (mid-XIX - first half of the XX century) to regular research of individual scientists (second half of the XX century) and eventually to the formation of research teams in different regions of the country with a large number of publications in all areas of phytolithology (XXI century).
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):63-67
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Late holocene climate and vegetation changes around lake Malye Chany
Zhilich S.V., Rudaya N.A., Krivonogov S.K.
Abstract
The paper presents the palynological and sedimentological study of bottom sediments of Lake Malye Chany. Lake Malye Chany is one of the five basins of the largest lake in Western Siberia - Lake Chany. Lake Malye Chany is situated in the forest-steppe zone in southern part of the West Siberia. Two rivers, Chulym and Kargat, flow into the lake. The climate of the area is continental. We used palynological method to reconstruct the late Holocene climate and vegetation around the lake and sedimentological method to reconstruct the history of the lake development. According to the sedimentological data we recognized two distinct stages in lacustrine conditions. At the earliest stage terrigenous material dominated in the sediments, river’s delta penetrated into the center of the lake which implies that lake was very shallow; about 4 ka BP climate around the lake was very dry, sage steppe dominated. Pollen samples from this stage contained large amount of chlamydospores of Glomus and charcoal particles. These non-pollen palynomorphs are indicators of dry climate and high intensively of soil erosion processes. At the second stage after 3 ka BP sediments predominately consisted of organic matter and autogenic minerals, the lake became gradually deeper. According to pollen data the period between 3-2 ka BP was wetter and a bit colder than the previous one; local plant associations were dominated by sedge-grass steppe. After 2 ka BP climate became wetter and colder which resulted in a highest stand of the lake. Pollen samples from that stage showed high concentrations of green algae (Pediastrum boryanum, Botryococcus braunii, Tetraedron minimum). These non-pollen palynomorphs are associated with open water estuaries with oligo- to mesotrophyc conditions. From 2 ka BP onward concentrations of Anabaena akinets increases dramatically. Blue-green alga Anabaena is an indicator of phosphoric eutrophication possibly related to human activity (farming, cattle breading) in the lake region. During the period 2-0 ka BP forest-steppe dominates and lake banks have been gradually covered by macrophyts (pondgrass, typha, reed).
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):68-75
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The reconstruction of vegetation and conditions of soil formation using soils properties and microbiomorfological data
Klimova N.V., Dyukarev A.G., Pologova N.N.
Abstract
The pedocomplex with modern and 4 buried soils was studied in the southern taiga zone using the soil properties and microbiomorfological analysis. The pedocomplex is located in the wide valley of the brook Kireeva, which separates sandy-loam terrace of river Ob and loamy interfluvial plain. The terrace is occupied by pine forests with herb cover. The plain is overgrown with birch forests with admixture of conifers (pine, and rare spruce) and tall-herb cover. The herb-grass meadow with dominating of meadow grasses ( Elytrigia repens, Phleum pratense , etc.) developes in the valley. Soil texture, soil properties and composition of humus were determined in the horizons of modern and buried soils. Microbiomorfological analysis was carried out for humus horizons. Radiocarbon dating (14C) was made using humic acids and calibrated. Investigated modern and buried soils were formed in different landscape-climatic conditions. Each cycle of denudation started with active sedimentation phase, then the burial of the existing soil profile and ended with the phase of quiet sedimentation with low speeds corresponding to the new climatic conditions of soil formation. The main indicator of differentiation between cycles of lithogenesis is soil texture. The composition of humus characterizes the conditions of soil formation, and phytolith complexes - plant communities. The upper (modern) soil (45 cm) is formed in stratified loamy-sandy loam sediment. The age of the humus layer is 840 years. Smooth elongates and trichomes are dominated in phytolith complex with small amount of polylobates. Such a set corresponds to the modern meadow with dicotyledonous herbs and meadow grasses. The phytoliths of conifers in small quantities seem to be imported from the terrace. Also fan-shaped and bulliforms are found together with shells of diatoms and few spicules of sponges, that indicate increased hydration. The soil texture of the first (I) buried soil (45-88 cm) changes on clay-loam. Humus-accumulation is well-developed (the humus content 8.0%). The composition of organic matter is humic (Cha/Cfa 1.8-2.2). The minimum age for burial of this soil amounts to 1170 years. The concentration of phytoliths is several times higher than modern. Bilobates and polylobates share increases, also spiny elongates and rondels appear. All signs are characteristic of more southern meadow with participation of steppe grasses. Found fan-shaped and bulliforms indicate wet conditions. The deposits, and then the second (II) buried soil (88-142 cm, the minimum burial age 3150 years) were also formed in conditions of quiet sedimentation. The soil texture is clay-loam, with a humus content 1.5-2.88%. The composition of organic matter of the whole selected profile is fulvic-humic (C ha/Cfa 1.48-1.55). The phytolith complex is very similar to modern. A slight increase in the share of conifer phytoliths and the trichomes characteristic of forest grasses may indicate greater forest area. Microbiomorfs - indicators of increased moisture are absent. The features of phytoliths comlex, fulvic-humic humus composition and signs of podzol process along with soddy process indicate dry and relatively cold conditions of soil formation. The profile of the third buried soil (142-174 cm) was formed in deposits with different soil texture -sandy-loam bottom, that typical for sediments of high speed flows, and clay-loam above, reflecting conditions of quiet sedimentation. The humus content is high (2.24-2.34%), humus composition is fulvic-humic (Cha/Cfa 1.5-1.7). The soil is gleyed. Radiocarbon age of pedorelicts 5900 years. The microbiomorf content is very low (minimal). Smooth elongates and trichomes are dominated. Grass phytoliths (polylobates) are rare. Fan-shaped, bulliforms and few spicules of sponges are found. The number of conifer phytoliths, considering the small total phytoliths number, is close to the modern and does not allow us to diagnose confidently wood conditions. All signs show that marshy measow (possibly forest) was developed. Soil texture of the fourth paleosoil (IV) at the depth 174 cm is clay; humus content - 3.3%), the soil is also gleyed. The humic acids are dominated in organic matter composition (Cha/Cfa 2.12-2.34). The phytolith complex is similar to the complex of the third buried soil and allows to recognize marshy meadow. The phytoliths of conifers and forest grasses could be brought from the terrace. The soil waterlogging seems to be associated with ground water at the higher than modern basis of erosion. Thus, wetland meadow, forest with herb cover, wet meadow with steppe elements and modern herb-grass meadow were developed in the formation stages of pedocomplex, fixed in buried humic horizons. Each of the plant communities were formed in climate conditions, corresponding to different subzones of the modern vegetative cover of West Siberia - from southern taiga up to forest-steppe.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):76-84
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Conditions of microbiomorphic spectrum formation in steppe littoral catena of Northern Kulunda
Lada N.Y.
Abstract
The soil layer of littoral steppe landscapes has a common structural scheme regardless of the soil type, from arid soils on eluvial slopes to humid soils of accumulative depressions. The aim of this work is to define the conditions of soil formation at the bottom of the steppe littoral catena. Miсrobiomorphic analysis, granulometric composition and carbon dating of soil were employed. The study was carried out in the North Kulunda lacustrine-alluvial plain located in the southern part of the West Siberian lowland within the Ob-Irtysh interfluve. The horizon morphology of the studied soils is described. Microbiomorphs were found to be of indicative value in reconstructions of soil profile formation conditions; photographs are provided. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of phytoliths, sponge spicules and diatoms was performed. The granulometric composition of the soil profile has a binomial distribution that refers to a specific synlithogenic stage of its formation. The upper, sandy and sandy-loamy part of the profile corresponds to the alluvium (0-45 cm). The lower part (below 45 cm) is buried soil of loamy and heavy loamy granulometric composition. Miсrobiomorphic data from light-humus stratozems enabled the detection of multiple water level fluctuations in the Lake Bagan. This led to a succession of steppe, meadow and reed vegetation complexes within the littoral zone. The microbiomorphic spectrum corresponds to 1920 ± 80 BP, reflecting an arid climatic period within the Subatlantic episode of Holocene. The absence of phytoliths and the presence of sponge spicules in the accumulative-carbonate horizon of light alkali soils bears evidence of periodical moistening of the surface at the time of its formation. There was also a redeposition of water-flow, which is consistent with the considerable particle size distribution of the horizon. Our findings confirm the common evolutionary and genetic relationships of littoral accumulative and transitonal accumulative landscapes.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):85-92
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Palynological method as a way of stratification of archeological objects: case study Os’kino Boloto
Nasonova E.D., Rudaya N.A.
Abstract
The authors use palynological method in order to refine chronostratigraphy on multilayered archeological site Os’kino Boloto (forest-steppe Tobol basin). Pollen data of the settlement profile were compared with the samples taken under Tashkovo’s vessel (early Bronze Age) and under Koptyaki’s vessel (middle Bronze Age). The results show that different cultures can be stratified with the help of the palynological analysis - however, the research also highlighted some complications of correlating the data, obtained from the profile and the probe results. In the early Bronze Age, the birch and pine forests were very common with a, diverse range of herbaceous species. In middle Bronze Age, the birch became dominated and herbaceous got less various. In general, the results, obtained from pollen analysis matched previous studies, in the Tobol basin territory. Considering analysis of samples under the vesses, pollen spectra from Tashkovo’s vessel didn’t match the profile pollen spectra. Dominance of pine pollen might be related to pine branches, stored in a dwelling. The data obtained from under Koptyaki’s vessel match the settlement profile results.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):93-99
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Palynological and radiocarbon data from late quaternary sediments of the dune massif - Tukulan Kysyl-syrskiy (Central Yakutia)
Pavlova M.R., Galanin A.A., Rudaya N.A.
Abstract
The late Quaternary deposits of the dune massif - tukulan Kysyl-Syrkiy (Central Yakutia) were studied using palynological, sedimentological and radiocarbon analyses. The pollen diagram is divided into four pollen zones: zone of the redeposited spruce, zone of spruce, zone of birch and zone of pine. The first stage (Kargin interstadial) is characterized by poor vegetation and island development of spruce forest. The second stage between 9900 and 6700 cal. yr BP is characterized by spread of the forest-tundra. The third stage (6700-3300 cal. yr BP) is characterized by pine forests mixed with birch. The data suggest three stages of the tukulan Kysyl-Syrkiy development: 1) active development of tukulan (the upper Pleistocene); 2) attenuations (the early-middle Holocene); 3) a new phase of development of tukulan started about 2,5 kyr BP onwards to the present. The obtained data indicate essential changes of climatic conditions and vegetation in the studied area throughout MIS 3 and 1.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):100-107
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Macrofossils analysis of the peat to reconstruct holocene paleoecological conditions about Kansk forest-stepp zone (Yenisey Siberia)
Rodionova A.B., Grenaderova A.V.
Abstract
The authors introduced the results of studying the deposits of peatland "Kuskun" in the floodplain of the Esaulovka River (Kansk forest- steppe). Peatlands are an important natural archive for past climatic changes, primarily due to their sensitivity to changes in the water balance and the dating possibilities of peat sediments. Climatic changes throughout the Holocene have been reconstructed from peat, using a wide array of biological and other proxies. Many different proxy-indicators can be derived from peat cores. Peat-based climatic and environmental reconstructions are currently available from many sites in Yenisei Siberia, mainly for its northern territories. The purpose of this research is to study some features of peatland's development and environmental reconstructions from the Holocene period in the south part of Yenisei Siberia (Kansk forest-steppe zone).The main method of the research is macrofossils analysis of peat. The analyses of plant macrofossils can be used to reconstruct the development of the local vegetation and surface wetness on peatlands, and thus to elucidate successional processes. To interpret these proxies by macrofossils analysis, the current botanical composition of the bog and the ecological behavior of different plant species were used. The analysis of plant macrofossils in the peat, based on the study of the flora and vegetation in a particular place over a period of time, has allowed the reconstruction of environmental changes that have occurred since the Late Glacial. Macrofossil types were identified with Kac and Kac Atlas. The reconstruction of the bog surface wetness was performed on the basis of the analysis of plant macrofossils. After that, we used the ecological scales of moisture and reconstructed surface wetness for the entire period of the peatland formation. Radiocarbon dating was carried out at Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk .We assessed humidity conditions during the whole period of peat accumulation and marked different phases in the development of peatland,we described their vegetation. We concluded that peatlands in Esaulovka River basin formed about 5000 years ago. It was found that all peatbogs are at the eutrophical phase. The peatlands formed as a result of overgrown oxbow lakes, floodplains and water logging of terrace lows. This research allowed determining the age of the peat deposits and the average rate of peat accumulation was 0.45 mm/ year.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):108-115
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Diagnosis of medieval-era ploughing using phytolith analysis by the example of archaeological sites Kuckarki and Knyazhich of Moscow region
Svirida N.M., Golyeva A.A.
Abstract
The central part of Russia went through massive human-induced disturbance all the way during its history. The disturbance was mainly related with agriculture, also extensive and covered vast area. However, morphological features of such human-induced disturbance preserve in unburied soils only for few hundred years. With the purpose to detect the most stable diagnostic indicators of ancient arable, we studied: 1.unburied soils of archaeological site Kuckarki which presumably been ploughed 500-600 years ago; 2. an arable and uneven-aged lealands of archaeological site Knyazhich ( Kolomna Kremlin, Kolomna) successively buried under the bank of fortress in XIV-XV centuries, which provide us an opportunity to study the restoring of soils under uneven-aged lealands during medieval-era period. All of studied soils are light-textured (sandy loams and loamy sands), parent rock materials are loamy sands and sand mostly. General physico-chemical soil properties data indicated that these properties have different preservation qualities. Thus, the most lasting of studied features appeared homogeneous distribution of physical clay, homogeneous distribution of biophile elements: total phosphorus and nitrogen. Yet, we can’t draw definite conclusions about ancient ploughing in accordance only with considered properties, which can’t serve as reliable indicators of ploughing per se. Features associated with content and distribution of phytoliths have rather high preservation level in soils. Such features serve as indicators even while other indicators are abscent. Phytolith analyses showed that studied soils still keep obvious evidences of ploughing. Single phytoliths from cultivated cereal crops were found in plough layers. Quantity distribution of phytoliths in soil profiles also allowed us to to draw conclusions about some specifics of past agrogenic disturbance.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):116-131
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Experience of application of miсrobiomorphic analisis for the Schurovsky burial and settlement (Moscow region, I millennium AD)
Semenyak N.S., Troshina A.A., Syrovatko A.S.
Abstract
In this article, complex results of phytolith and pollen analyses are presented. All investigations were conducted in the settlement and burial site of Schurovo, with profiles covering the interval of I millennium AD. Such works were carried out in the study area for the first time. Results of the analysis allow reconstructing the environmental dynamics and human impact in the area. It must be stressed that data on phytoliths and pollen analysis reveal different details, however, these data coincide well.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):132-139
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Phytoliths research archaeological site «Novoilinka-VI»
Solomonova M.Y., Silanteva M.M., Kiryushin K.Y.
Abstract
The article presents the results of phytolith studies of two soil profiles on the territory of a Eneolithic archaeological site, Novoilinka-VI. Phytogeographically, the studied territory is a part of the secondary steppe district of the Western Siberian Lowland steppes. Vegetation of the studied area mostly belongs to steppe and meadow plant communities. The northwestern part of the studied plot is covered by grassy marsh. Archaeological characteristics of the site and geobotanical descriptions are included in the paper. Archaeological materials from the site (ceramic pottery, tools, bones of domestic animals) testify to the producing type of economic activity. Diagnostic phytolites forms were isolated from the soil and described, including grass (Trapeziform, Rondel, Saddle, Trichome, Bilobate) and conifer phytolites (Blocky Polyhedron Transfusion Cells). Two phytoliths profiles (in the northern and eastern parts of the site) were described. The upper parts of the profiles correspond to steppe communities. The lower parts correspond to meadow and forest communities. These parts include a layer of soil with the archaeological material. Conifer phytoliths were discovered in the lower layers of the soil. They are probably phytolites of Pinus sylvestris, a species found up to date in North Kulunda. Forest vegetation community was supposedly located in the northwestern part of the archaeological site Novoilinka-VI. Currently, the nearest mixed pine-birch forest is a kilometer away from the object. The basic indicators of steppe conditions were Trapeziform Short Cells, Rondels, Saddles, and Trapeziform Sinuates. The basic indicators of meadow and forest plant communities were Trapeziform Polylobates, Trichomes and sometimes long cells. An important result of the research is the reconstruction of the vegetation in the Eneolithic epoch of the area. According to the reconstruction, more mesophytic plant communities existed in the area in contrast with the modern times. It is possible that during this epoch forest communities existed in the study area or nearby. Many common features with phytolith profiles of the archaeological site Novoilinka-III were noted. Human activity must have caused a major reduction in forest and steppified plant communities at both sites, Novoilinka-III and Novoilinka-VI. The article is supplemented with supporting data, including images of plant phytoliths and charts of phytolith profiles.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):140-147
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The soil phytoliths analysis of meadow and steppe phytocenoses in Altai region
Speranskaya N.Y., Solomonova M.Y., Geynrich Y.V.
Abstract
This article describes the phytoliths spectra of meadow and steppe phytocenoses from Altai region. The soil was taken from the three meadow plant communities and two steppe plant communities. Meadow plant communities were included upland meadows and abandoned field. Steppe plant communities were presented various options of fescue steppes. Soil samples were processed using the maceration method. Forms phytolites were counted using a light microscope. Quantity phytoliths from various samples was estimated to 200 pieces. We called phytolites according to international code of nomenclature phytoliths. The species composition of dominant plant was described for every plant formation. Plant species: Bromopsis inermis, Elytrigia repens and genera Festuca are found in most phytocenoses. The phytoliths of different plant taxa are of diverse specificity. 17 forms of phytoliths were allocated. Morphological types of phytoliths in various spectra from 13 and till 17 forms. Different morphotypes of grass phytoliths are important diagnostic factors in soil analysis due to their ecological-phytocenotic specificity. Trapeziform short cells, trapeziform sinuates, bilobate short cells, trapeziform polylobates, trichomes, rondels are found in all phytocenosises. Grasses are produced these phytolites. Phytoliths spectra from soils of the Altai region were compared with the composition of phytoliths in soil of the European part of Russia which were published Gol'eva AA. We identified correspondence with between phytolith spectra of upland meadows from the Altai region and phytolith spectra of dry meadows from the European part of Russia. Phytoliths spectra upland meadow communities had many phytoliths in the form: rondel, trichomes and long cells. Trapeziform polylobates are often founding. Phytoliths spectra steppe communities had many phytoliths in the form: trapeziform short cells, rondel. Trapeziform polylobates, trichomes found less often. Perforated rods are more likely to occur long cells as in the steppe and the meadow plant communities. The basic result is correlation between phytocenoses and phytoliths spectra. The difference phytoliths spectra of meadows and steppes was found. The morphotypes of grass phytoliths of the south of Western Siberia are marked by specific eco-coenotic features. The research may be useful for scientists in the field: archeology, ecology and paleoecology, paleobotany, pedology and paleo soil science, paleoclimatology. The article has supporting data, for example, plant phytoliths photos, graphics of phytoliths spectra.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):148-154
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Phytoliths in some grasses of Altai region from deferent ecological groups and life forms
Speranskaya N.Y., Solomonova M.Y., Kharitonova E.Y.
Abstract
The study investigated Poaceae phytoliths from the Altaisky Kray of Russia. This botanical study was performed to enable future paleoecological reconstructions in the region. We examined 17 species of grasses: 16 from the subfamily Pooideae ( Agropyron pectinatum, Agrostis gigantea, A. vinealis, Bromopsis inermis, Calamgrostis epigeios, Elymus exelsus, E. gmelinii, Elytrigia repens, Festuca pratensis, F. pseudovina, Koeleria cristata, Leymus angustus, L. dasystachys, Stipa capillata, S. korshinsky, S. pennata ) and 1 species - from the subfamily Panicoideae ( Setaria viridis ). Many species were analyzed in such detail for the first time. Phytolith extraction was based on the methods described by A.A. Golyeva. We ashed plant matter for 15 - 20 hours in a muffle furnace at 400 degrees Celsius. The material was examined with the help of an optical microscope. Phytoliths were counted in up to 200 individual forms. Phytolith production in plants was studied according to ecological groups and life forms. Grasses of five ecological groups were examined: xerophytes, meso-xerophytes, mesophytes, xero-mesophytes, and meso-hygrophytes. Plants of four life forms were examined: loose-sod and dense-sod grasses, long-rootstock grasses, and annual grasses. We used the life forms classification of I. G. Serebryakov; such analysis of phytoliths from various life forms of grasses was undertaken for the first time. We distinguish the following morphotypes: Trapeziform Short Cells, Trapeziform Polylobates, Trapeziform Sinuates, Rondels, Papillae, Saddles, Trichomes, Bilobate Short Cells, Crosses, Stomata, Bulliform (Fan-Shaped) Cells, Long cells with different textures (smooth, scrobiculate, echinate, sinuate) and other forms. As a result, we confirmed the specificity of certain morphotypes: Trapeziform Sinuates, Bilobate Short Cells and other. The difference between phytoliths of ecological groups and live forms was marked in grasses. Dense-sod and loose-sod xerophytes and meso-xerophytes produce mainly Trapeziform Short Cells and Rondels in combination with Trapeziform Sinuates, Smooth Long Cells and a small amount of Trichomes. Loose-sod grasses have more diverse sets of phytoliths. Meso-xerophytes, mesophytes and xero-mesophytes can produce Trapeziform Polylobates and a lot of Trichomess. Long-rootstock grasses produce large amounts of Trapeziform Polylobates and Trichomes and, sometimes, Trapeziform Sinuates. We conclude that Trapeziform short cells can help identify steppe communities, while Trapeziform Polylobates and Trichomes can help identify meadow and forest communities.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):155-162
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Diet and environment reconstruction of Coelodonta antiquitatis in the late pleistocene by C-N isotope analyses of paleontological material (archeological complex Khotyk and Kamenka, west Transbaikalia)
Khubanova A.M., Klement’ev A.M., Khubanov V.B., Posokhov V.F., Murzintseva A.E.
Abstract
C-N isotopic composition of paleontological bone of Coelodonta antiquitatis from the Late Pleistocene (MIS4 and MIS3) archeological Khotyk and Kamenka sites of the Western Transbaikalia are presented in the paper. It is shown that the diet Transbaikalian rhinos were C4-type plants, which testifies to the semi-arid and / or arid climate. It is shown that grazing Transbaikalian rhinos covered different hypsometric levels of midlands: its lowlands were water reservoirs and its slopes and watersheds were dry and /or semi-desert steppes.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):163-169
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Microbiomorph studies on the cultural layers of Jankent (AD X-XIII), Southern Kazakhstan
Gavrilov D.A., Shumilovskikh L.S., Amirov E.S., Kamaldinov I.R.
Abstract
Microbiomorphs, presented by minerogenic (phytoliths, diatoms, sponges) and organic (pollen, fern spores, fungal spores, chitin) remains of biological nature, provide a good opportunity for environmental reconstructions in the past. Here we present the results of microbiomorph studies of the cultural layers of Jankent (9th - beginning 13th cent. AD). The archaeological site Jankent is located in the southern Kazakhstan on river Syrdarya and is represented by so-called “tell” (“tobe”, “tupe”). Tell is a hill formation, deposited due to arid climate and high anthropogenic sedimentation rate. In the north-western part of the site, a citadel was constructed. The city was surrounded by a rampart. In 2014, an excavation of the square 5 opened few houses and a street between them. In order to reconstruct environment during the settlement phase, samples were taken from the house walls, inside and outside of the building. Pollen spectra from the archaeological horizons of the main settlement phase reveal dominance of the desert vegetation, presented by dominated Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia and Poaceae. Such vegetation implies arid climate conditions during the settlement phase. The landscapes of oasis were presented by agricultural fields, indicated by Cerealia-type and ruderal herbs, and open water places, suggested from presence of Sparganium-type in the spectra. Presence of coprophilous fungal spores such as Sporormiella, Sordaria, Arnium, Chaetomium suggest presence of animals and pasture. Sample taken from the street is characterized by high amount of Sparganium-type, coprophilous spores and variable phytoliths, indicating using of this space as a pit for organic (plant remains, dung) and charcoal deposition. Presence of phytoliths of Triticum spp. suggests wheat cultivation. At the beginning of the 11th - beginning of 13th centuries AD climate fluctuations possibly led to the establishment of more continental and arid conditions.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2016;7(1):54-62
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