Vol 6, No 2 (2015)

Cover Page
Articles
On the biology and ecology of Sarcosoma globosum in the middle taiga belt of West Siberia
Zvyagina E.A.
Abstract
Sarcosoma globosum is a care-demanding fungus on the KhMAO Red Data Book. It is global rare and vulnerable also, and was proposed for inclusion in the Habitat Directive Appendices of the Bern Convention. The purpose of our nine-year study was an investigation of typical habitats, fruiting frequency, biology and phenology of this species in the middle taiga zone of Western Siberia. Since 2006 the territory about 1 million hectares was surveyed by route method. The vegetation of each population locality was described according standard geo-botanical procedure. Fruit bodies were counted. Location of fruit bodies inside the population was plotted in a chart. In 2013 we visited two populations four times per season to observe the development of fruiting bodies. The total number of the encountered localities was 29. S. globosum was found in both types of landscape: swamped and well drained ones. In swamps it preferred raised places along tree roots and moss-covered trunks. The wet sites inhabited by this species are mostly brook forests dominated by Pinus sibirica, Picea obovata, and Abies sibirica . Well-drained sites are aspen forests or dark coniferous mixed forests ( Pinus sibirica, Picea obovata, Abies sibirica, Populus tremula, Betula pendula ) with feather-mosses, low shrubs and forbs in the ground cover. Both types of habitats are old, species-rich and characterized by growing on nutrient-rich soil. Fruit bodies of Sarcosoma usually grew in groups (2 - 23) or sometimes solitary. The number of groups reached 17 per locality. The biggest population gave 138 fruit bodies. Area of the investigated populations ranged from 10 cm 2 to 3859m 2. During the survey, some special features of fructification were observed. All apothecia appear almost simultaneously by the end of May. This time they are globe-shaped with an underdeveloped disk and dense gel inside. By the middle of June, apothecia are full-grown, surface is wrinkled, and content becomes liquid. In late June, disk edges become flat and wavy. The disk disappears by the middle of July, and the remains of apothecia plunge into the litter. S. globosum fruits once per year. Life of apothecia takes about 1.5 month. During 9 years, sporocarps appeared sporadically. The springs of 2008 and 2013 were good for fruiting of Sarcosoma . We have found 11 and 12 localities with fruiting Sarcosoma respectively. In 2006, 2007 and 2014 number of sites found was 2-3 per season. During the period of 2009 - 2012, fruit bodies were not met. Weather condition required for fruiting are ambiguous and discussed in present paper. The species shown high sensitivity to environmental conditions, so it can be useful as an indicator of specific habitat quality.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2015;6(2):3-11
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Immigration of European beaver in State Nature Reserve "Yuganskiy" area
Pereyaslovets V.M.
Abstract
At present, the European beaver ( Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758) is swiftly expanding its range within Russia. The main reason of this natural phenomenon is the reacclimatization of beavers in their historical habitats. The steady increase in beaver population resulted in the beginning of natural dispersion. Beaver is a plastic species which can survive even in severe climatic conditions. The state nature reserve "Yugansky" is located in the Surgut district, with an area of 648,636 hectares. In the past the reserve's territory was inhabited by the indigenous West Siberian Beaver ( Castor fiber pohlei Serebrennicov, 1929). The last individuals of this species were observed in the area over 100 years ago. In the middle of the twentieth century areas adjacent to the reserve were repopulated with beavers from the European population. The reacclimatization was successful. A new population began an intensive colonization in the surrounding area. The nature reserve "Yugansky" is situated between the Bolshoy Yugan and Maliy Yugan rivers. The beaver population expands along these rivers and their tributaries. The first migratory beavers appeared in the vicinities of the reserve in 1990. In ten years, they occupied several sites in the basin of the Bolshoy Yugan river 25 kilometres down from the southern border of the reserve. In December 2012 the first beaver settlements were found in the southern parts of reserve. Animals settled in the upper stream of the Magromsy river and the Yakkunyah river, two right tributaries of the Bolshoy Yugan river. Staff researches from the reserve discovered three beaver settlements. Immigration of the beavers on the territory of the "Yugansky" reserve occurred in its southern boundary. The animals penetrated the reserve territory to a depth of 2 to 6 km and section width of about 33 km. The beaver settlements in the reserve are located in densely forested, remote and virtually inaccessible areas. At present, there are two beaver settlements located on the Aymagromsy river and Entlpunigl river. The beavers have survived two winters. We have observed numerous signs of feeding and construction activity along the banks of these rivers. The animals built several dams, and there are many felled trees along the banks. Beavers mostly feed on birch trees with the diameter of 5 to 40 centimeters. They eat aspen, various kinds of willows, bird cherry and other shrubs as well. No lodges were not found. The beavers use discreet bank dens as refuge. We observed numerous channels and trails along the banks made by beavers. In the future, a stable population of beavers is likely to form in the state nature reserve "Yugansky".
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2015;6(2):12-16
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Ecological and morphological characteristic Particoloured bat population in State Nature Reserce "Yuganskiy" area
Pereyaslovets V.M., Pereyaslovets T.S.
Abstract
Two species of bats are recorded from the Yugansky nature reserve area: the Particoloured Bat ( Vespertilio murinus L., 1758) and the Northern Bat (Eptesicus nilssoni Keyserling, Blasius, 1839). The bats of the region are exceptionally elusive and rare. The study of the ecology of their populations has been conducted since 2007. We study the bat population annually. Researchers conduct a census of bats. We use an ultrasound heterodyne detector D100 from Pettersson Electronic. In July and August, we organize catching of bats with 4 by 10 meter nets. The nets are set in place at 9 p.m. The trapping of bats ends at 4 a.m. All caught animals were released after tagging with special rings. None of the animals died during the capture process. In the course of 7 years, we caught and released 112 individuals of the Particoloured Bat. According to sex-age analysis, adult females prevail in the Particoloured bat population in the area. The number of adult males is very small, about 10% of the total population. The Particoloured Bat is a migratory species: the first individuals appear in our region in early summer. Pregnant females are the first to arrive, appearing in mid-June. Bats form small colonies, which are located in secluded places, such as various voids and holes in buildings, hollow tree trunks and cavities under bark. Newborns appear approximately in late June, with one or two newborns in the litter. Young bats become independent by the age of one month. The Particoloured Bat begin their night hunt about 10:30 p.m. Their prey consists of nocturnal moths and mosquitoes. The temperature of night air is a very important factor that affects the hunting activity of bats. Bats do not hunt when temperatures drop below 4ºC. A light rain does not interfere with the bat's hunt. They fly out to their hunting areas in groups of 5-6 individuals. There is a constant rotation of bat groups on the feeding site. The interval between the emergence of new groups of bats is 40-50 minutes. The autumn migration of bats begins in late August. The animals fly South along river valleys. Periodically they stop to rest and feed. Bats move to their wintering grounds in short spurts. Sightings of migrating bats in our region are usually recorded until mid-September. We conducted a statistical analysis of morphological parameters of samples taken from the Particoloured bat population. As a result, we discovered statistically significant differences in size between adult and young individuals.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2015;6(2):17-20
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Preliminary data to the fauna of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) of the Surgutskiy District, Tyumen’ Area
Grachyov V.G.
Abstract
An annotated list of 34 species of Curculionoid beetles from Surgutskiy District (W Siberia) is provided.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2015;6(2):21-33
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Materials on the fauna of freshwater pulmonate mollusks of the Zapovednik (Nature Reserve) "Yuganskiy" and adjacent territories
Vinarski M.V., Andreev N.I., Babushkin E.S., Karimov A.V.
Abstract
The malacofauna of waterbodies of the State Nature Zapovednik (Nature Reserve)“Yuganskiy” is still underexplored, and the full species list of mollusks is absent in the literature. The inventory of the Zapovednik aquatic malacofauna is needed since freshwater mollusks (snails and bivalves) represent an important component of aquatic coenoses and have high value for fisheries and epidemiological studies. Here, the materials on the fauna of aquatic pulmonate snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata) of the Zapovednik and some adjacent areas collected during the field season of 2012 are presented. This species list is by no means complete and may serve as the starting point for the full inventory of the Zapovednik malacofauna in the future. We followed the standard techniques of mollusk sampling, fixation and laboratory treatment. Nearly 1200 individuals of pulmonate snails were collected by the authors from 33 waterbodies of different type representing the full spectrum of habitats know for the area studied. As a result, we report the presence of 17 species of pulmonate mollusks belonging to three families (Acroloxidae, Lymnaeidae, Planorbidae). Which species mentioned in the article is accompanied by a short comment on its distribution, bionomics and, if needed, taxonomic position. A brief zoogeographical analysis of the fauna is also provided. Most species of mollusks registered by us belong to the group of widely distributed in Northern Palearctic species. Their ranges are usually characterized as Transpalearctic or Euro-Siberian. Only five species of pulmonates (Anisus borealis, A. stroemi, Lymnaea dolgini, L. saridalensis and L. terebra) may be considered as endemics of subendemics of Siberia. The taxonomic content of the fauna is rather poor. We could not find any representatives of the pulmonate family Planorbidae as well as species of such widespread in Western Siberia pulmonate genera as Armiger, Planorbis, Segmentina. The striking fact is the complete absence of snails of the family Bithyniidae in the area under investigation. Two possible causes of this taxonomic poverty are discussed. First, the sampling effort made in the area is too low to detect all the species of Pulmonata living here. Second, the area studied is located in the upper part of the Bolshoy Yugan River basin that impedes molluscan migration (most aquatic snails use passive mode of dispersal in downstream direction).
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2015;6(2):34-43
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Contribution to the study of the dynamics of macrozoobenthos in the rivers of the Bolshoy Yugan River basin (Middle Ob)
Babushkin E.S.
Abstract
Zapovednik (Nature Reserve) “Yuganskiy” - is a large Western Siberian protected area situated in the Bolshoy Yugan River basin (Middle Ob Basin). Though usually the biological investigations in nature reserves are restricted to terrestrial ecosystems, the study of the aquatic biota is also very important. Of a significant value is the study of intact freshwater ecosystems that would be destined to be highly influenced in future especially by the oil and gas industry of Western Siberia. The bottom invertebrates inhabiting streams and lakes play an important role in the functioning of the freshwater communities. In this paper, some results of investigations of the macrozoobenthic community of the Bolshoy Yugan River basin are presented. Two rivers, Bolshoy Yugan and Negusyah, were explored from May to September of 2011. The hydrobiological transects were established in the Zapovednik itself, its Protected zone and adjacent area. The standard methods of sampling and laboratory treatment of benthic samples were used. The Petersen’s bottom dredge with capture area of 0.025 m 2 was used. In total, 120 samples of benthic animals were taken. The macrozoobenthos of the studied rivers consist of 21 taxons of invertebrate animals, in the Bolshoy Yugan River - 16 taxons and in the Negusyah River - 21 taxons. In both rivers, chironomid larvae and bivalves of the superfamily Pisidioidea dominate. The density of macrozoobenthos in the Bolshoy Yugan River during the ice-free period changed from 51 to 1280 ind./m 2 and the biomass changed from 0.1 to 4.5 g/m 2. In the Negusyah River the density changed from 0.6 to 4.5 thousand ind./m 2 and the biomass changed from 1.0 to 24.9 g/m 2. Fluctuations in the density of macrozoobenthos were most pronounced in the hydrobiological transect No. 3 of Negusyah River. A similar fluctuation has been observed in the first transect. The 2-4 transects have shown biomass decrease in July and August. The taxonomic composition of macrozoobenthos during the ice-free period proved to be more stable measure than density and biomass. The main reasons for fluctuations of diversity, density and biomass of aquatic invertebrates are peculiarities of hydrological regime of rivers and life cycles of dipteran insects and bivalve mollusks. These data represent the first time study of the diversity, density and biomass dynamics of the macrozoobenthos of the rivers Bolshoy Yugan and Negusyah during the ice-free period (May-September).
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2015;6(2):44-54
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