Vol 1, No 1S (2008)

Articles
History of creation and trends of activity of Yugra state university UNESCO department “Environment Dynamics and Global Climate Change”
Lapshina E.D.

Abstract

Yugra state university active works in realization of Russian educational national project. The development of programs for training young specialists in environmental protection of soil-gas region Yugra are in special attention. Creation in Yugra state university internaitonal scientific-educational centre of environmental dymanics and global climate change has big significance for development of educational ecological programs and environment protection. The jpening of UNESCO department will improve international scientific cooperation of Yugra university and foreign scientific centres. The decision about creation of UNESCO department was decided in may 2008. Official text of agreement between UNESCO and YuSU was encapsulate in august 2008. Trends of activity of UNESCO department: 1. Educational activity (training in environmental policy, expansion of UNESCO experience in ecology and nature management, partisipation of students in international projects). 2. Scientific activity (participation in international projects in biology, biogeochemistry, soil science, ecology, and nature management). 3. Organizational activity (relationships between YuSU and international community). 4. Informational activity (reporting about UNESCO department activity in Internet). Trends of scientific research activity: 1. Dymanics of natural and anthropogenic ecosystems and global climate change. 2. Carbon balance and other biogeochemical cycles of natural ecosystems (greenhouse gases, organic matter balance). 3. Biodiversity in natural ecosystems. 4. Bioindication. 5. Stable and safety oil and gas complexes. 6. Social - ecological aspects of development of north territory. 7. Develompent of scientific tourism and ecotourism.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):3-12
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Obrazovatel'nyy protsess po pochvovedeniyu: vazhnost' i aktual'nost' proizvodstvennykh praktik
Shein E.V.

Abstract

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):13-15
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Compilative-analitical construction of applied theory of knowledge (with examples from soil science and mycology)
Glagolev M.V., Filippova N.V.

Abstract

We present “applied theory of knowledge” (some useful rules and tendencies of science development) in the form of dialoge “teacher-pupil”. The theacher suggests several lows from the theory of knowledge: 1. “Hegelian Triad” (thesis→antithesis→synthesis), 2. Dialectical lows, 3. The low of “Three Non-” (the theory evolves from uniform to non-uniform, from static to dynamic, from linear to non-linear) 4. The transition from qualitative description to quantitative description, etc, and different types of logic.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):16-30
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Elements of scientometrics in the soil science and ecology (with examples from Moscow state university)
Glagolev M.V., Yanin M.V.

Abstract

We present some basic concepts of scientometrics and free Internet-system “Publish or Perish” which allow to calculate many “citation indexes” for each of scientists. Main errors and difficulties of “Publish or Perish” are discussed. All questions are considered at examples from scientific publication activity of Moscow State University Soil Science Faculty.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):31-50
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Ecological and reclamation conditions for the recultivation of the oil-polluted peat soils of the central-taiga subzone of West Siberia
Bannikov M.V.

Abstract

Remediation of oil-polluted peat soils is very important for Western Siberia. The necessary condition for successful of it is taking into consideration of ecological, climatic and hydrological condition of this region. The general parameters of environments here are high flooding, regime of temperature, short vegetation period, and specific properties of peat.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):51-54
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Reconstruction of probability density distribution by histogram method in soil science and ecology
Glagolev M.V., Sabrekov A.F.

Abstract

Different methods of probability density reconstruction are investigated in that article. We shown that “histogram method with equal intervals of groupment” which is the most frequently using in soil science and ecology for the solving of that task, is really ill-suited. The “histogram method with intervals of equal probability” is recommended among the simplest methods for solving of that task.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):55-83
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To the mathematical modeling of microbial community of methane cycle
Sabrekov A.F., Glagolev M.V.

Abstract

Mathematical model of microbial community of methane cycle was elaborated for conditions of poor fen. The model takes in account the influence of different substrates on activity of microbial populations. Modeled mean CH 4 emission from the surface of mire (2 mgC-CH 4·m -2·h -1) corresponds to the experimental data. Methane consumption by methanotrophs (in model) is approximately 34% of methane production by acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. This fact also corresponds with experimental data.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):84-97
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Hydrophysical evaluation of oil extractive waste in connection the problem of its recultivation
Smagin A.V., Pepelov I.L., Kinjaev R.R., Hineeva D.A., Hakimova G.M.

Abstract

Water retentive characteristics, specific area, hydraulic conductivity and others physical and physico-chemical properties of fine-dispersive strong swelling compounds of bore production in oil extractive industry are analyzed. The new theory of compete inter-phased molecular interaction allows to explain 2-3 times increasing of fine- dispersive waste volume after dissolution of its liquid phase and ions exchange. It’s shown that hydrophysical properties determine over wetted state of such a material and the waste barns in humid climate inevitably become a pond or lake ecosystem. Recultivation of waste in terms to convert it to the soil parent matter can be realized in two directions - modification of its structure by surface active ameliorants or mixture with coarse textured materials.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):98-109
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Ekologicheskie posledstviya primeneniya razlichnykh sposobov zagotovki grunta dlya stroitel'nykh rabot v usloviyakh kraynego severa
Milyaeva E.V.

Abstract

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):110-114
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Peatland unit types of lake-bog systems in the middle Priob’ie (Western Siberia)
Filippov I.V., Lapshina E.D.

Abstract

The new GIS technologies and availability of satellite images of high resolution all over the world could be a promising source of thematic information about the distribution of the Western Siberian bogs. At the same time for the accurate interpretation of peatland diversity on the base of satellite images detailed quality ground truth information is necessary. Following peatland unit types have been distinguished and described within the study area “Kukushkino Bog” situated 60 km to the east from Khanty-Mansiysk within the huge oligotrophic lake-bog system: 1 - pine-dwarf shrubs-sphagnum bogs (‘ryam’), 2 - pine-dwarf shrubs-sphagnum bog with small cotton-grass sphagnum hollows, 3 - dwarf shrubs-cotton grass-sphagnum bogs (‘open bog’), 4 - ombrotrophic ridge-hollow complex, 5 - ombrotrophic sphagnum lawns complex & water tracks, 6 - poor sedge (Carex rostrata)-sphagnum fens. Detailed study of peatland diversity and development of landscape-ecological classification of mire types for the territory of Western Siberia could be a good scientific base for the future investigation of peatlands and estimated of their values of carbon pool.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):115-124
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Peat deposits of mountain mire (for example mire of north-east of the Altay republic)
Stepanova V.A.

Abstract

In the article are described stratigraphy of peat deposits of north-east of the Altaj Republic. On mires are prevailed valley peat types, are found 27 peat types of herbs peat group.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):125-135
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Methanogenic microbial community from the peat bog «Chistoe» (West Siberia): prelimirarly data and perspectives
Kotsyurbenko O.R., Da Silva AP -., Glagolev M.V.

Abstract

Образцы торфа из болота «Чистое», расположенного рядом с пос. Шапша (Ханты-Мансийский АО) были отобраны в 2007 с глубины 15-30 см. При инкубировании данных образцов образование метана происходило во всем выбранном температурном интервале от 4 до 25 oС. Скорость метаногенеза возрастала при повышении температуры с коэффициентом Q 10 = 2.5. Предварительная молекулярно-биологическая характеристика состава анаэробного микробного сообщества из вышеназванных образцов, проведенная методами 16S-РНК и Т-RFLP показала присутствие метаногенов из семейств Methanomicrobiaceae Methanosarcinaceae и Methanosaetaceae. Введение в систему различных селективных субстратов: глюкозы, ацетата, метанола, триметиламина, формиата и Н 2/СО 2 показало наличие активной бродильной микрофлоры, а также водород- и ацетат-использующих метаногенов. Таким образом, наши данные указывают на функционирование сбалансированного психроактивного метаногенного сообщества в исследуемых образцах. Разложение органического вещества происходит как по водородному, так и по ацетокластическому пути. Для более детального изучения анаэробного сообщества планируется применение радиоизотопных исследований, а также ряда молекулярно- биологических методов, таких как FISH и qPCR для количественной оценки основных микробных групп и SSCP для изучения микробных сукцессий при варьировании различных параметров (температуры и субстратов, используемых для активации определенных микробных трофических групп).
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):136-140
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To the bog fungi investigation: some data about micro- and macromycetes
Filippova N.V.

Abstract

Fungal community of mires in Russia was analysed by different investigators. Researchers from Soil Biology and Mycology departments of Moscow State University were obtained data about biodeversity, structure of micromycetes community against depth of peat, seasons, type of bog, and other factors. We investigated structure of macrofungi community. There is 70 species of basidiomycetes (40 was described in article, table.6) and same quantity of ascomycetes in macrofungi community of bog. Half of 40 species are micorrhizal (with Pinus sylvestris, Betula pendula and dwarfshrubs), other are saprophytes of herbal litter, peat, and wood. Dynamics of fruit body formaiton were observed: maximum of quantity and biоdiversity of macrofungi at august (8-10 species per 10 m 2 in ryam, 5 species per 10 m 2 in open bog; 140 specimens per 10 m 2 in ryam, 20 specimens per 10 m 2 in open bog).
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):141-155
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Lichens biodiversity of oilfield Priobskoe as indicator of air pollution
Kasatkina L.K.

Abstract

From 2005 till 2007 on oilfield Priobskoe have been research of lichens’ biodiversity. Lichens’ biodiversity include 89 indicator species of 4 orders, 15 families and 37 sorts: Parmelia sulcata, Physcia stellaris, physcia aipolia, Melanelia olivacea, Hypogymnia physodes, Physconia distorta, Phaeophyscia ciliate, P. kairamoi, P. orbicularis, Melanelia exasperate. Occurrence of lichens changes aside increases at decrease in a degree of defeat by emissions of a plume of pollution.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):156-159
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Element composition of plant material on bogs of the middle taiga in West Siberia
Kosykh N.P., Mironycheva-Tokareva N.P., Parshina E.K.

Abstract

In the article are given the experimental data of phytomass and mortmass and their element composition in the bogs ecosystems of the middle taiga.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):160-166
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Otsenka i modelirovanie dinamiki ekologicheskoy struktury poymennykh biotsenozov planktonnykh zhivotnykh
Bolotov S.E.

Abstract

Приведены данные по оценке и математическому моделированию динамики экологической структуры сообществ зоопланктона поймы Средней Оби. Показано, что сообщества зоопланктона сложены умеренно разнообразным видовым комплексом. Динамика количественного развития характеризовалась пиками обилия в максимальные уровни затопления поймы. Выяснено, что увеличение водонаполненности поймы приводит к подавлению трофической активности и ухудшению сапробных условий планктонных сообществ, а также нарастанию биоценотического стресса. Реализована численная модель, качественно и количественно адекватно описывающая комплекс параметров функциональной организации пойменных зоопланктоценозов.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):167-175
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The emission of methane: ideology and methodology of «Standard model» for Western Siberia
Glagolev M.V.

Abstract

The “standard model” consist on a) typical empirical distributions of CH 4 emission for main wetland landscapes in each natural zone of Western Siberia; b) durations of “period of CH 4-emission” (Tundra - 103 days, Forest-Tundra - 120 days, Northern Taiga - 138 days, Middle Taiga - 166 days, Southern Taiga - 172 days, Subtaiga - 193 days, and Forested steppe - 201 days); c) areas of different wetland types in each zone. For accounting future improvements we denominate this model by the code, for example: “Aa1” (first letter denominate the used period of CH 4-emission, second letter - the used areas of wetlands, and third - typical values of methane flux). New estimation of the regional methane emission from West Siberian wetlands (4.9 ± 2.3 Тg/year or 3.7 ± 1.7 ТgС/year) was calculated from “standard model” Aa1.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):176-190
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CH 4 emission in the forest-tundra subzone: “Standard model” Aa3
Kleptsova I.E., Kornyushenko E.G., Glagolev M.V.

Abstract

The paper presents experimental data (methane fluxes in forest-tundra) which are the components of “standard model” Aa3. The medians of methane fluxes from palså, oligotrophic hollows, peat mats, poor fens and lakes are accordingly 0.20, 1.12, 11.86, 1.28, 0.55 mgC·m -2·h -1. All abovementioned values relate only to “period of methane emission” which is 120 days in forest tundra.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):191-199
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CH 4 emission in the north taiga subzone: “Standard model” Aa3
Kazantsev V.S., Glagolev M.V.

Abstract

The paper presents experimental data (methane fluxes in North Taiga) which are the components of “standard model” Aa3. The medians of methane fluxes (mgC · m -2 · h -1) are: for palså - 0.008, for ridges (of ridge-hollow complexes) and ryams - 0.000, for oligotrophic hollows - 1.163, for peat mats - 3.698, for poor fens - 2.873 and for lakes - 1.395. All abovementioned values relate only to “period of methane emission” which is 138 days in North Taiga.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):200-207
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Hydrology of mire ecosystems in central West Siberia: the Mukhrino field station
Bleuten W., Filippov I.

Abstract

The hydrology of mires (pristine peatland ecosystems) hardly has been analyzed quantitatively. The general idea, that mires can retain precipitation water (‘sponge effect’) has never been proved by real field data. Missing data for evaluation of these properties are actual evapotranspiration, water conductivity and interception of rainwater by peatland mosses and peat layers below. The newly opened Mukhrino Field Station, located in the centre of West Siberia at the margin of a giant mire complex gave the opportunity to start quantitative hydrological research. Water stage dynamics in mires has been recorded with pressure loggers in mires and in lysimeters to analyse the evapotranspiration, interception and the water balance. Air and water temperature and precipitation has been recorded simultaneously. First results from data gathered in the summer of 2008 have been elaborated. By 1-Dimensional modelling interception appeared to be the most important water loss for mires. As expected, mostly snowmelt determined discharge dynamics of the studied peatland catchment area. Rainfall events resulted in relatively fast response in catchment discharge. The so-called ‘sponge effect’ of mire systems could not be verified this time. The future research will focus on snowmelt effect on hydrographs. By 3-Dimensional modelling the relation between land unit type (‘mire type’) and discharge dynamics will be analyzed more thoroughly.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2008;1(1S):208-224
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