Vol 1, No 1 (2010)

Cover Page
Articles
А review of modern methods for spacial detailing of meteorological fields
Zaripov R.B.
Abstract
Modern methods for spatial detailing (downscaling) of meteorological fields with an insufficient spatial resolution are considered. The basic advantages and disadvantages of statistical, physically based and dynamical-statistical approaches are briefly discussed. The greater attention is paid to the dynamical methods based on high resolution atmosphere models. Examples of works in which different downscaling techniques were used are listed. A conclusion: all downscaling methods possess advantages and disadvantages, a researcher needs to choose the best method proceeding from the specific problem to solve. The nesting of high resolution atmosphere model into general circulation model grid is considered in short. Various ways methods of keeping simulations close to coarse data are analyzed. A conclusion: a method of spectral nudging is the best for downscaling purposes. The spectral nudging is easier for implementing in spectral models. Comparison of intermittent incremental data assimilation and dynamical downscaling is spent. A conclusion: these techniques are close and some blocks of one technique can be used in the other. Nowadays there are freely available high resolution atmosphere models (in particular, WRF ARW, RSM), that contains nudging techniques. These models are dynamical downscaling systems almost ready to use.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2010;1(1):4-16
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Inverse modelling method for the determination of the gas flux from the soil
Glagolev M.V.
Abstract
In recent years, one of the objectives of the most important greenhouse gases (GreG) measurement programs is to determine quantitatively the magnitudes of the major sources and sinks of these gases, so as to arrive at an improved definition of the present-day global atmospheric budget. Better understanding of sources and sinks is required if we are to predict future trends of GreG with confidence. Such understanding should include feedback effects between slowly changing climatic variables and GreG source strength. The emission rate from soil is measured in general by covering the surface by a box and observing the increment of GreG concentration in it; so called "chamber method". Вecause of the heterogeneity of the emissions patterns observed, a prohibitively large and expensive number of measurements would be needed to obtain a statistically representative set of flux measurements for a large scale. The random sampling of the observation poitns followed by the chamber method measurement to obtain the averaged value is logically possible but it is extremely difficult to achieve because of logistic problems. The possible and most efficient method to evaluate the emission rate is to evaluate from the atmospheric measurement. We present the review of Borodulin-Desyatkov-Sarmanaev inverse estimation method for the determination of the gas flux through the soil surface. Gas concentrations over the surface and some reference meteorological variables are necessary to determine the gas emission in this approach. These data are later used to solve an inverse problem of gas transfer in the atmosphere resulting in a gas flux determination (under appropriate conditions, this inversion can produce an optimized and unique solution). Cited authors derive, by what could be called an inverse calculation, the sources and sinks necessary to reproduce the concentrations that they have observed in the boundmyl ayer. In simplest case a near-ground-level concentration measurement is used to estimate a total CН4 emission rate for the wetland. А gas concentration at any site results from a combination of two factors: local sources or sinks and transport. To separate these two effects, an atmospheric transport model is needed. To elucidate main idea and make our overview simple, we utilize a simplified atmospheric boundary layer model.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2010;1(1):17-36
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Fogs in territory of the Tomsk region
Akhmetshina A.S., Zhuravlev G.G., Romanov V.A.
Abstract
The fog is one of the most dangerous atmospheric phenomena for all types of transport, therefore fogs are carried to the dangerous phenomena of weather. Besides, fogs reduce capacity of the power stations working on a solar energy. Humidifying by fogs of designs conducts to their corrosion, leaks and breakdowns in electro- and radio equipment, to microbiological corrosion of materials. In given article the basic characteristics and spatial structure of number of days with a fog are considered, the card-scheme of distribution of mid-annual number of days with a fog is constructed, the seasonal course of fogs is investigated, with a fog and dynamics of change of the average sum of days with a fog repeatability of days is calculated on territories of the Tomsk region. As a material for research the data of meteorological monthly journals from 1966 for 2008 on 23 stations of the Tomsk region has served. The greatest duration of fogs in territory of the Tomsk region is observed around the Big Vasjugansky bog (station New Vasjugan and Average Vasjugan), minimum in at station Vanzhil-Kynak. In an annual course of fogs at all stations one maximum (in August) is sharply expressed. The analysis of repeatability of number of days with a fog at stations of the Tomsk region has shown that absence of a fog from 44,4-81,3 % of cases is the most probable. The greatest repeatability of fogs is necessary on gradation 1-2 days (repeatability from 2,2 to 13,4 % from all cases). Last years the considered period (with 1991-2008 гг.) practically on all stations the tendency to reduction of number of days with a fog in comparison with the period about 1966-1990 of the Reason of such reduction is revealed demand the further researches.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2010;1(1):37-44
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The analysis of time numbers of deposits Ob-Irtysh interfluvesin ХХ - beginning ХХI centuries
Litvinova O.S., Gulyaeva N.V.
Abstract
According to the data obtained from 16 meteorological stations under the statistic analysis on monthly mean precipitation total during 1936-2006 there have been defined the main trends in precipitation variability in cold, warm and annual periods in landscapes of the Ob-Irtysh interfluves. There have been used data collected by A. P. Slyadnev land-climate zoning scheme based on zonal landscape boundaries determined by optimal conditions of humidity and heat supply. The catalogues of abnormally humid (∑ О ≥ 120%) and dry (∑ ≤ 80%) periods have been composed. Precipitation variability in different periods: 1936-2006, 1936-1980, 1961-1990, 1981-2006 and 1991-2006 has been analyzed. As a whole for the considered period 1936-2006, in comparison with the base period (1961-1990) during the warm period reduction of deposits only in the north of region (-18 mm) is established, during the cold period in the last 25 years (in comparison with 1936-1980) the insignificant increase in northern provinces is marked. The role of precipitation during different months in the formation of humid and dry periods in various landscapes has been also investigated. The correlation analysis has been conducted to define the role of G. Y. Wangenheim - A.A. Girs circulation forms in the formation of abnormal humidity periods. In landscape provinces interfluves Ob and Irtysh the greatest repeatability of the abnormal periods of humidifying is characteristic for steppe provinces. Formation of the extreme periods (dry and damp) is marked at development of atmospheric processes of forms of circulation W and C. In 1981-2006 the increase in deposits during the cold period of year in northern provinces (Vasjugansky and Barabinsk) is marked against growth of repeatability of forms of circulation W and C. The increase quantity of deposits is observed for the account activization of an exit of cyclones formed in moderate widths of the northern hemisphere, and in a warm season to become more active local cyclogenesis. The quantity of deposits decreases in connection with strengthening anticyclonic activity, especially with activization of the anticyclones displaced from the northeast, west, and southwest.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2010;1(1):45-54
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Methods of assessment of spatio-temporal fluctuations(based on the example of the Upper Ob basin)
Goroshko N.V.
Abstract
A variety of methods is used to assess the alterations in the water content across a territory as well as the synchronism and asynchronism of its fluctuations over extended periods. Among them: comparative analysis of graphs showing time series of the annual flow, piecewise linear trends, flow records of sliding periods averaging, integrally differential curves. When all the methods listed above are used together, the accuracy of the results is confirmed. Analyzing fluctuations in annual streamflow of the Upper Ob basin over extended periods with the help of techniques that were listed above one may conclude that there is no rigid periodicity in the annual flow fluctuations. Different nature of the perennial cyclic runoff in remote areas is detected.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2010;1(1):55-65
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Methane emission from middle taiga ridges and ryams of Western Siberia
Kleptsova I.E., Glagolev M.V., Filippov I.V., Maksyutov S.S.
Abstract
The article illustrates experimental measurements of methane fluxes in ridges and ryams providing in summer-autumn period of years 2007-2009 in the middle taiga zone of Western Siberia. Ryams have the lowest CH4 fluxes in this zone (1st quartile/median/3d quartile = 0.00 / 0.02 / 0.14 mgС·m-2·h-1). Ridges have slightly greater methane fluxes (0.01 / 0.13 / 0.36 mgС·m-2·h-1). Areas with local high fluxes reaching the value of approximately 10 mgС·m-2·h-1is also found in both microlandscape types as a result of hydrological and geochemical soil surface heterogeneity . Ryams and ridges have similar emission values owing to florist ical and upper peat layer identity. Methane flux zonality in ryams and ridges is revealed. Emission from middle taiga ridges is higher than in north taiga (-0.003 / 0 / 0.04 mgС·m-2·h-1) and lower than in south taiga ridges (0.33 / 0.49 / 0.64 mgС·m-2·h-1); emission from middle taiga ryams is lower than in south taiga ryams (0.05 / 0.56 / 1.55 mgС·m-2·h-1). All data are consolidated in scope of "standard model" Bc7 conception of methane emission. The model contains medians of methane flux distributions on six different microlandscape types depending on their area and duration of methane emission in respective zones. Version Bc7 of this model estimates the value of yearly methane emission in the middle taiga of Western Siberia as 0.69 Mt CH4 per year which means 21.6% of the regional emission. Ryams and ridges in this zone cover over 75% of area accounting for only 4% of regional emission from this territory (0.008 and 0.022 Mt CH4 per year respectively) as a result of adverse conditions for methanogenesis.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2010;1(1):66-76
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An investigation of the peat decomposition in miresusing method of incubation of dry and wet samples
Koronatova N.G.
Abstract
In the paper two techniques of experimental studying of peat decomposition in three mire ecosystems of Bakchar complex (Western Siberia) are compared. The investigation was carried out in a raised bog, in a poor fen and in the transitional to the raised bog part of the poor fen. From each mire ecosystem a big monolith of peat was retrieved and litter bag experiment was designed. A half part of each monolith was dried, the dried up and the moist samples of peat were enclosed in synthetic litter bags, which were located in a peat deposit at 5-10 and 25-30 cm depth. The weight of dry peat samples were 2 or 4 g per litter bag. In order to estimate peat mass losses from moist samples, we leave 8 of them, dried and weighted. The weight of moist samples after drying were 2.46±0.03, 1.51±0.01 and 2.68±0.04 g in the raised bog, transitional part of the poor fen and the poor fen, respectively. The samples were collected several times during 1.5 year in 5-8 replicates, separated into peat and root fractions, dried up and weighted. Peat mass losses from dried up samples were higher than from non-dried ones in 5 cases from 6. Reliability of a difference in the obtained estimates has been revealed almost in all cases in first three months of incubation, and in one year the difference is not become authentic. Pattern of peat mass dynamics during a year was similar for dried up and non-dried samples, especially in the raised bog and in the upper layer of the poor fen in which the correlation coefficient was 0.97-0.99. The factor analysis has shown essential influence of the place of peat incubation on peat mass losses (i.e. mire ecosystem and/or peat type) and it has not revealed the influence of using technique. Mass of roots penetrated in samples was higher in samples with non-dried peat. Thus, both methods showed comparable estimates, some overestimate of peat mass loss may be obtained using dried up samples. Absence of physical decomposition of peat moss material that usually take place during drying and low value of standard error allow to use non-dried peat for the litter bag experiment of peat decomposition.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2010;1(1):77-84
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Budget chemical elements in bog ecosystems middle taiga Western Siberia
Kosykh N.P., Mironycheva-Tokareva N.P., Parshina E.K.
Abstract
Feature of the biological cycle of chemical elements in wetland ecosystems is prolonged accumulation of chemical elements in peats. For this reason the total biomass on the unit square active layer (up to 30 cm from the surface of mosses) in the bog in 5 times more phytomass. Slow motion mass in biological cycles in wetland ecosystems the bulk of biomass to 80% is in peat. Territory of Western Siberia reaches 24% and in some areas in the peatlands area exceeds 70%, so the relevant study of the biological cycle of chemical elements in this part of the Earth's surface. Study the functional characteristics of wetland ecosystems and their quantification is scientific interest and allows you to contribute to the study of chemical elements and their change in various biological processes. Evaluation of chemical elements in production, destruction processes in the process of deposit and resinteza organic compounds, which are the basis of biotic cycling can sustainability bog ecosystems to climate change today. The purpose of this work is to define the quantification of chemical elements in production-destruction processes, taking into account the process resinteza bog Middle Taiga Western Siberia depending on the type of the ecosystem. Based on experimental data made the calculation of budget chemical elements in ecosystems Middle Taiga Western Siberia. Are stocks of chemical elements in living phytomass and mortmass, in production and destruction and process of resintes. The degree of difference in element concentrations in the phytomass is high for different types of ecosystems. However, the stocks of elements are determined to the larger degree by the value of phytomass and they increase in a series of ecosystems: oligotrophic hollow → ridge → mesotrophic hollow → ryam. Iinventory of items in the wetland ecosystems is 2 - 4 times when moving from phytomass in mortmass. Consumption of chemical elements increases with increasing net primary production. Listed items with dependency loss of production, with the increase in production losses are increasing, decreasing the concentration. In the process of retronslocation 5-22% N, 6-15% P, and 25-36 % K of consumption is returned in the ecosystem. All selected features depend on the type of the ecosystem, species community and chemical composition of plants.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2010;1(1):85-95
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Investigation of changes in thermokarst lake distribution in West Siberiaby multitemporal satellite images
Kravtsova V.I., Tarasenko T.V.
Abstract
Investigations of changes in thermokarst lake by multitemporal satellite images were created by researchers of Russia, Canada and the USA. Results of these investigations in West Siberia are different. Scientists from the Tomsk University and American researches revealed increase of lake areas in the Northern geocryological zone and decrease of them in the Southern geocryological zone. They explain this fact by the influence of the global warming. But the investigators from the Moscow State University revealed that the lake areas are practically stable in both geocryological zones, except the small decrease because of erosive activity of rivers. Consequently we have carried out detailed investigations using different methods to specify type of changes of the thermokarst lakes areas. Investigations were based on comparison of space images, mainly from Landsat satellites, taken in 1970ies - the beginning of 1980ies and in 2000ies, with interval of 20-30 years. The analysis of multitemporal images was made for 3 test sites (in the upper reaches of the river Nadym, on the Gydansky and Yamal peninsulas). These test sites partially overlap test sites that were analyzed by scientists from the Tomsk University. Our investigation confirmed relative stability of thermokarst lakes and small local decrease of thermokarst lake areas in both geocryological zones caused by erosive activity of rivers. The investigation showed necessity of precipitation registration in the period before the date of observation. Precipitations may be the source of mistakes. The other cause of divergence in results is the differences in methods. Scientists from the Tomsk University analyze only large lakes (more than 20 hectares), but our investigations include analyzes of all the lakes by the use of mapping the dynamics of lakes. We consider that our method is more reliable.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2010;1(1):96-103
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Energy estimation of taluses creep slopes in the mountain glacial of the basin the Aktru River headwatersand theirs connection with modern climate change
Kuznetsov A.S.
Abstract
Until the present time the sufficient amount of the methods and ways of the estimation of the modern processes of morphogenesis has been used. Basically, all these methods are reduced to describe the morphometric features, the velocities of the displacement of debris down the slope, or, for some of them, the volume created by their forms. Even if we can have full quantitative features dynamic, it's not always possible using them, to compare the modern morphogenesis rates, even if made by same process. The modern exogenic processes matching is possible when one "universal" factor is used, which allows to fully value the morphogenesis efficiency and define its relationship with modern climatic change. This factor characterizes the following: the total volume of the material moved at the time of development of the process; the relief form, created as a result of its actions; the determination of the specific value of the volume material, transformed by process on unit area territory. Furthermore, this factor allows calculating the denudation rates in different natural complex, which are provided one or group of the processes, as well as will allow defining energy stability of the relief and its response on modern climatic change. At present, the use of the energy approach to describe denudation processes in geomorhosystem has not got the proper development. However, the development of the scientific interest to this direction gave significant impulse for development of these methodologies of the energy analysis. It is shown by concrete facts that measurement of energy efficiency of geomorphological processes in quantitative units - a Joule - allows to reveal not only the main point of this process, but also enables to compare it with any others. Such approach enables the matching of efficiency of the operating the genetically different systems, as well as change in their dynamics, connected with fluctuations of the energy amount entering into the system from the environment.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2010;1(1):104-108
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Species diversity of ground lichens in the raised bog vegetationof the Irtysh left-bank terraces
Lapshina E.D., Koneva V.A.
Abstract
The article presents first data obtained while studying lichen flora of the oligotrophic peatland near the Field Station Mukhrino which is located on the Irtysh left-bank terrace 30 km southwest of Khanty-Mansiysk (60º53' N, 68º42' E). Vegetation study resulted in detecting ground lichen species of pine-dwarf shrub sphagnum moss communities in the region ombrotrophic mires including 19 species and subspecies of Cladonia, 2 species of Cetraria and a representative of crustose lichen - Icmadophila ericetorum. The most widespread species of the ombrotrophic sphagnum mires at the main study site are Cladonia stygia, C. stellaris, C. sulphurina, C. cornuta, C. cenotea, C. chlorophaea. The importance of thorough investigation of the ombrotrophic mire lichens as a global climate change bio indicators is being considered. For this reason an attempt has been made to compare species composition of ground lichens for one-type pine-dwarf shrub sphagnum moss communities of Milio anomala-Sphagnetum fusci association in different bioclimatic zones (sub-taiga, southern taiga, middle taiga) of Western Siberia. It is ascertained that such species as Cladonia deformis, C. fimbriata, to a less extend C. portentosa, are more phytocenologically active in a milder climate in the south of forest zone, though the species' geographic range is wide enough. Cladonia stygia, C. arbuscula, C. sulphurina, C. crispata occur more frequently northward.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2010;1(1):109-114
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O zhurnale «Dinamika okruzhayushchey sredy i global'nye izmeneniya klimata»
Glagolev M.V., Lapshina E.D., Kleptsova I.E.
Abstract
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2010;1(1):115-120
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