Vol 2, No 1 (2011)

Cover Page
Articles
Global climate change. Is «Methane bomb» scenario sensitive to melting permafrost of West Siberia peat land?
Zhiliba A.I., Vandisheva G.A., Gribanov K.G., Zakharov V.I.
Abstract
We consider how to quantify the methane concentration in the atmosphere over the large area of Western Siberia based on hyper-spectral remote sensing data. Is Methane bomb scenario (triggered methane gas emission as it was during Holocene) in evolution of pristine peat land and melting permafrost West Siberia and sub Arctic actual problem of the 21st century? Terrestrial wetland ecosystems were the major source of methane into the atmosphere of Western Siberia during the Holocene. The actual role of pristine peat land in global carbon balance has not been quantified at this time. In particular the sub-arctic peat lands, as extensively present in Western Siberia, are white spaces in knowledge of carbon exchange with the atmosphere. Nevertheless, actual impact of the natural and anthropogenic sources on atmospheric methane over Western Siberia has not been monitored yet. In our research project, the contribution of both natural and anthropogenic emission to atmospheric methane is estimated in Western Siberia. With geographical information technology combined with land unit classification using satellite images and ground measurements, area fluxes of methane are evaluated. Hyper-spectral remote sensing data is used to quantify the methane concentration in the atmosphere over the large area.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2011;2(1):1-14
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Methane emission from West Siberia tundra mires
Sabrekov A.F., Glagolev M.V., Kleptsova I.E., Maksyutov S.S.
Abstract
Beside carbon dioxide and water vapor, methane is one of the most important greenhouse gases. Mires are the largest natural source of methane. West Siberia tundra zone gains the especial importance in this regard as the greatly paludified region with the mire area of 29% of this territory. Nevertheless, the information about methane fluxes in tundra is still incomplete and need to be advanced. For this purpose detailed investigation of methane emission at 2 key sites in West Siberia tundra zone was organized. About 300 methane emissions varied from small negative values to several mgC-CH 4·m -2·h -1 were measured by a static chamber method. It was confirmed that frozen hillocks, bogs and shallow ponds had the lowest methane fluxes (1 st/2 nd/3 rd quartiles are -0.04 /0.01 /0.07 mgC-CH 4·m -2·h -1 for frozen hillocks, -0.01 / 0.03 / 0.28 mgC-CH 4·m -2·h -1 for bogs and 0.15 / 0.27 / 0.57 mgC-CH 4·m -2·h -1 for ponds). Larger emissions were character for fens (0.76 / 0.96 / 1.53 mgC-CH 4·m -2·h -1) and poor fens (0.41 /1.42 / 3.38 mgC-CH 4·m -2·h -1). Maximal rate of methane emission were observed in peat mats (0.99 / 2.42 / 3.24 mgC∙m ‑2∙h ‑1). Cluster analysis was used to reveal the main ecological factors influencing on the methane emission. As a result, 5 classes distinguished by water table level, trophicity and the peat layer strength were described. Water table level and peat layer strength accounted for the most variability inside the clusters while trophicity affects the most between ones. Analysis makes possible the detection of probably degrading wetlands with the unfavorable conditions for methanogenesis, too. All emission data were generalized into the spatial emission model (the model is based upon a fractional area coverage map of mire micro-landscapes, methane flux probability distributions for each micro-landscape type and methane emission period). Version Bc8 of this model estimates methane flux from West Siberia tundra mires at 110 kTC-CH 4·yr -1 that accounts for about 4% of the total methane emission from all West Siberia mires. Fens were revealed as the most significant methane source from tundra mires contributing for about 99% of the regional flux from this territory. Unfavorable thermal conditions, short period of biological activity, shallow permafrost bedding and low peat layer strength appear to be the reasons for such insignificant role of tundra mires.
Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2011;2(1):1-16
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Ot kerogena do «Kristalla» (retsenziya na uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie Laktionovoy s soavt. «Fizikokhimiya i biologiya torfa: opredelenie parnikovykh gazov (SO2, SN4, N2O) v torfakh metodom gazovoy khromatografii»)
Glagolev M.V.
Abstract

Нет сомнения, что использование современных аналитических методов при обучении студентов, осваивающих естественные науки, до сих пор остается среди важных задач высшей школы. С другой стороны, проблема парниковых газов относится к числу важнейших проблем современной экологии. Таким образом, выбранная Лактионовой с соавт. [2011] тема учебно-методического пособия крайне актуальна в настоящее время с обеих сторон – и в педагогическом, и в экологическом аспекте (хотя, оставаясь реалистами, предположим, что это в значительной степени заслуга опытного научного редактора пособия – чл.-корр. РАСХН, проф. Л.И. Инишевой). ...

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2011;2(1):1-15
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Zamechaniya i kommentarii k knige V.I. Danilova-Danil'yana, K.S. Loseva, I.E. Reyfa «Pered glavnym vyzovom tsivilizatsii: vzglyad iz Rossii»
Karelin D.V.
Abstract

Эта рецензия была выполнена мной по просьбе одного из авторов книги [Данилов-Данильян с соавт., 2005], Виктора Евгеньевича Рейфа, которому хотелось выяснить мнение профессиональных экологов по поводу уже изданной им и его соавторами книги перед тем, какзаниматься ее переводом и публикацией в Германии. Рецензия была написана достаточно давно, в 2007 г., и предполагалась лишь как частная оценка, не для сколько-нибудь широкой публикации. ...

Environmental Dynamics and Global Climate Change. 2011;2(1):1-13
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